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The Grant Gear Company,
                             as seen thru it's catalog.
       Enter the late 1890s Gritty Smoke filled Gear shops,
                                       and just try to get the right gear for your boss,
                                              and do it while avoiding any blunders.
first pic http://antiquemachinery.com/images-2020/Grants-Gear-Book-Lexington-Gear-Works-1892-Cover-front.jpg first page warning pic page below grants head http://antiquemachinery.com/images-2020/Gear-Grant-Winton-24-Inch-Gear-Cutting-_Machine-1892.jpg 2nd page second page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892.
Page-2 sharp warning notes about ordering gears.
third
3 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 3

fourth
4 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 4
Drawing the spur wheel gear.
fifth catalog page
sixth catalog page 6-7 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 6-7
Drawing the standard Involute Gear Tooth with Grants Involute Odontograph. Chart and example.
8-11 catalog page
8 page text
Grants-Gear-Book-Lexington-Gear-Works-1892-page-6-7-drawing-the-standard-Involute-Gear-Tooth
.<
9th only catalog page
9 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 9
Cast-Iron-Pinion-rods-wire-Noiseless-fiber-gears.
10th catalog page
10 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 10
Pitch-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-12-14-16-18-20-24-28-32-36-40--48-scale-template.
12-13th catalog page
12-13 page titie
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page12-13
Cast-Iron-Pinion-rods-wire-Noiseless-fiber-gears.<
12-13 page text
Page 12 CAST IRON PINION RODS. (NOT PINION WIRE.) Cast iron rods, centered and cut up as far as the holding dog will allow. Of any number of teeth, provided the diameter is not over three inches and pitch is some standard pitch not coarser than eight. The length of cut must be as follows, to suit our stock and tools : — and under inches diameter has 4 inches length of cut. 16 66 di it it cc it it •i 66 6 I 46 14 9 14 66 2 ccit 64 72 2 3 it 616 s Not less than a whole rod can be furnished. They are sold just as they leave the machine, and we do not cut them up. Customers can cut them up into gears of any desired face, hub, and hole. They are very cheap if ordered in considerable quantities, but not for one rod. We cut teeth on pinion rods sent to us centered and turned to size, but we do not cut drawn steel rods. Always use the term " pinion rod." We shall carry in stock ready made cast iron pinion rods of twelve pitch and of 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 teeth, lengths as in table above. Prices lower than fur rods made to order. PINION WIRE. We can make pinion wire to order. It is generally made of steel or brass, and of small sizes. We do not make pinion wire to samples of the imported article. Our pinion wire is cut, and not drawn. We cannot make a very small quantity at a low price, but it is cheap if made in quantity. Page 13 COMPOSITE PINION. NOISELESS FIBRE GEARS. A metal gear is necessarily noisy at any considerable speed, and when forced to a high speed, as in electric motors, the noise and wear and tear are great. It is therefore often desirable to find some substitute for metal that will work more quietly and at the same time be durable enough for the purpose, and fibre meets the conditions well. There is much ignorance on this subject, for manufacturers of raw hide and fibre make claims that are not true ; sometimes going so far as to claim that the material is more durable than steel, and none of them taking pains to represent the matter in its true shape. The truth is that fibre is hard and also elastic and tough, but it is not as hard as iron or as tough as steel, and is fitted for use in place of metal only when the speed is high, and strain and shock are small. We make these gears to order only, of the best obtainable material; and while we warrant them equal in all respects to any fibre or raw-hide gears, we do not warrant them for hard service or great durability. We cannot undertake to meet the ridicu-lous claims of makers of similar articles, or to guarantee great mileage or long service. Fibre gears are made in two forms. The first, or " solid " form is of solid fibre, the sheets being simply riveted together when the gear is more than a half inch thick, and this form is the cheapest and the best where the service is light. The sedond, or " composite " form, more costly than the first, is shown by the engraving, and has sheets of steel alternating with the sheets of fibre, so that a high degree of strength is combined with the qualities of the fibre, and the gear is suitable for a combination of high speed and considerable service. The gears are made only of the " plain " form, without spokes, webs, hubs, or any special features. All are made by riveting together plates of the material. Solid fibre gears are five times lighter than cast iron. They are not affected by moisture or oil. SOLID CEMENTED RAW—HIDE GEARS, tough and absolutely noiseless, not fitted for great strain, but perfect for very high speeds, to special order. .<
14-15th catalog page
14-15 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 14-15
Bevel-and-Miter-Gears with Planed Teeth are more accurate along Profile along-pitch-line,
14-15 page text
Drawing BEVEL GEARS, Page 14
ADDENDUM --CLEARANCE
OF INCREMENT---PITGH*POINT--nG M N •
PINION II. (.0 AXIS _ ANGLES . APEX\k,, FRONT rAliQ FRONT -- BACK RIM CEAR "; ' R BACK OUTSIDE DIAM
DRAWING THE BEVEL GEAR.
When the axes of a pair of gears meet at an angle they are called bevel gears. When the axes are at right angles and the gears are equal, they are called miter gears. ' To draw a pair of bevel gear blanks, as in the figure, at any shaft angle, draw the given axes AC and DC, meeting at the apex C. Lay off the distances AB and DG equal to the given pitch radii of the gears. Draw B El and GH parallel to the axes, and from their intersection, the pitch point H, draw the center line HC to the apex. Lay off HS equal to the given face. Draw QHR at right angles to HC. Lay off HP and HM each equal to the known addendum, and MN equal to the known clearance. Draw PC, MC and NC. PCH = HCM is the increment angle, also called the addendum angle. PCD is the face angle, NCD is the cut angle. The "-backing" is the distance from the pitch line to the back end of the hub. The small ends of the teeth are at the " front," and the large ends at the " back " of the gear. The working pitch diameter of the gear is the diameter HV. The " outside diameter" is the diameter PT, and it is to be observed that the " increment," or difference between the pitch and the outside diameters, is variable with the angle of the gear, not being the same for all gears of the same pitch, as with spur gears. Notice that all lines on the teeth, tops, sides, and bottoms, meet at the apex C.

II TEETH IN GEAR
page 15
''tE LINE: 1,TE ETH
DRAWING BEVEL GEAR TEETH.
The number of teeth in the gear is based upon the working pitch diameter HV; thus, if the gear is of four pitch and seven inches working pitch diameter, it will have twenty-eight teeth. But the outline of the tooth is not to be drawn as for a gear of the pitch radius IIW, but as for a gear of the back radius FIR, having a greater number of teeth. Thus a miter gear of sixteen teeth and a pitch- ra bus HW = 2 inches, would have a back radius HR = 2.82 inches and 22 teeth on its true outline. It is as if the teeth were to be first drawn upon a flat sheet, which is then wrapped about the conical back rim of the gear, and used as a templet to draw teeth on that rim. The figure shows a gear blank with teeth drawn and cut out upon its back templet, and then scrihF:d on the back rim.
16-17th catalog page
16-17 page title text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 16-17
Bevel-and-Miter-Gears- with Planed-Teeth-are more accurate along Profile along-pitch-line,
16-17 page text
BEVEL GEARS, Page 16
BEVEL AND MITER GEARS. We have facilities for making all sorts of bevel and miter gears to order, and we carry many sizes of such gears in stock, as per lists, with either cut or cast teeth. Bevel and miter gears of different pairs cannot be made to run together, but each must be fitted to its mate. We cannot make a bevel gear to run with another not in our hands to fit to, even when of our own make. All our bevel gears have common rotary cut teeth, unless clearly ordered with "planed teeth." The rotary cut tooth is not as good as the planed tooth, but is the one in most common use. It is much the cheapest.
MITER GEARS. page17
BEVEL GEARS WITH PLANED TEETH. A bevel gear cannot be perfectly cut with a rotary cutter, but by the process of planing, smoothzaction, 1 mg faces, and full contact may be obtained. Planed teeth are particularly well adapted for pattern bevel gears. The process is considerably more costly than the common process, and it cannot be hurried. Plenty of time must be allowed for such work. Always write in advance of orders for planed teeth. Many sizes require the blanks to be shaped for the purpose instead of by the common rule, and many sizes cannot be planed at all. Always use the term " planed teeth," for otherwise the ordinary tooth will invari-ably be un e r stoo d Do not order planed teeth finer than eight pitch.
18-19th catalog page
18-19 page title text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 18-19
Bevel-and-Miter-Gears- with Planed-Teeth-are more accurate along Profile along-pitch-line,
18-19 page text
Page 18
HOBBED WORM GEAR.
18
LEFT HAND WORM.
WORM GEARS
. Worm gears can have teeth cut in three different ways, hob cut, drop cut, and straight cut. Hob cut worm gears have their teeth formed with a hob which is made an exact copy of the worm that is to run in the gear. They are very expensive if but one gear is wanted, on account of the cost of making the hob. When the diameter and pitch of the worm to be used agree exactly with one of the following list of standard hobs, and the worm is right hand, we can hob the teeth without charge for making a hob. Diameter, . 1 1 1 1i 2 2 3 All right hand.

6 4 3 3 2 2 2 Pitch threads or or or or or or per inch, 8 6 4 4 3 3 Drop cut teeth are formed by dropping a cutter into the concave face of the gear, so as to make a tooth that resembles the hobbed tooth. The drop cut tooth is not as perfect as the hobbed tooth, but when the gear is large it is a good substitute for it. The straight cut tooth is formed by running a cutter across the face of the blank at an angle, to as so form spur teeth.that the worm will run in. The face is flat, beveled on the edges, and not concaved. The straight cut tooth is not as perfect as the hobbed tooth, but is much cheaper, and better than the drop cut tooth, and requires no hob to be made for the purpose. All worms are made with right hand thread unless clearly ordered left hand. The figure shows a left hand thread. We do not make the Hindly or " hour glass" worm gear, for it is very costly and no better than the hobbed gear with common teeth. The action of the worm in the gear is by sliding, and therefore worm gears are poorly fitted to convey much power. Experimews show that they waste from a quarter to a half of the power taken. All worm teeth are formed to the worm thread tool gauge shown on page 34.

20-21 th catalog page
20-21 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892.-page-20-21
-Hob-sprial-90-degree-gear.
20-21 page text
20 LEFT HAND SPIRAL GEARS. SPIRAL GEARS. We have unusual facilities for cutting spiral teeth. Always write for information in advance, for very few machinists or draftsmen understand this form of tooth. State the distance between centers of shafts, the pro. portion of speeds, and about the size of tooth wanted. Never specify the pitch of the spiral or give the exact numbers of teeth, unless willing to go to considerable extra expense. Spiral gears always have right hand spirals unless left hand spirals are called for. The figure shows left hand spirals. The figure shows a form of spiral gearing used for transmitting motion between shafts at right angles. Spiral gears can also be used for spur gears on parallel shafts, as in the figure on page 19. The teeth slide on each other, as with worm gear teeth, and they are poorly adapted for carrying much power. 21

RIGHT HAND RATCHET.
RATCHETS. A ratchet is always right hand unless ordered left hand, and is always made to order. A right hand ratchet is turned to the right by its pawl when the hub is in front. The figure shows a right hand ratchet.
RIGHT HAND HOB.
WORM HOBS. We have unusual facilities for making worm hobs to order. They are always made right hand unless ordered left hand. The figure shows a right hand hub. Shape of thread is shown by tool gauge on page 34.
22-23 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892.-page-22-23

22-23 page text
page 22

ELLIPTIC GEARS.
We have unusual facilities and patented machinery for making elliptic gears for variable speed and quick return motions. An elliptic gear must turn on a shaft through one focus and not through its center, and it must have an uneven number of teeth. Elliptic gears are used in pairs or in trains, all exactly alike. If a pair or a train of elliptic gears is wanted for a quick return motion or for a variabl° speed, state the longest diameter of gear, the proportion of stroke to return, or of slowest to fastest speed, about the size of the tooth wanted, the face of the gear, and the hole. Let us determine the short diameter, the distance of shaft from the center, and the number of teeth. A single pair of elliptic gears should not be used to obtain a quick return of more than three to one, or a speed ratio of more than six to one, as very flat elliptic gears are hard to make and run poorly. Use three or more in a train to get greater ratios. We cut lobed and irregular gears to order, but such work is very costly and very difficult to do in a first class manner.

page 23
DRAWING THE ELLIPTIC GEAR.
Given the major diameter, AA', and the minor diameter, BB', of an ellipse, the foci, M and N, are found by taking the radius AC on the dividers and drawing the arc NSM from the point B as a center. Having the foci, N and M, and any point, as D, on the curve, the whole curve may be drawn by inserting pins at the foci and stretching a thread around the pins and a pencil at D, when the pencil will follow the curve if carried around so as to keep the thread stretched. The quick return ratio of a given ellipse is the ratio of the angles PNA and PNA', where PM is at right angles to the major axis. Thus, if PNA = 30°, PNA' must be 1500, and the quick return ratio is IN, or five to one. If the major di,,mt ter, AA', and one focus, N, are the only parts known, and it is required to construct an ellit se having a given quick return ratio, the line PN is drawn through the focus N so as to make _ PNA and PNA' in the given ratio, and then a point P is found, by repeated trials, at which the sum of the lines PN and PM will be equal to the given major axis; then M will be the other focus and P a point on the required ellipse. When a pair of elliptic gears having a given quick return ratio are used to produce a reciprocating motion, the ratio of the slow stroke to the quick return will be that ratio. Thus, if a crank planer is driven by a pair of elliptic gears having a quick return ratio of three to one, the cutting stroke will take three times as long as the return of the tool. The speed ratio of the ellipse is the ratio of the distance A'M to the distance AM. Thus, if one of a pair of elliptic gears revolves uniformly, the greatest speed of the driven gear will be A11 as fast, and the slowest speed M as fast. Thus, if A'M is three times as long as AM, the driven gear will vary in speed from one third of the speed of the driving gear to three times its speed. When three or more elliptic gears are used in a train, the effect is much increased, so that several elliptic gears that are nearly circular are as effective in producing a given quick return or variable speed as are two very flat gears. The quick return ratio for the third gear is the ratio of the angles KMA and KMA', PNK being a straight line.
page-24-25 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892.-page-24-25
page-24-25 page text
page 24

*PINION WIRE. SHEET BRASS GEAR.
MASS
BEVEL MITER.
BRASS GEARS. For gears of less than one-quarter inch face, or of a pitch finer than twenty-four, cast iron is unsuitable, and brass should be used. Steel is the best possible material for small and fine gears, but is quite costly. Sheet brass gears are the best for light work. They are made to order of is, , or inch thickness. They are flat gears, with large holes, without hubs, and only the larger ones with spokes. The customer can set in a hub of any size and solder it in place. We do not make brass clock gears except in considerable quantities, and we do no clock or watch gear repairing of any description.

INTERNAL PINION WIRE.
We carry no brass gears in stock, but can make them to order in small or large quantiti,s. We can make thin fibre gears, see page 13, very light and quite strong. No hubs.

Page 25
It will cost you just six cents postage to return this book to us if you send for it and do not want to keep it.

ODONTICS
OR THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE TEETH OF GEARS,
BY GEORGE B. GRANT.
Price, $1.50, Post-paid.
This is a new book published to take the place of our old " Hand-book," now out of print. It is in no sense an advertisement, but a treatise on its subject, with 170 illustrations and many practical examples. It is a text book for students, and a working reference book for machinists, draftsmen and pattern makers. The two following pages will give a general idea of its nature and contents. To allow everyone the same privilege of examination that they have of books to be bought in their local book stores, we offer to take back any copy bought here that is remailed to us undamaged within one day of receipt, and to refund the price paid us for it. We offer liberal terms to agents, and many have found it to pay well to canvass in machine shops and technical schools for orders. We offer special terms to teachers in technical schools and classes of mechanical drafting, and to libraries. One copy free to each customer. See page 35.
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14-15 page text
Grants Gear Book Lexington Gear Works 1892. Page 14-15
This is also a Winton Gear Cutting Machine. Antiquemachinery.com has one a slightly ornate one of them from the 1890's in it's collection from the BRECK auction. Gears with Planed-Teeth-are more accurate along Profile along-pitch-line. .
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