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Planing Machine.
The cut illustrates planing machines of four feet capacity and larger, as built by Bement, Miles & Co., Philadelphia. In each case the width and height are such as to admit, in the rough, work which will finish to the full nominal capacity of the ma-chine. The driving gear is so arranged that the bed will , be parallel with the line shafting ; all the gearing and the rack are accurately cut ; the power is ample for taking four heavy cuts easily and smoothly, returning pawls are moved by thumb latches projecting from the ends of the cross shaft and screws, by which arrangement each head can be made to feed in any direction, independently of the other heads

"Star" Screw Cutting Engine Lathe.
The illustration on this page shows a new foot lathe, made by the Seneca Falls Manu-facturing Co., of Seneca Falls, N. Y. It swings 9 inches over the bed, 51 inches over the carriage, and takes 25 inches be-tween centers. It is back geared and has an automatic cross feed. The spindle is of steel, 11 inches in diameter, and has a a in. hole through it, the boxes being adjustable for wear, and lined with anti-friction metal. The carriage is substantially gibbed to the rest, and is so made as to admit of the use of milling or other fixtures, if desired. A friction feed is provided for turning, which is reversible by the movement of a lever. It will cut screws, either right or left hand, from 3 to 64 per inch, without compound-ing, and can be compounded for other pitches. All gears are cut from solid metal by improved automatic machinery and will run smoothly. -

THIRTEEN INCH SLOTTING MACHINE.
The frame of this machine is wide and of ample proportions to secure stability and to prevent spring. The ram is driven by a four-speed cone and spur gearing. The Whitworth quick return gives a rapid up stroke and a slow cutting speed to the ram. The stroke may be varied from 0 to 13 inches, the change being quickly made by the screw on the crank disk, and the position of the ram with regard to the work may be quickly changed also by means of the rod shown on the front of the ram. The counter-balance takes up the lost motion in the pin. The work is fastened to a circular table, which is driven by a worm wheel and gear and which is carried on compound tables having longi-tudinal and transverse motions. All three tables have self-acting feeds in both directions, the feed taking place at the beginning of the stroke and never during the cut. The feeds may be varied from 0 to T7-6- of an inch. The circular table may be clamped to the compound table. All the handles are within easy reach of the workman. This is an important feature, as work on the latter demands constant attention.
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New for 1887 Benent Miles Planer


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Planing Machine
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A JOURNAL FOR MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS,. FOUNDERS, BOILER MAKERS, PATTERN MAKERS AND BLACKSMITHS. VOL. 10, No. 51/ WEEKLY. NEW YORK, DECEMBER 17, 1887. 2.50 per Annum. (SINGLE COPIES, a CENTS. COPYRIGHT 1887, BY AMERICAN MACHINIST PUBLISHING CbMPANY. For Sale Everywhere by Newsdealers. ENTERED AT POST OFFICE, NEW YORK, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER.

Planing Machine.
The cut illustrates planing machines of four feet capacity and larger, as built by Bement, Miles & Co., Philadelphia. In each case the width and height are such as to admit, in the rough, work which will finish to the full nominal capacity of the ma-chine. The driving gear is so arranged that the bed will , be parallel with the line shafting ; all the gearing and the rack are accurately cut ; the power is ample for taking four heavy cuts easily and smoothly, returning ing .pawls are moved by thumb latches projecting from the ends of the cross shaft and screws, by which arrangement each head can be made to feed in any direction, independently of the other heads. The tool aprons are set over, so as to admit of the tools being brought very near each other, and the cross slide is of such length that when one head is at the extreme end the other will cut over the entire width between uprights. The Vs in the bed have broad surfaces, and are effectually lubricated by patent rollers enclosed in oil pockets. of the train, as compared with sand, more general machine building, is no less a than overbalances this, and it is said that mystery. engineers, after trying it, give their prefer- There is, no reason why the milling ma-ence to the water. chine should not be used to finish the various parts of machine tools, locomotive, The Milling Machine as a Substitute or stationary engines and other latge ma-for the Planer in Machine Construe- chinery. It may be asserted that there is Lion. no part of a locomotive now finished on the planer which cannot be done on the milling machine, if properly designed for such

"Star" Screw Cutting Engine Lathe.
The illustration on this page shows a new foot lathe, made by the Seneca Falls Manu-facturing Co., of Seneca Falls, N. Y. It swings 9 inches over the bed, 51 inches over the carriage, and takes 25 inches be-tween centers. It is back geared and has an automatic cross feed. The spindle is of steel, 11 inches in diameter, and has a a in. hole through it, the boxes being adjustable for wear, and lined with anti-friction metal. The carriage is substantially gibbed to the rest, and is so made as to admit of the use of milling or other fixtures, if desired. A friction feed is provided for turning, which is reversible by the movement of a lever. It will cut screws, either right or left hand, from 3 to 64 per inch, without compound-ing, and can be compounded for other pitches. All gears are cut from solid metal by improved automatic machinery and will run smoothly. The foot power is of entirely new design The treadles work independently of each other, are movable lengthwise, each being connected at opposite ends of the driving-wheel shaft in such a manner as to produce a strong, positive, and continuous motion, and may be operated with both feet, sitting, or with one foot, 'standing, as desired. A countershaft is furnished, in place of the foot-power motion, if desired.
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BY JOHN J. GRANT, PHILADELPHIA, PA. .
A PAPER PRESENTED AT THE PHILADELPHIA work, and at a cost of from one-half to one-MEETING OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. tenth, besides, in most cases, producing far Finishing surfaces by rotary cutters, or, better work and nearer to interchangeability. in machine shop vernacular, milling, has In conversation with master mechanics, .
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999999999999999999999999999999999999999
DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST
increasing velocity in the water until it ar-rives at the circumference of the disk or fan, and then to have a gradually decreasing velocity until it issues from the discharge pipe. This condition is obtained by having a conical or tapering suction pipe, a spiral casing surrounding the fan, a proper amount of " whirlpool " space in which to eliminate the " eddies " produced by the ends of the blades of fans, and a taperinc, or coniOal discharge pipe. And lastly, that the tangential velocity of the fluid being pumped, on leaving the fan or disk, should not be more than from 24 to 30 feet per second. THE USE OF KEROSENE OIL IN STEAM BOILERS.
In this paper the author, L. F. Lyne, gives his experience in the use of kerosene oil in steam boilers at the Jersey City Electric Light Company's station. There was trouble with scale in these boilers, and after some experi-mental work the following plan was fol-lowed : We then adopted a rule of one quart of kerosene oil per day for each of the 100 horse-power boilers, and three pints for the 155 horse-power boiler. The water is blown down two gauges every week and the entire contents every month. Water is never used to wash them out, nor is a scraper necessary ; for the mud all goes out with the water. An examination is made of the in-terior and we put them to work again. This is a wonderful relief to us, for the reason that no scale forms in any of our boilers, and the corrosive action mentioned as having existed at first, has entirely ceased. Another thing worthy of special notice is, that it was impossible to keep a glass -water tube in use more than three months at a time, and oftentimes they would break within two months. Before using kerosene these tubes would become badly grooved and eaten away at the upper ends, so that they would break. Our engineer came very near losing his eyesight through the break-ing of one of these glasses, and his face was badly disfigured by being cut with the broken glass. Now these tubes do not show any such action, and they have been in use more than a year. I admit that rubber packing and kerosene oil do not agree, so to guard against any trouble from that source, I had new nuts one and one half inches deep placed at the ends of the glass tubes, and used asbestos wicking dipped in boiled oil, and then squeezed dry, for packing They do not leak, and these joints are permanent. In conclusion, 1 desire to say that crude petroleum has, to my certain knowl-edge, been used in steam boilers during the past eleven years and upwards, where, with judicious application, it has been success-ful in removing and preventing scale. removing fectly, the percentage of reduction of area in the last test pieces broken being much higher than in those broken on the same day that the bar was rolled. Here was evidently something worth invest-igating. Knowing the. very misleading conclusions which can be obtained by rea-soning from an insufficient number of ex-periments, where the conditions are as com-plicated and variable as in the making of a steel bar, it seemed best to get as large an accumulation of data as possible together, and then endeavor to read their story and deduce a theory which would explain what they told. Accordingly, at such times as it has been possible during the past two years, experiments have been carried on by testing bars of steel immediately after rolling, and again after several days have elapsed, and the data so accumulated are now thought to be sufficient to arrange and discuss intel-ligently. As a result of a large number of experi-ments the author concludes : To sum up : The tests made upon the three-quarter inch round bars seem to prove quite conclusively that after rolling, steel increases in percentage of reduction of area, in percentage of elongation and in ultimate strength, and decreases in elastic limit. I have endeavored to account for these changes by supposing that the rough me-chanical treatment of the metal by the rolls has temporarily weakened the hold of its All applications from the United States for space must be made before January 15, and all entries must be made by April 15, and must be in place by April 25.

is left exposed to the action of the atmo sphere. Houses so constructed are very sanitary, and the necessary ventilating and heating arrangements can readily be carried out.—Industries.

The Practical Mechanics' Institute of Poughkeepsie.
Not long since, we referred to the forma-tion of an educational association of me-chanics and engineers at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Our correspondent, F. H. Treacy, of that place, writes us in reference to this association : " The Practical Mechanics' Institute," re-cently started in this city, is meeting with good success. The membership is increas-ing, and a good, healthy interest is taken by the members at the meetings each week. We are now installed in our own quarters. which, although rather plain and unpreten-tious, answer very well until the state of our finances permit something better. At pres-ent our meetings are devoted to the dis-cussion of some subject which, has been de-cided upon at a previous • meeting ; this arrangement gives each one time to prepare himself. Any member may ask for in-formation on any question relating to the different trades embraced by the Institute, during the time set apart for such ques-tions. The idea is this : Suppose one of the members has had trouble with a job ; be can at the next meeting state his case and re-ceive the opinions and ideas of the other members who are familiar with the branch he is engaged in. The society admits to membership, engineers, marine and steam; machinists, moulders, pattern makers, and millwrights. The cost of membership has been made as low as possible, in order to give those who are serving an apprentice-ship at any of the above trades a chance to join without seriously feeling it. Wanted—Information About Mutual Ben-efit Associations. We give place to the following letter, in i hopes that it may bring information beyond that which we are able to give. We shall be glad to hear of the workings of mutual benefit societies, unconnected with other as-sociations : Publishers American, Machinist, New York City :
GENTLEMEN-
Our workmen are moving in the matter of establishing a mutual benefit society amongst themselves, and we are de-sirous of giving them all the assistance we can. To this end, we will appreciate it if you will give us any suggestions that may occur to you in this connection, or send us plans of any such association of which you may be cognizant. ************************************************************
more than a year. I admit that rubber packing and kerosene oil do not agree, so to guard against any trouble from that source, I had new nuts one and one half inches deep placed at the ends of the glass tubes, and used asbestos wicking dipped in boiled oil, and then squeezed dry, for packing They do not leak, and these joints are permanent. * * In conclusion, I desire to say that crude petroleum has, to my certain knowl-edge, been used in steam boilers during the past eleven years and upwards,. where, with judicious application, it has been success-ful in removing and preventing scale. While this is admitted. I must also acknowl-edge that great damage to boilers has re-sulted by in observing the necessary pre-cautions n the quantity put into the boiler each time. I will mention but one instance, which is that of a tug-boat now running in New York harbor. The boiler was badly scaled, and some one advised the engineer to use crude petroleum ; so he " gave the boar a good dose,” as he said. In a few days the tubes began to leak, and the crown-sheet bagged down. The boat was then laid up, when it was found that the heavy oil had mixed with the mud and had formed a paste on the crown-sheet. This paste kept the water from reaching the plates, hence the result stated above. This paste was so dense that water from a hose would not dislodge it ; and I do not hesitate to say that, had kerosene oil been used in this in-stance, instead of crude petroleum, the boiler would not have been injured. The reason is that there is not sufficient body in kerosene oil to form a paste. The chief ob-jection to crude petroleum is that it is too heavy, while in kerosene oil there is no sub-stance which will stick fast to the interior of a boiler. Our boilers do not lift their water, they are free from scale, and our fuel bill is thereby greatly reduced.

NOTES ON RESULTS OBTAINED FROM STEEL TESTED SHORTLY AFTER ROLLING.
This paper, presented by Edgy. a Felton, deals with the following observation Two years or more ago, some interesting facts were noticed in connection with cer-tain tests then being made by the Pennsyl-* vania Steel Company on structural steels for a well known bridge across the Ohio River. These facts were as follows : The inspector employed by the bridge company for whom the work was being done, being in a great hurry to leave our works, had tested several heats on the same day that the test bars had been rolled, and bad rejected each heat so tested ; the cause of rejection in each case being a low percentage of reduction of area. Several days later, pieces cut from the same bars were tested and found to fill the re-quirements of the same specifications per- molecules upon each other, and that this hold is regained when the metal is allowed to rest. STANDARD SECTION LINING. This subject was presented by Frank Van Vleck. The argument of the author was for standard practice in respect to section lining, to represent various kinds of mate-rial. The subject was presented, with il-.1ustrations, in our issue of April 9, 1887.

The Brussels International Convention and Exhibition.
--- This exhibition, which opens May 3 1888, is for a twofold purpose. We quote from the rules and by-laws sent us by Arm-strong, Knauer & Co., 822 Broadway, New York, who are the agents in this country, as follows " The object of the great interna-tional competition of sciences and industry is : First, the organization of a competition between the industrial products of all coun-tries, with prizes allotted to those who have discovered, after following a complete given formula, the greatest usefulness of matteras to science and economy. Second, the or-ganization of a universal international ex-hibition, to which are admitted all products of commerce, industry, agriculture and hor-ticulture, as in preceding exhibitions." In a lengthy paper, read by Capt. Rogers Birni, Jr., before the Military Service Insti-tution at Governor's Island, the 'author, after a historical review of gun making in this country, concluded that guns made from steel castings were but little better than those of cast-iron, and that the only material fit for use for large guns was forged steel. A new system of building houses of steel plates is being introduced by M. Danly, manager of the Societe des Forges de Chat-eleneau. It has been found that corrugated sheets, only a millimeter ( 0394") in thick-ness, are sufficiently strong for building houses several stories high, and the material used allows of architectural ornamentation. The plates used are of the finest quality,and as they are galvanized after they have bten cut to the sizes and shapes required, no portion be glad to hear of the workings of mutual benefit societies, unconnected with other as-sociations : Publishers American Machinist, New York City
GENTLEMEN—OUT
workmen are moving in the matter of establishing a mutual benefit society amongst themselves, and we are de-sirous of giving them all the assistance we can. To this end, we will appreciate it if you will give us any suggestions that may occur to you in this connection, or send us plans of any such association of which you may be cognizant. Yours very truly, ATLAS ENGINE WORKS.

An example of the rage to start new com-panies upon a small basis of success is seen in the instance of the investment in the Go-beic iron range, in Michigan. Money flowed like water into the companies or-ganized to operate here, and in less than a year hundreds of thousands of dollars of the stock could be bought for anything offered. Under the heading, " Co-operation be-tween Railroads and the Navy," the Spring-field Union says: " As soon as we get over the rush, we are going to invent a big navy gun that will throw deadly car stoves into the enemy's vessels. Two grand results will be accomplished. The enemy will be annihilated in a particularly melancholy manner, and we shall get rid of the car stoves."

Wherever our manufacturers have ob-tained and held foreign trade, they have done it by virtue of furnishing the articles wanted, without . reference to their own prejudices in the matter ; sometimes they have failed because they have assumed to know the wants of their customers better than the customers themselves. It has taken British manufacturers years to learn that buyers had rights in the way of decid-ing what they should buy, and it has cost them a good deal of trade, even in British provinces. As American manufacturers reach out after a foreign outlet for their goods, they should profit by the mistakes of others. Because certain lines of goods are in demand here there is no evidence that they will satis-fy the demand in some other locality. And this is especially true of machinery. Noth-ing but an intimate knowledge of a people and their surroundings will enable a manu-facturer to offer them what they want.
AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 7, The Star Screw Cutting Engine Lathe.


"Star" Screw Cutting Engine Lathe.
The illustration on this page shows a new foot lathe, made by the Seneca Falls Manu-facturing Co., of Seneca Falls, N. Y. It swings 9 inches over the bed, 51 inches over the carriage, and takes 25 inches be-tween centers. It is back geared and has an automatic cross feed. The spindle is of steel, 11 inches in diameter, and has a a in. hole through it, the boxes being adjustable for wear, and lined with anti-friction metal. The carriage is substantially gibbed to the rest, and is so made as to admit of the use of milling or other fixtures, if desired. A friction feed is provided for turning, which is reversible by the movement of a lever. It will cut screws, either right or left hand, from 3 to 64 per inch, without compound-ing, and can be compounded for other pitches. All gears are cut from solid metal by improved automatic machinery and will run smoothly. The foot power is of entirely new design The treadles work independently of each other, are movable lengthwise, each being connected at opposite ends of the driving-wheel shaft in such a manner as to produce a strong, positive, and continuous motion, and may be operated with both feet, sitting, or with one foot, 'standing, as desired. A countershaft is furnished, in place of the foot-power motion, if desired.

increasing velocity in the water until it ar-rives at the circumference of the disk or fan, and then to have a gradually decreasing velocity until it issues from the discharge pipe. This condition is obtained by having a conical or tapering suction pipe, a spiral casing surrounding the fan, a proper amount of " whirlpool " space in which to eliminate the " eddies " produced by the ends of the blades of fans, and a taperinc, or coniOal discharge pipe. And lastly, that the tangential velocity of the fluid being pumped, on leaving the fan or disk, should not be more than from 24 to 30 feet per second. THE USE OF KEROSENE OIL IN STEAM BOILERS. In this paper the author, L. F. Lyne, gives his experience in the use of kerosene oil in steam boilers at the Jersey City Electric Light Company's station. There was trouble with scale in these boilers, and after some experi-mental work the following plan was fol-lowed : We then adopted a rule of one quart of kerosene oil per day for each of the 100 horse-power boilers, and three pints for the 155 horse-power boiler. The water is blown down two gauges every week and the entire contents every month. Water is never used to wash them out, nor is a scraper necessary ; for the mud all goes out with the water. An examination is made of the in-terior and we put them to work again. This is a wonderful relief to us, for the reason that no scale forms in any of our boilers, and the corrosive action mentioned as having existed at first, has entirely ceased. Another thing worthy of special notice is, that it was impossible to keep a glass -water tube in use more than three months at a time, and oftentimes they would break within two months. Before using kerosene these tubes would become badly grooved and eaten away at the upper ends, so that they would break. Our engineer came very near losing his eyesight through the break-ing of one of these glasses, and his face was badly disfigured by being cut with the broken glass. Now these tubes do not show any such action, and they have been in use more than a year. I admit that rubber packing and kerosene oil do not agree, so to guard against any trouble from that source, I had new nuts one and one half inches deep placed at the ends of the glass tubes, and used asbestos wicking dipped in boiled oil, and then squeezed dry, for packing They do not leak, and these joints are permanent. In conclusion, 1 desire to say that crude petroleum has, to my certain knowl-edge, been used in steam boilers during the past eleven years and upwards, where, with judicious application, it has been success-ful in removing and preventing scale. removing fectly, the percentage of reduction of area in the last test pieces broken being much higher than in those broken on the same day that the bar was rolled. Here was evidently something worth invest-igating. Knowing the. very misleading conclusions which can be obtained by rea-soning from an insufficient number of ex-periments, where the conditions are as com-plicated and variable as in the making of a steel bar, it seemed best to get as large an accumulation of data as possible together, and then endeavor to read their story and deduce a theory which would explain what they told. Accordingly, at such times as it has been possible during the past two years, experiments have been carried on by testing bars of steel immediately after rolling, and again after several days have elapsed, and the data so accumulated are now thought to be sufficient to arrange and discuss intel-ligently. As a result of a large number of experi-ments the author concludes : To sum up : The tests made upon the three-quarter inch round bars seem to prove quite conclusively that after rolling, steel increases in percentage of reduction of area, in percentage of elongation and in ultimate strength, and decreases in elastic limit. I have endeavored to account for these changes by supposing that the rough me-chanical treatment of the metal by the rolls has temporarily weakened the hold of its All applications from the United States for space must be made before January 15, and all entries must be made by April 15, and must be in place by April 25. is left exposed to the action of the atmosphere. Houses so constructed are very sanitary, and the necessary ventilating and heating arrangements can readily be carried out. Industries. The Practical Mechanics' Institute of Poughkeepsie. Not long since, we referred to the forma-tion of an educational association of me-chanics and engineers at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Our correspondent, F. H. Treacy, of that place, writes us in reference to this association : " The Practical Mechanics' Institute," re-cently started in this city, is meeting with good success. The membership is increas-ing, and a good, healthy interest is taken by the members at the meetings each week. We are now installed in our own quarters. which, although rather plain and unpreten-tious, answer very well until the state of our finances permit something better. At pres-ent our meetings are devoted to the dis-cussion of some subject which, has been de-cided upon at a previous • meeting ; this arrangement gives each one time to prepare himself. Any member may ask for in-formation on any question relating to the different trades embraced by the Institute, during the time set apart for such ques-tions. The idea is this : Suppose one of the members has had trouble with a job ; be can at the next meeting state his case and re-ceive the opinions and ideas of the other members who are familiar with the branch he is engaged in. The society admits to membership, engineers, marine and steam; machinists, moulders, pattern makers, and millwrights. The cost of membership has been made as low as possible, in order to give those who are serving an apprentice-ship at any of the above trades a chance to join without seriously feeling it. Wanted—Information About Mutual Ben-efit Associations. We give place to the following letter, in i hopes that it may bring information beyond that which we are able to give. We shall be glad to hear of the workings of mutual benefit societies, unconnected with other as-sociations : Publishers American, Machinist, New York City : GENTLEMEN-Our workmen are moving in the matter of establishing a mutual benefit society amongst themselves, and we are de-sirous of giving them all the assistance we can. To this end, we will appreciate it if you will give us any suggestions that may occur to you in this connection, or send us plans of any such association of which you may be cognizant. more than a year. I admit that rubber packing and kerosene oil do not agree, so to guard against any trouble from that source, I had new nuts one and one half inches deep placed at the ends of the glass tubes, and used asbestos wicking dipped in boiled oil, and then squeezed dry; for packing They do not leak, and these joints are permanent. se Ipnetcrolealumsiohn.,,,, Itodiejsyirceetisay ott edge, been used in steam boilers during the past eleven years and upwards, where, with judicious application, it has been success-ful in removing and preventing scale. While this is admitted. I must also acknowl-edge that great damage to boilers has re-sulted by not observing the necessary pre-cautions m the quantity put iato the boiler each time. I will mention but one instance, which is that of a tug-boat now running in New York harbor. The boiler was badly scaled, and some one advised the engineer to use crude petroleum ; so he " gave the boar a good dose,. as he said. Ina few days the tubes began to leak, and the crown-sheet bagged down. The boat was then laid up, when it was found that the heavy oil had mixed with the rand and had formed a paste on the crown-sheet. This paste kept the water from reaching the plates, hence the result stated above. This paste was so dense that water from a hose would not dislodge it ; and I do not hesitate to say that, had kerosene oil been used in this in-stance, instead of crude petroleum, the boiler would not have been injured. The reason is that there is not sufficient body in kerosene oil to form a paste. The chief ob-jection to crude petroleum is that it is too heavy, while in kerosene oil there is no sub-stance which will stick fast to the interior of a boiler. ,,, Our boilers do not lift their water, they are free from scale, and our fuel bill is thereby greatly reduced. NOTES ON RESULTS OBTAINED FROM STEEL TESTED SHORTLY AFTER ROLLING. This paper, presented by Edgar Cr. Felton, deals with the following observation Two years or more ago, some interesting facts were noticed in connection with cer-tain tests then being made by the Pennsyl-vania Steel Company on structural steels for a well known bridge across the Ohio River. These facts were as follows : The inspector employed by the bridge company for whom the work was being done, being in a great hurry to leave our works, had tested several heats on the same day that the test bars had been rolled, and had rejected each heat so tested ; the cause of rejection in each case being a low percentage of reduction of area. Several days later, pieces cut from the same bars were tested and found to fill the re-quirements of the same specifications per- STAR" SCREW CUTTING ENGINE LATHE. molecules upon each other, and that this hold is regained when the metal is allowed to rest. STANDARD SECTION LINING. This subject was presented by Frank Van Vleck. The argument of the author was for standard practice in respect to section lining, to represent various kinds of mate-rial. The subject was presented, with il-lustrations, in our issue of April 9, 1887. The Brussels International Convention and Exhibition. This exhibition, which opens May 3 1888, is for a twofold purpose. We quote from the rules and bylaws sent us by Arm-strong, Knauer & Co., 822 Broadway, New York, who are the agents in this country, as follows " The object of the great interna-tional competition of sciences and industry is : First, the organization of a competition between the industrial products of all coun-tries, with prizes allotted to those who have discovered, after following a complete given formula, the greatest usefulness of matteras to science and economy. Second, the or-ganization of a universal international ex-hibition, to which are admitted all products of commerce, industry, agricultuie and hor-ticulture, as in preceding exhibitions." The foot power is of entirely new design The treadles work independently of each other, are movable lengthwise, each being connected at opposite ends of the driving-wheel shaft in such a manner as to produce a strong, positive, and continuous motion, and may be operated with both feet, sitting, or with one foot, .standing, as desired. A countershaft is furnished, in place of the foot-power motion, if desired. In a lengthy paper, read by Capt. Rogers Birni, Jr., before the Military Service Insti-tution at Governor's Island, the • author, after a historical review of gun making in this country, concluded that guns made from steel castings were but little better than those of cast-iron, and that the only material fit for use for large guns was forged steel. A new system of building houses of steel plates is being introduced by M. Danly, manager of the Societe des Forges de Chat-eleneau. It has been found that corrugated sheets, only a millimeier ( 0394") in thick-ness, are sufficiently strong for building houses several stories high, and the material used allows of architectural ornamentation. The plates used are of the finest quality.and as they are galvanized after they havebten cut to the sizes and shapes required, no portion be glad to hear of the workings of mutual benefit societies, unconnected with other as-sociations : Publiehere American Afachiniet, New York City: GENTLE/cm-Our workmen are moving in the matter of establishing a mutual benefit society amongst themselves, and we are de-sirous of giving them all the assistance we can. To this end, we will appreciate it if 307coeu grizinusthnosnuaetatoions that cricitys plans of any such association or send you may be cognizant. Yours very truly, ATLAS ENGINE WORKS. An example of the rage to start new com-panies upon a small basis of success is seen in the instance of the investment in the Go-beic iron range, in Michigan. Money flowed like water into the companies or-ganized to operate here, and in less than a year hundreds of thousands of dollars of the stock could be bought for anything offered. Under the heading, " Co-operation be-tween Railroads and the Navy," the Spring-field Union, says : " As soon as we get over the rush, we are going to invent a big navy gun that will throw deadly car stoves into the enemy's vessels. Two grand results will be accomplished. The enemy will be annihilated in a particularly melancholy manner, and we shall get rid of the car stoves." Wherever our manufacturers have ob-tained and held foreign trade, they have done it by virtue of furnishing the articles wanted, without reference to their own prejudices in the matter ; sometimes they have failed because they have assumed to know the wants of their customers better than the customers themselves. It has taken British manufacturers years to learn that buyers bad rights in the way of decid-ing what they should buy, and it has cost them a good deal of trade, even in British provinces. AsAmericanmanufacturers reach out after a foreign outlet for their goods, they should profit by the mistakes of others. Because certain lines of goods are in demand here the isioide nceat they will satis-fy evidence And this is especially true of machinery. Noth-ing but an intimate knowledge of a people and their surroundings will enable a manu-facturer to offer them what they want.
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and that, after the completion of the job, which consisted in roughing the four sides of the 100 pieces. The periphery speed of the cutter was 26 feet per minute and the feed 3 inches per minute ; time consumed, 44 hours, 39 minutes. Two milling ma-chines were used—one for roughing and one for finishing cuts. The cutters required grinding at the end of the job, and so were chargeable to it ; the time re-quired to grind them was 22 minutes. The wages of boy running the machine was 9 cents per hour. The total cost for finishing the 100 pieces on the milling machine was as follows: 44 hours, 39 minutes, at 4:1- cents each, per hour - $3.99 Sharpening cutters, 22 minutes, at 30 cents per hour .11 Shop expenses at 35 per cent. of labor 1.39 --- Total cost $5.49 The cost of the same number of pieces finished on the planer was as follows : Planers used were two 16 inches square by 3 feet ; platen running 24 feet per minute cutting speed ; return 2 to 1 ; the feed was as coarse as could be used on the roughing cut—that is, about 22 per inch. Time con-sumed on each planer, 25 hours, 46 min-utes ; wages of man running the planer was 25 cents per hour. The total cost for fin-ishing the 100 pieces on the planer was as follows : 24 hours, 35 minutes each machine, at 25 cents per hour $6.03 Grinding and setting tool 19 times, 1 hour, 21 minutes -0 .33 Shop expenses, 35 per cent. 2.22 Total cost $8.58
Balance in favor of milling machine.. 3.09 This, you will bear in mind, is showing the planer to its best, and the milling ma-chine to its worst advantage. Where the . milling machine makes the best showing is in irregular work, which, in the planer, re-quires the constant attendance of the work-man—such as planing close to shoulders, cutting bevels and T slots, and jobs of a similar nature. The advantage of the milling machine is then seen, as the cost for attendance is, often, not one-tenth, owing to the fact that a much cheaper workman can run several machines. The cost of tools in each case Company's works, where I now have charge. Since February 15th of this year up to the present writing—Sept. 14th—there has been finished by one set of cutters, about 15,000 sewing machine beds, the cut being about 6 inches long. These cutters have been ground but five times and sho w but very little reduction in size. Common sense teaches that a continuous rotary cutting motion will produce more work than a reciprocating or intermittent one. If in-ventors would turn their attention to the further development of the milling machine, for general machine work, instead of the quick return of planers, they would benefit
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themselves and be doing the mechanical world better service. Some of our large machine and tool builders are using the milling machine to their great advantage. The following may be mentioned, who, to my knowledge are using regular and spec-ially designed milling machines to their profit. Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co., The Pratt & Whitney Co., The Baldwin Lo-comotive Works, The Straight Line Engine Works,and others. In conversation with one of the members of the society, he mentioned a milling ma-chine shown to him in Scotland, having a face mill or cutter 8 feet in diameter. This machine was used to face off the ends of beams, sheets, and such work. In the construction of machine tools it is possible to mill every part of an engine lathe, a great part with common straight cutters and the balance with special ones. Modern cutter grinding machines, with their attachments, have made it possible to keep cutters sharp and in perfect shape, so that the old and expensive methods of grind-ing by hand, or annealing and working over, need not be resorted to, and modern ideas of machinery and tools as are now finished on the planer. In the shops at Flushing, Long Island, with which I was formerly connected, mill-ing machines and special milling fixtures were adapted for nearly every part of the 14-inch swing engine lathe. The only part of this lathe not milled was the bed and a small part of the carriage, and this was under consideration when the partnership was dissolved. As to the cost of milling some of the work, without going into de-tails, we will take the matter of the feed apron, on which there were taken 12 cuts, it being finished all over, being shaped as in Fig. 6. The entire cost of finishing this apron, 16 inches in length and 7 inches wide, was but 7 cents, with the extra ad-vantage of each and every piece being an exact duplicate. Should there be any tool builders present, they can tell the cost of planing the apron shown. A man employed in , the shop offered to finish. 6 feet 14 inch lathe beds for 60 cents each, if I would build for him a milling ma-chine such as had been sketched out. We were at that time paying $3.00 each for planing them. I have been informed that the Pratt & Whitney Co. are considering the feasibility of constructing a milling machine for this purpose. Should they do so, it would be safe to guarantee its practicability. The Putman Machine Co., of Fitchburg, Mass., have, acting upon my advice, made a mill-ing fixture for an 84 inch square planer, for facing up the ends of planer and lathe beds when it is necessary to join them together. This arrangement works perfectly, the ends being milled off before the bed is removed from the planer platen. When bolted to-immense milling machine which they are constructing for their own use. The advantages of the milling machine over the planer are many, among which are the follo wing : Exact duplication of work ; rapidity of production—the cutting being continuous ; cost of production, as several machines can be operated by one workman, and he not a skilled mechanic ; and cost of tools for producing a given amount of work. It is not possible in a short paper to show more than a few of the advantages, but if an interest is awakened in the possibilities of the milling machine, in cheapening the cost of machine work of all descriptions, the object of this paper will be accom-plished. Dean Brothers' Duplex Pump. The duplex pump herewith shown is the recent pattern brought out by Dean Bros., of Indianapolis, Ind. The castings are heavy, and the frame made in straight lines to pre-vent springing. The levers are wrought-iron forgings and the links are of brass. The plungers of water cylinder work through packing rings of brass. Access to the pump valves is obtained through hand holes of large size. At the

4 10. Shop Notes.
shops of E. E. Garvin & Co., in this city, they are quite busy, and are build-ing a good many of their improved screw machines and milling machines. They also have the contract for building the Ham-mond typewriter, upon which they keep quite a number of hands employed. They have in use one of their tapping gether the two pieces are as near a true machines, which is proving itself to be very useful. In general appearance it resembles an ordinary drill press, and instead of tap-ping holes by hand, the parts of machines in which holes are to be tapped are placed upon the table of this machine and tapped by power. By this means better results are secured in the points of uniformity of sizes, square-ness and economy. They are at present building, for a Western manufacturing estab-lishment, a gang drill, to be used for drilling holes in iron pipes, which has some novel features. It has two sets or rows of spindles, one plane as it is possible to make such work, while the time consumed was less than it would take to remove the bed and place it crosswise on the planer platen. In several tool-building shops, fixtures are used for finishing the ends of lathe beds, they being bolted to the bed and run by a roundabout belt and having automatic fend. The cost for this work is but little more than the cost of attaching the fixture to the bed and removing it after the work is done. There is hardly any limit to the devices for milling fixtures. Large shafts can be spliced when in position ; key-ways cut *******************************************
This, you will bear in mind, is showing the planer to its best, and the milling ma-chine to its worst advantage. Where the milling machine makes the best showing is in irregular work, which, in the planer, re-quires the constant attendance of the work-man—such as planing close to shoulders, cutting bevels and T slots, and jobs of a similar nature. The advantage of the milling machine is then seen, as the cost for attendance is, often, not one-tenth, owing to the fact that a much cheaper workman can run several machines. The cost of tools in each case was as follows : Milling cutters, first cost, $2.10 each. . $4.20 Grinding once, 22 minutes .11
Total cost $4.31 Planer tools, first cost, 42 cents . $ .84 Re-dressing by smith, once .16 Grinding and setting roughing tools 19 times, 1 hour, 21 minutes .33 Grinding and setting finishing tool 6 times .10 Total cost $1.43 Expense of keeping tools in order on milling machine $0.11 And for planer .59 Balance in favor of milling machine .48 This does not include the time of work-man's loafing in the smith shop, this trouble being entirely done away with in the milling cutter. The milling tools after this trial showed no perceptible wear, or difference in size, and it is safe to say that they would finish, fifty such lots of 100 pieces. The cost for tools in that case would be about as follows : Milling machines, first cost $4.20 Grinding 50 times at 1.1 cents 5.50
Total cost 9 70 Planer tools, first cost $ .84 Re dressing roughing tools 50 times at 16 cents 8.00 Grinding and setting 950 times at 1 73-100 cents 16.43 Finishing tool 10 times at 16 cents 1.60 Grinding 300 times at 1 73-100 5.19
Total cost. $32.06 Balance in favor of milling tools. ...$22.36 This calculation on the life of milling cutters is based on what has actually been dome in the American Sewing Machine cutters and the balance with special ones. Modern cutter grinding machines, with their attachments, have made it possible to keep cutters sharp and in perfect shape, so that the old and expensive methods of grind-ing by hand, or annealing and working over, need not be resorted to, and modern ideas of

plane as it is possible to make such work, while the time consumed was less than it would take to remove the bed and place it crosswise on the planer platen. In several tool-building shops, fixtures are used for finishing the ends of lathe beds, they being bolted to the bed and run by a roundabout belt and having automatic feed. The cost for this work is but little more than the cost of attaching the fixture to the bed and removing it after the work is done. There is hardly any limit to the devices for milling fixtures. Large shafts can be spliced when in position key-ways cut in large fly wheels and in locomotive con-struction and repairs, an immense amount of money could be saved in this way. A large special milling machine has just been finished for use in the Straight Line Engine shops, at Syracuse, N. Y. In a communication received from the presi-dent of the company a short time since, he
the sizes of cutters necessary to do work make their first cost much less. A cutter of 2 inches to 21 inches is now used where formerly it was thought necessary to use one of from 4 to 6 inches diameter. The field of regular and special milling machines for small work being pretty well worked over, what is wanted is more spec-ial machines and fixtures, built for and adapted to the finishing of parts of such
PUMP. mentioned the fact that the machine was just completed, and he was at that time en-gaged in milling out the T slots for bolt ways in the platen, which was being accom-plished at the rate of two inches per minute A few words from him in relation to its merits, as compared with the planer, would, no doubt, be very interesting, and also the same from the president of the Ferracute Machine Co., of Bridgeton, N. J., on an
useful. In general appearance it resembles an ordinary drill press, and instead of tap-ping holes by hand, the parts of machines in which holes are to be tapped are placed upon the table of this machine and tapped by power. By this means better results are securedl in the points of uniformity of sizes, square-ness and economy. They are at present building, for a Western manufacturing estab-lishment, a gang drill, to be used for drilling holes in iron pipes, which has some novel features. It has two sets or rows of spindles, one set being vertical and the other horizontal. The spindles are adjustable as to distance from each other, and are fed automatically, both sets operating at the same time. This firm are introducing in their shops milling operations, to take the place of planing, finding it advantageous to do so, even where the milling requires more time than would be required to plane the piece. This is on account of the decreased cost of the labor required and the greater uniformity se-cured.

Fair of the American Institute.
Among the exhibits at the Fair of- the-American Institute, few are of more interest to mechanics than the process of electric welding which is on exhibition there. By this process, which is the invention of Prof. Elihu Thomson, of Lynn, Mass., met-al§ which it has not been found practicable to weld by heating in an ordinary fire, are united readily. Among these we mention cast-iron, brass, copper, zinc and German silver. It is also made possible to weld metals unlike in their nature, such as iron and brass, or iron and German silver. The process seems best adapted to cases where the articles to be welded are manu-factured in large numbers, so that the appa-ratus may be continuously used without change for a large amount of work. The electrical current required must be adapted to the purpose, its volume being regulated to suit the nature of the welding 10 be done. The ends of the pieces to be welded are filed and suitably shaped, and are then clamped to the machine, the ends brought together by a screw motion, a flux applied,
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FEBRUARY 12, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 3


DECEMBER 17, 1887
AMERICAN MACHINIST
Fair of the American Institute.
electric welding
Among the exhibits at the Fair of- the-American Institute, few are of more interest to mechanics than the process of electric welding which is on exhibition there. By this process, which is the invention of Prof. Elihu Thomson, of Lynn, Mass., met-al§ which it has not been found practicable to weld by heating in an ordinary fire, are united readily. Among these we mention cast-iron, brass, copper, zinc and German silver. It is also made possible to weld metals unlike in their nature, such as iron and brass, or iron and German silver. The process seems best adapted to cases where the articles to be welded are manufactured in large numbers, so that the apparatus may be continuously used without change for a large amount of work. The electrical current required must be adapted to the purpose, its volume being regulated to suit the nature of the welding 10 be done. The ends of the pieces to be welded are filed and suitably shaped, and are then clamped and the current turned on. The ends immediately begin to heat, and as they soften are crowded together by the A crew motion before alluded to. The welds are made very fast, and if de-sired, the work may be hammered while the welding is going on. It is well understood that as a metal be-comes heated, its conducting power is de-creased, which, of course, means that its resistance is increased, and in that part of a piece of metal in which the resistance is greatest, the most heat will be developed. For this reason, the work may at any stage of the process be removed tempo-rarily, and when replaced, the further heating will be confined to the part already heated. It is also because of this principle that remarkably even heating is secured, because the parts which are the coolest become the path for the greatest current, until the temperature is equalized. Of course the process is a comparatively cleanly one, and we think will prove valuable in many lines of manufactures.

Practical Drawing. By J. G. A. MEYER. FIFTY-FOURTH PAPER.
Problem 51. To FIND THE HORIZONTAL • PROJECTION OF A RIGHT CYLINDER, ITS VERTICAL PROJECTION BEING GIVEN, THE AXIS OF THE CYLINDER IS PARALLEL TO THE VERTICAL, AND OBLIQUE TO THE HORIZONTAL PLANE OF PROJECTION.
The method for finding the projections of a cylinder when its axis is perpendicular to the horizontal plane of projection is given in Art. 301 ; and the same method for finding the vertical projection is also used for finding the vertical projection of a cylinder when its axis is parallel to the vertical plane of projection, and oblique to the horizontal plane. Now it often happens that cylindrical bodies, when shown in connection with other bodies, must be shown in an oblique position ; cases of this kind frequently occur in making general plans of machinery; it is therefore necessary to know how to lInd the projection, as shown in Fig. 267, of
points c3 and d3 equal to that between the points c, and d2; j 13 equal to j2 12 and 13 k3 equal to la 2. With the aid of one of the irregular curves shown in Figs. 128 and 129, join the points ms, fs, h3, c3, jg, 13, 113 etc. The curve so formed will be the hor-izontal projection of the upper base of the cylinder. In a manner precisely similar to the foregoing, the curve 03, d7, c7, p3 is found, which is the horizontal projection of the lower base. It may be remarked that the distance between e7 is equal to that between f2, e2; h7, g7 equal to h2, g2, and so on; otherwise the construction for finding the horizontal projection of the lower base is plainly shown. Join the points c3 and e7; also the points d3 d7 by straight lines, which will complete the horizontal projec-tion os, d7, d3 7-63, C39 e7 of the cylinders. The straight lines d3 d7 and c3 c7 will be
-Fig • 267
tangent to the curves, and their lengths lim-ited by the points of tangency if the curves have been correctly and accurately drawn. The portion d7, 07, p3 of the lower base must be dotted, because it is hidden. points, m, f, etc., as we have done, this problem, which at first sight may have ap-peared to be a difficult one, is reduced to a very simple one, for now we have only to find the horizontal projection of these points, then join these by curved lines, which will represent the boundary lines of the bases in the horizontal projection of the cylinder. Before we can find the horizontal projec-tions of these points, we must know the relative posit ions of the same to some known plane or given line. Thus for in-stance : We may find the distances of the points m, f, h, etc., from the vertical plane of projection, or we may find the distances of these points from a diameter drawn parallel to the vertical plane of projection. We will adopt the latter method, because, by doing so, the construction will be simpler and re-quire less labor. Let us revolve the project-ing plane, which contains the upper base, around its trace m n, until it stands parallel to the vertical plane of projection ; and in this position of the plane the upper base will be represented by the circle c2 d2 m2 n2; in fact, by turning the projecting plane with the base around the trace m 71, we bring the base into a position in which its true bound-ing line-which in this case is a circle-can be seen. In turning this plane around the trace m n, the paths of the points m, f, h, c, etc., will be represented by lines drawn through these points perpendicular to the line m n (Art. 322), and since these points are also the extremities of the elements which are perpendicular to the same line m n, it follows that the lines m m2, f f2, c c2, etc., which represent the paths of the points, are continuations of the lines which repre-sent the elements, and therefore the center c., from which the circle has been described, must lie in the line c c2; and the positions of the points f, h, c, after the projecting plane has been revolved, must be found in the
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the line o3n3 parallel to A B is drawn; the points m3 n3, in which the verticals through m and n cut the line 03 763, will be the ex-tremities of the• diameter in the horizontal projections ; consequently the lines m3 ns, 9722 n2 and m n will all represent one and the same diameter. We notice that the line f f2 cuts the diameter m2 n2 in the point f4, and the circumference in two points, namely, f2 and eg. We have already seen that the point f represents the point f2; it must now be added that the point f also represents the points A and e2, because the points f2, f4, e2 lie in the same plane and in one straight line, and when this plane is turned around the line m n until it stands perpendicular to the vertical plane of projection, the line f f2 will also stand perpendicular to the same plane of projection, and the three points, e2, f2, f4, will be represented by the point f. For similar reasons, the point h will represent the three points g2 h2 h., and the same remarks apply to the points e, j, 1. In Article 227 we see that the horizontal and vertical projection of a point must lie in one straight line drawn perpen-dicular to the ground line A B, and there-fore the horizontal projections of the three points represented in the vertical projection by the point f must lie in the vertical line drawn through f, and since m3 768 is the horizontal projection of a diameter parallel to the vertical plane of projection, it follows that the point A, in which the vertical through f cuts m3 n3 must be the horizontal projection of one of the points represented by f, namely A. The other two points, e2 and f2, represented by the same point f, must, also lie in the same vertical, and their dis-tances from the diameter m3 ns must be equal to the distances between the points e2, f2 and the diameter m2 n2. Therefore from the point A as a center, and with a radius equal to f4 f2 or A e2 (both these lines are equal in length), we describe small arcs, cutting the vertical in the points f3 and es, which are two points in the boundary of the horizontal projection of the upper base. Similar reasoning is applicable to the method of finding the points h3, j3, c3, etc., and also to the method of finding the hori-zontal projection of the lower base. We join the points c3 and c7 by a straight line, because these points are the extremi-ties of the element to which the projecting
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1,4 given In Art. 301 ; and the same method for finding the vertical projection is also used for finding the vertical projection of a cylinder when its axis is parallel to the vertical plane of projection, and oblique to the horizontal plane. Now it often happens that cylindrical bodies, when shown in connection with other bodies, must be shown in an oblique position ; cases of this kind frequently occur in making general plans of machinery; it is therefore necessary to know how to lind the projection, as shown in Fig. 267, of a cylinder standing in an oblique position, and the principles connected therewith. hereafter, for the sake of brevity, all lines which are drawn perpendicular to the ground line, we shall name vertical lines. 268.—Let A B be the ground line, and mn op the vertical projection of the cylinder, which has been found according to the method given in Art. 301. Let the line c„ c2 represent the projection of an element contained in the projecting plane of the axis, pr as the draftsman would say, let, the line c„ c be the centerline of cylinder. Prolong the line CB c towards c2. On this line mark off any point c, at a convenient distance from the line m n, so as to allow the circle m2 n2 02 d2 to clear the line m n. From the point c4 as a center and with a radius equal to m c (one-half of m n) de-scribe the circle m2 n2 e2 d2. Through the center e4 draw the diameter m2 n2 per-pendicular to c6 c2. Divide this diameter into any number of equal parts, say six, and through the points of division f4 h4, 24 /4, draw lines parallel to the center line c6 021 cutting the circumference in the points e2 f2 g2 h2, etc., the upper base in the points f h, etc., and the lower base in the points ffi hfi, etc. At any convenient distance below the ground line A B and parallel to it, draw a line o, n8; through the points Tri,, f, 1, c, j,1 and n, draw vertical lines, cutting the line Os n3 in the points m3, f5, h5, c5, j„, 1, and n3 respectively. From the point f5 as a center, and with a radius equal to A f2, describe two short arcs cutting the vertical line in the points A and e3 ; from the point h; as a center, and with a radius equal to h4 h2, describe two short arcs, cutting the vertical in the points h3 and g„. in a similar manner, make the distance between the must be dotted, because it is hidden. has been revolved, must

f2 having beeen found in the the point A as a center, and with a radius equal to f4 f2 or A e2 (both these lines are 2 equal in length), we describe small arcs, cutting the vertical in the points f3 and es, whiCh are two points in the boundary of the horizontal projection of the upper base. Similar reasoning is • applicable to the method of finding the points hfi, j3, c3, etc., and also to the method of finding the hori-zontal projection of the lower base. We join the points c3 and c, by a straight line, because these points are the extremi-ties of the element to which the projecting plane is tangent. The points d3 and d, are the extremities of another element to which a projecting plane is.tangent, and therefore the points d3 and d7 are joined by a straight line. Both the elements c3 c, and d3 d7 are represented in the vertical projection by the line c c,. Directions. —In the space marked 51 draw the vertical projection of a cylinder having the dimensions given in Fig. 266, and in a position so as to make an angle of 40 de-grees with the ground line as shown ; then find the horizontal projection of the cylin-der. By dividing the diameter m, n2 into a greater number of parts than shown, a greater accuracy in the horizontal projec-tions of the bases will be obtained. REMARKS.-A view of a cylinder as that shown in Fig. 267 or Fig. 268 has not much value as a working drawing, because the true boundaries of the bases cannot be seen, neither can we see the correct length of the cylinder. But if we have to make a plan of a horizontal engine whose cylinder is inclined, or plan of an oscillating engine, then the cylinder must be shown in a posi-tion in which a greater part of its outline is foreshortened, as represented in Fig. 267, and in cases of this kind, the method given in this problem for finding the outline is ap-plicable and extremely useful. In our next problem we will give a practical application of this method. Of course, in general plans, construction lines are only drawn in pen-cil, and when the outline is inked, the con-struction lines are erased. But in these problems the construction lines should all be inked, so that they will be preserved for future reference, as there will often be oc-casion to refer to them ; the time required to ink them in is short, and the exercise beneficial to the beginner.

_Fig. 268
This construction is based on the follow-ing principles : In the vertical projection of the cylinder the lines m 0, f ffi,h,hfi, c c,, etc., simply represent elements (Art. 298) of the cylindrical surface, or in ordinary lan-guage, the lines m o, f A, etc., represent lines drawn on the cylindrical surface and parallel to the axis. These elements are terminated by the bases of the cylinder, hence the points m, f, h, e, etc., are the upper, and o, ffi,hfi,c,, etc., are the lower extremities of the elements shown ; these points also lie in the circumferences of the bases. By establishing a certain number of
points f2, h2, c2, in which the lines repre-senting the paths cut the circumference of the circle. Drawing the line m2 n2 parallel to the line m n, and through the center 04, we represent a diameter which we know to be parallel to the vertical plane of projec-tion, because the diameter m2 n2 is parallel to the trace m n. But the line m 21 is the vertical projection of this diameter, and since it is parallel to the vertical plane of projection, it follows that, in the horizontal plane of projection, this same diameter must be represented by a line parallel to the ground line A B (Art. 241), and therefore

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FEBRUARY 12, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST page 4

AMERICAN MACHINIST. DECEMBER 17, 1887

The Improved Castle Engine.
In our issue of May 21st we published cuts showing sectional and detailed views of this engine, since which time the new form, herewith shown, has been brought out. It has two vertical cylinders, placed side by side, the principle of its action being practically the same as the single cylinder engine, which was fully explained in our former issue spoken of above. In this engine the wrist pins are placed 180° apart, so that, notwithstanding the fact that the engine is single acting, there is yet a constant action upon the crank shaft. The wrist pins are placed at an angle with the crank shaft, and thus a spiral motion is imparted to the piston, by means of which the steam and exhaust ports are opened and closed. In this way the usual valves and eccen-trics and their attendant mechanisms are dispensed with, and the number of parts composing the engine very much reduced. This of course reduces the friction of the engine, since no slide valve is to be moved, and there are no stuffing boxes. The makers state that they so arrange the various parts as to secure the best and most economical distribution of steam, that no wear can take place which affects this distribution, and that the engine cannot be tampered with so as to affect it. Most mechanics are familiar with the fact that only a comparatively very small force is required to impart a rotary motion to a cylindrical body which is already in motion endwise, and it is, in part, owing to this circumstance that in this engine the power expended in steam distribution is re-duced to a very small amount. The reversing mechanism consists simply of a three-way cock by which steam is changed from the steam port to the exhaust port, and vice versa, which, it is claimed, makes it an especially desirable engine to use for hoisting purposes, or for launches or small boats where frequent reversals are necessary, and yet where it is especially desirable to secure simplicity and the least possible necessity for attendance. The exhaust takes place at the end of the downward stroke and carries with it all water of condensation.
11 on compound tables having longi-tudinal and transverse motions. All three tables have self-acting feeds in both directions, the feed taking place at the beginning of the stroke and never during the cut. The feeds may be varied from 0 to T78- of an inch. The circular table may be clamped to the compound table. All the handles are within easy reach of the workman. This is an important feature, as work on the latter demands constant atten-tion from the workman, and he should be able to operate all the feeds without stopping the machine. All the wearing surfaces are broad, and scraped to a perfect bear-ing. All wearing screws and spin-dles are of steel ; countershaft and wrenches included with machine. Following are some of the principal sizes : Large step of cone, 20" by 34" face ; ratio of gearing, 1 to 4 ; circular table, 3 feet in diameter; compound table feeds, 21" longi-tudinally and 274" across ; machine will slot to center of 57 inches ; dis-tance from tool rest to inside of frame, 27 inches ; from circular table to frame, 19 inches ; length of ram, 4' 4". The manufacturers are the Newark Machine Tool Works, East New-ark, N. J.

Pig. al RESISTANCE OF CYLINDERS TO BURSTING.
A new use for cement has been found in England in the making of telegraph poles. The poles consist of an iron shell filled up with the cement or concrete, which in-closes a core of wire netting which is car-ried up the interior. They are claimed to be much lighter than those of cast iron and practically indestructible. The Resistance of Cylinders to Bursting Pressure. BY W. H. BOOTH.
It might be thought almost unnecessary to say anything upon the method of com-puting the bursting strength of a cylindrical pipe, boiler or other metal, but a most re-markable example of ignorance upon the subject has just been placed on record in connection with the recent disastrous ex-plosion of a copper, steam pipe on board the English steamer Elbe. That eminent expert, David Kirkaldy, of world-wide fame and reputation in his own special line of business, has shown, before a committee appointed to inquire into the explosion and to trace its cause, that he is utterly at sea upon this important point, and however re-liable he may be as an authority upon the behavior of iron and other materials under direct stress, he appears to know nothing of how to calculate mixed stresses. Before the committee Mr. Kirkaldy ex-plained his method of calculation, which was to multiply the circumference of the cylinder by the pressure of steam acting within it. The product would be the stress on a strip of metal 1" x t, where t is the thickness of the metal in the pipe. Now, the circumference of a pipe is just about 61 times its semi-diameter, and the really cor-rect way of figuring out the stress is to multiply the semi-diameter of the pipe by the pressure and the product is the stress on a strip of metal 1" x t.
Let us figure out by both methods the case of a 9" pipe, 1" thick, and subject to an internal pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. By Kirkaldy's method we have the circumference =9" x 3.1416 = 284", and 281 x 100 lbs. =2,825 lbs. on a strip of the pipe 1" x 41". Hence 2,825 x 4 =11,300 lbs., as the stress per square inch on the metal of the pipe. Now for the correct method : The semi-diameter is 471", and 41 x 100.,lbs. =450 lbs. on a strip of metal 1" x 1" or 1,800 lbs. per square inch of the material. If the ultimate strength of the material be sup-posed as 18,000 lbs. per square inch, our pipe would have a marginal factor of 10, which is sufficient ; but by the Kirkaldian method of calculation an attempted factor of 10 would really be over 60, and result in frightful extravagance. In fact, Mr. Kirkal-dy's method would do very well by which to dimension pipes, if the working stress were taken fully up to the ultimate strength of the material, for we should still have a factor of 61. There are doubtless others who are under misconception on this very subject, and we will try to make it clear. In our Fig. 1 the cross-section of a pipe may be supposed. If this is burst it may tear longitudinally at any point, and we may suppose, correctly and logically, that it will as probably tear at one of the two places marked as elsewhere. If equally strong at any two places, it would tear at both of them ; but some one part is certain to be the weakest, and there rupture takes place. Suppose now, in Fig. 2, that a flat central wall is built in the pipe. We may still suppose fracture would occur at the point marked. Now, in each of these semi-cylinders the pressure is everywhere, of course, normal to the surface ; for if not, motion of the contained steam would take place and it is this fact that leads the circumferential men into their error ; for they say that the half circumference is more than 50 per cent. longer than the diameter, and thus carries more pressure. They forget that if the pipe ruptures at, say a, the arrows repre-senting the steam pressure are not all square, or nearly square, to the line of rupture; arrow b, for example, having made no effort in making a tear at a, though fully effective limn section r_ fnr •
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The latest candidate for favor in the steam engine line is a four-cylinder affair that exhausts back into the boiler, or is said to do so. The saving is to be fifty per cent. of floor space, and seventy-five per cent. of fuel. There are " no valves, eccentrics, steam-chests, cut-offs link motions, etc., to get out of order," and it has various other advantages, but as they do not save more than a paltry twenty-five to thirty per cent. of anything they are hardly worth enumerat-ing. The above claims look like absurdities, but as a drawing has been exhibited to the chamber of commerce in one city, and is to be exhibited on the New York Stock Ex-change, and a company has been formed with a capital of $500,000, we are forced to believe that—the gullible had better look out for their money !—The Locomotive.

THIRTEEN—INCH SLOTTING MACHINE.
general mechanical information of an ap-plicant might be the best method of pro-viding engineers for such positions. But it is somewhat different as regards locomo-tive engineers. If your engine breaks whether the man knew how to run a loco-motive or not. It would merely show that he was glib enough to answer the questions propounded, but as a locomotive engineer in actual service, he might prove a dismal down during the trip the road does not shut failure, and that, while he had sufficient down on that account. Another engine mechanical information to answer all the usually is quickly provided to take the questions, still there were a thousand and place of the disabled one, and continue the one points about the business that he could trip, and usually the cost for repairs to the not answer, unless he obtained his informa-disabled one is not high. tion in actual service on the deck plate of a Railroad mechanical officers, as a rule, do locomotive. not bestow as much attention on rigid Any law rating the mechanical knowl-mechanical examinations to discover how edge of locomotive engineers is, from the much technical knowledge is possessed by nature of their occupation, unnecessary, the candidate as upon some other qualifica- and could not be otherwise than pernicious, tions necessary in a locomotive runner, and both in its methods of application and in its such questions as are asked by many able effects—a snare lulling the public into a officials tend most to discover the good false security. sense, judgment, etc., of the man. On well regulated roads to-day boilers are It is often taken for granted that if a man examined and overhauled periodically, and has fired four or five years for some of the watched carefully. Certain methods Of most successful engineers on the road, that tests are applied to them, certain steam he will not need much instruction in caring pressure only is permitted, and railroad technicalities and explain where the back-bone of all our definite knowl-edge begins, it would tend consider-ably to a better understanding be-tween mathematicians and practical men. Each can be of great service to the other. In the case of Prof. Sweet's prob-lem, I think Mr. Begtrup would get his roller proportioned sooner than Mr. Coffin would. A good formula, with sound experiment to clothe it, is invaluable. The most profitable thing to be done in this particular case, it seems to me, is to adopt some formula, and when experi-ment has shown that it gives cor-rect results, retain it for use, If it gives too high or too low results, introduce some simple factor that will bring the formula into correct shape. In conclusion, I would like to propose the following as a Possible formula. It gives somewhat higher results than either Mr. Noble's or Mr. Begtrup's. It is substantially Trautwine's formula, with constants determined by experiment. The formula is : d = 3v 1 83 b D c where 1= load, s = span in feet, b = breadth in inches, d = depth in inches, D = deflection in inches, and c=a constant, in this case .000010. This formula gives .1474" as the thickness of the rings.

J. TORREY. Exhaust Heating. Editor American Machinist : The recent communications in your col-umns on the subject of exhaust heating, prompt me to send you the enclosed sketch (page 6) of the plan of piping adopted at the works of the Rand Drill Co. While the plan has been entirely satisfactory in all respects, the particular merit clamed is the practical elimination of back pressure. This is accomplished by so arranging the branch pipes which supply the coils with steam that the combined area of all the pipes of all the coils is available as exhaust pipe area ; that is, the steam is not carried through
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 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg-5 DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 5

DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACITINIST

THIRTEEN INCH SLOTTING MACHINE.
The frame of this machine is wide and of ample proportions to secure stability and to prevent spring. The ram is driven by a four-speed cone and spur gearing. The Whitworth quick return gives a rapid up stroke and a slow cutting speed to the ram. The stroke may be varied from 0 to 13 inches, the change being quickly made by the screw on the crank disk, and the position of the ram with regard to the work may be quickly changed also by means of the rod shown on the front of the ram. The counter-balance takes up the lost motion in the pin. The work is fastened to a circular table, which is driven by a worm wheel and gear and which is carried on compound tables having longi-tudinal and transverse motions. All three tables have self-acting feeds in both directions, the feed taking place at the beginning of the stroke and never during the cut. The feeds may be varied from 0 to T7-6- of an inch. The circular table may be clamped to the compound table. All the handles are within easy reach of the workman. This is an important feature, as work on the latter demands constant atten-

general mechanical information of an ap-plicant might be the best method of pro-viding engineers for such positions. But it is somewhat different as regards locomo-tive engineers. If your engine breaks whether the man knew how to run a loco-motive or not. It would merely show that he was glib enough to answer the question
s propounded, but as a locomotive engineer in actual service, he might prove a dismal down during the trip the road does not shut failure, and that, while he had sufficient down on that account. Another engine mechanical information to answer all the usually is quickly provided to take the questions, still there were a thousand and place of the disabled one, and continue the one points about the business that he could trip, and usually the cost for repairs to the not answer, unless he obtained his informa-disabled one is not high. tion in actual service on the deck plate of a Railroad mechanical officers, as a rule, do locomotive. not bestow as much attention on rigid Any law rating the mechanical knowl-mechanical examinations to discover how edge of locomotive engineers is, from the much technical knowledge is possessed by nature of their occupation, unnecessary, the candidate as upon some other qualifica- and could not be otherwise than pernicious, tions necessary in a locomotive runner, and both in its methods of application and in its such questions as are asked by many able effects—a snare lulling the public into a officials tend most to discover the good false security. sense, judgment, etc., of the man. On well regulated roads to-day boilers are It is often taken for granted that if a man examined and overhauled periodically, and has fired four or five years for some of the watched carefully. Certain methods Of most successful engineers on the road, that tests are applied to them, certain steam he will not need much instruction in caring pressure only is permitted, and railroad

The stress on material 9 x 100 = 2 x4 —1,800. Suppose the material to be copper of 28,-000 pounds tensile strength. Then (28,000 4-1, 800) x 100 =1,555 pounds pressure ; so that our pipe has a nominal factor of safety of 151, and would be safe if made of solid drawn copper only s inch thick ; when its safety margin would still be 71. The unfortunate blunder made and persisted in by so great a man as Kirkaldy proves that a man famous on certain lines of work should enter cautiously on fields out-side his own peculiar province. Mr. Kirkaldy is doubtless unequaled in conduct-ing tests, but clearly not ready in applying his results to machinery, and his error in this in no way detracts from his record and ability in the line of work wherein he is a specialist.

LETTERS FROM PRACTICAL MEN.
Examination of Locomotive Engineers Editor American Machinist : Various articles have appeared of late in the AMERICAN MACHINIST relating to ex-aminations of engineers' license laws, and methods of promotion. Now, as regards examinations, any reliable engineer could not object to that where necessary, and em-ployers of engineers would be serving their own interests by having such examinations made in many instances. Examinations as to mechanical knowl-edge and ability to take charge of a steam engine is more necessary in some cases than in others. Take, for instance, a marine engineer, or one in charge of the steam plant in a large mill or manufacturing establishment. Frequently the owner has not the necessary mechanical knowledge to judge of the fitness of an applicant, and frequently the duties are of a purely me-chanical nature, where any mishap to the machinery is fraught with serious danger, delay, and large expense ; also loss of time to owners and workmen. In such cases license law requiring an examination of the

for an engine, and if he has sufficient knowl-edge of the methods of conducting railroad traffic, and comes up to certain other re-quirements in other respects, he is pro-moted. A man who has fired a locomotive four or five years (and with few exceptions no one should be promoted who has not served an apprenticeship at the shovel of four years), and has given satisfaction dur-ing that period by honest, faithful service, has surely learned the duties of a locomo-tive engineer and the proper care of a locomotive if he is ambitious and intelli gent. Mechanical officers and others in charge over engineers and firemen on railroads, are qualified in most cases to intelligently judge of the ability of those under their super-vision, and if those who are associated with the men continually, sometimes fail in their selections, what could be expected of a license law in supplying reliable engineers for them ? A certificate would not make a reliable man out of a drunkard, nor a care-ful one out of a reckless one; neither would it be a guarantee that a man could get along on time, or keep out of trouble on the trips ; neither would such license tell

companies have men employed as road foremen of engines. And besides, if an engineer is in doubt as regards any point, he has only to ask, and he will find engi-neers of extended experience who can give him reliable and practical information. The old " chestnut " about " know-all " engineers is about worn out ; for if a man starts out to run a locomotive with such ideas, it will not be long before he gets disabused of such notions, or until he will be in need of a job. J. J. CLAIR. Pittsburgh, Pa.

The Spring Roller Problem. Editor American Machinist :

Prof. Sweet's problem is a very interesting and profitable one. There are two distinct classes of mechanics and designers : one class work from mathematics and the other from practical, experience. There is a dan-gerous extreme in both directions. Most works on mechanics and strength of materi-als are practically useless to one who is not well up in the applications of the calculus. This fact leads to a general prejudice against results obtained by its use. On the other hand, for the average mechanic life is too short to follow the method laid out by Mr. Coffin. A man of his skill and experience in handling steel might do it rapidly and well, but the ordinary machinist is rarely con-fronted with problems on strength of materials, and, consequently, is at a loss when such a problem arises. Every well-educated machinist ought to know something of the practical data on which our knowl-edge of steel and iron rests. If some one could write a book in simple language, free from mathematical technicalities and explain where the back-bone of all our definite knowl-edge begins, it would tend consider-ably to a better understanding be-t ween mathematicians and practical men. Each can be of great service to the other. In the case of Prof. Sweet's prob-lem, I think Mr. Begtrup would get his roller proportioned sooner than Mr. Coffin would. A good formula, with sound experiment to clothe it, is invaluable. The most profitable *************************************************************************

on compound tables having longi-tudinal and transverse motions. All three tables have self-acting feeds in both directions, the feed taking place at the beginning of the stroke and never during the cut. The feeds may be varied from 0 to T78- of an inch. The circular table may be clamped to the compound table. All the handles are within easy reach of the workman. This is an important feature, as work on the latter demands constant atten-tion from the workman, and he should be able to operate all the feeds without stopping the machine. All the wearing surfaces are broad, and scraped to a perfect bear-ing. All wearing screws and spin-dles are of steel ; countershaft and wrenches included with machine. Following are some of the principal sizes : Large step of cone, 20" by 34" face ; ratio of gearing, 1 to 4 ; circular table, 3 feet in diameter; compound table feeds, 21" longi-tudinally and 274" across ; machine will slot to center of 57 inches ; dis-tance from tool rest to inside of frame, 27 inches ; from circular table to frame, 19 inches ; length of ram, 4' 4". The manufacturers are the Newark Machine Tool Works, East New-ark, N. J.

The latest candidate for favor in the steam engine line is a four-cylinder affair that exhausts back into the boiler, or is said to do so. The saving is to be fifty per cent. of floor space, and seventy-five per cent. of fuel. There are " no valves, eccentrics, steam-chests, cut-offs link motions, etc., to get out of order," and it has various other advantages, but as they do not save more than a paltry twenty-five to thirty per cent. of anything they are hardly worth enumerat-ing. The above claims look like absurdities, but as a drawing has been exhibited to the chamber of commerce in one city, and is to be exhibited on the New York Stock Ex-change, and a company has been formed with a capital of $500,000, we are forced to believe that—the gullible had better look out for their money

!—The Locomotive.

technicalities and explain where the back-bone of all our definite knowl-edge begins, it would tend consider-ably to a better understanding be-tween mathematicians and practical men. Each can be of great service to the other. In the case of Prof. Sweet's prob-lem, I think Mr. Begtrup would get his roller proportioned sooner than Mr. Coffin would. A good formula, with sound experiment to clothe it, is invaluable. The most profitable thing to be done in this particular case, it seems to me, is to adopt some formula, and when experi-ment has shown that it gives cor-rect results, retain it for use, If it gives too high or too low results, introduce some simple factor that will bring the formula into correct shape. In conclusion, I would like to propose the following as a Possible formula. It gives somewhat higher results than either Mr. Noble's or Mr. Begtrup's. It is substantially Trautwine's

formula, with constants determined by experiment. The formula is : d = 3v 1 83 b D c where 1= load, s = span in feet, b = breadth in inches, d = depth in inches, D = deflection in inches, and c=a constant, in this case .000010. This formula gives .1474" as the thickness of the rings.

J. TORREY.
Exhaust Heating. Editor American Machinist : The recent communications in your col-umns on the subject of exhaust heating, prompt me to send you the enclosed sketch (page 6) of the plan of piping adopted at the works of the Rand Drill Co. While the plan has been entirely satisfactory in all respects, the particular merit clamed is the practical elimination of back pressure. This is accomplished by so arranging the branch pipes which supply the coils with steam that the combined area of all the pipes of all the coils is available as exhaust pipe area ; that is, the steam is not carried through
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AMERICAN MACHINIST DECEMBER 17, 1887 pg 6


-1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST page 6

American-Machinist-Feb-12-1887-pg-6-bot-Heat-Value-of-Coals-Letters-Core-Box-Making-A-Small-Cupola-Quick-Setting-of-an-Engine-Quick-Mechanical-Work

AMERICAN MACHINIST DECEMBER 17, 1887
several coils in succession, but each coil receives and exhausts its own independent supply of • steam. With this plan, each added coil adds to the exhaust area and to the freedom of exhaust, and it follows, somewhat paradoxically, that the more coils there are to heat, the better the results. In many cases this principle of combining the areas is so far lost sight of that I have even seen return bend coils used with exhaust steam, in which the exhaust area for each coil is that of a single pipe only, and the resistance of perhaps a dozen return bends is introduced, entirely unnecessarily. Of course, only manifold coils should be used, as with them the exhaust area for each coil is the sum of the areas of all the pipes in the coil. Of course the arrangement of the main pipes must be adapted to each particu-lar case, but the principle is of general application. The sketch shows the general arrangement in our case. Two crosses are introduced into the main exhaust pipe, to which are secured the pipes which lead to the coils. In two cases, as shown, these pipes again divide by a tee—the principle remaining, however, that each coil shall furnish an independent exhaust passage. In the plan shown, the total exhaust area through the coils is over six times the area of the direct exhaust pipe ; and this is ob-tained without any extravagance in the size of pipe used (the coils being composed of le" pipe), but simply through the virtue of the arrangement described. With this pro-portion, it is easy to see why the back pressure should be inappreciable. When taking the only indicator cards that I have so far taken, a sixty pound indicator spring was the only one at hand. With this, the back pressure due to the coils could not be detected ; there was no perceptible differ-ence between the cards taken when exhaust-ing free and when exhausting through the coils. With a lighter spring, the difference might have been noticeable, but it could not be very serious when its existence could not be detected with the sixty pound spring. An additional advantage of the arrange-ment is that, the coils being independent of one another, a portion of them can be closed off to suit various states of the weather, thereby obviating that overheated condition that usually obtains with steam heat in moderate weather. With such an amount of exhaust area as stated above, some of it

and large buildings; but it had not been demonstrated that any of these batteries were suited for economical use in lighting the principal rooms in more modest dwell-ings. Cheapness and efficiency were re-quired. There were merits in all the sys-tems. and a fusion of interests might be de-sirable, out of which should come something that would meet the requirements of the general public.

The Eighth Annual !Meeting of the Amery lean Society of Mechanical Engineers.
The first session of the eighth annual meeting of the American Society of Mechan-ical Engineers began on Monday evening, November 28th, at the Continental Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. President George H. Babcock read the annual address, the sub-ject being " The Engineer: His Commission and Achievements," The following notes are a few abstracts. The eighth annual meeting of the society opens under auspicious circumstances. This society, which less than eight years ago was small and weak as a child just come into life, has leaped into vigorous manhood in so short a space of time that it seems al-most to have sprung full fledged from the brains of its founders, even as the fabled Athena from the bead of Zeuss ; and possibly there is more in this com-parison than at first sight appears. This society, but lately only a conception in the brains of a few engineers, has now attained a membership of over eight hundred, among whom are more mechanical engineers than the whole world could have mustered a hundred years ago. This is a

co besides gems of untold value. From this the mechanical engineer has constructed wondrous constructions, and for them dis-covered various uses, all of which have contributed to the elevation and happiness of the race. See what the engineer has wrought with the one metal, iron. It enters in nearly every construction, from that of a nail, fastening the wooden box, to the almost living locomotive, rushing with rapid speed of the storm-wind along the iron ways with which the engineer has imprisoned the earth as in a net. From it he constructs the larger part of the machines with which he supplants and surpasses manual labor. He draws it into wire and stretches it around the globe, that the ends of the earth may be brought together, and with the same wire he builds a marriage tie between cities, which rushing waters strive in vain to separate. With it makes cooking utensils, steam boilers, and, according to the latest reports, there are afloat 10,000 steamships, of which 9,000 are built of iron and steel ; 350,000 miles of railroad, and nearly one-half of this amount in the United States. With the minerals the engineer has also supplied many needs and luxuries of man. There is coal, for example ; the 400,000,000 tons in round numbers annually mined, give life, warmth and power. The manner of using petroleum has also kept up with the march of progress. The engineer has overcome the obstacles of the earth, and opened path-ways of commerce. Electricity has also accomplished wonders. That discoveries will be still more wonderful in the future are evidenced by the fact that of fifty

some of the members thought that cylinders did wear more at the center was, that they measured too close to the end. If they had measured the diameter a few inches away from the end they might possibly have dis-covered that the cylinders had worn more at the ends than in the center. The second session was held on Tuesday morning, Nov. 29, at the same place. Sev-eral reports were read. Among these was One from Treasurer Wm. H. Wiley, showing that the year's receipts amounted to $10,-586.20, and the expenses $10,413.03. A report from the committee having charge of the ballots announced that the following officers had been elected for the ensuing year : President, Horace See, of Philadel-phia ; vice-presidents, W. S. G. Baker, Bal-timore, Md.; Henry C. Morris, of Philadel-phia, and C. J. H. Woodbury, Boston, Mass.; treasurer, William H. Wiley, of New York ; managers, Stephen W. Baldwin, New York; Frederick Grinnell, Providence, R. I., and Morris Sellers, Chicago, 111. It was also announced by F. R. Hutton, that the next meeting of the Mechanical Engineers would take place at Nashville, Tenn. Following are abstracts of a few of the papers presented :

INTERNAL FRICTION OF NON-CONDENSING EN-GINES.
Prof. R. H. Thurston presented a paper with the above title, in which were tabu-lated a number of experiments. The paper was in a sense a continuation of the subject as previously presented to the society by the author. Following are the conclusions arrived at : 1. The conclusion derived by study of the above is evidently that the internal friction of an engine of this class, operated under the conditions here described, with a con-stant speed secured by the action of a throt-tling governor, is sensibly constant for all loads, and that the variations occurring at the points of connection in the train trans-mitting the work of the engine, when the power varies, form too small a proportion of the total friction to have important or sen-sible effect on the total, or to be observed in presence of other usual causes of irregular-ity. 2. The conclusion reached by a compari-son of the results of this investigation with those which have preceded is as obviously that the internal friction of this class of engine (the non-condensing) is sensibly in-dependent of the magnitude of the load and

A Small Cupola.
Editor American Machinist : Being interested in the accounts of small cupolas, published in your paper, we con-cluded to try one. Six months or more ago we built one 19" inside diameter, and have been running it steadily ever since. Average work is 1 lb. coal to 10 of iron. The largest single piece poured was 1,470 lbs. The largest total of clean castings from one heat, 4,750 lbs. Have just poured a bed plate 1,300 lbs. Iron was melted in about 1 hour's. All scrap iron used. Fuel, hard coal, grate size. Fan 24" diameter ; 1,800 revolutions. C. T. A Presentation oil Retirement.

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ence between the cards taken when exhaust-ing free and when exhausting through the coils. With a lighter spring, the difference might have been noticeable, but it could not be very serious when its existence could not be detected with the sixty pound spring. An additional advantage of the arrange-ment is that, the coils being independent of one another, a portion of them can be closed off to suit various states of the weather, thereby obviating that overheated condition that usually obtains with steam heat in moderate weather. With such an amount of exhaust area as stated above, some of it can be spared without serious harm. When laying out this pipe, I had some fears that the steam might select the coil which should offer the most direct passage, and so leave the others literally "in the cold." To provide for this, a valve was placed in the outlet of each coil, with the intention of partially closing the one belong-ing to the favored coil, and so equalizing the resistance and dividing the steam. No such tendency developed itself, however, and these valves have never been used. In many cases the engine furnishes much more steam than is needed for heating, and in such cases it is usual to place a back pressure valve in the exhaust pipe, loaded to, say, two pounds. My plan in such a case would be, to use a gate valve instead of the back pressure valve, and partially close it until the steam should appear at the coil outlets, the surplus steam escaping by the usual way. It is my belief that any ordinary shop can be heated with one-half pound extra back pressure, just as well as with more. An excellent rule for the inclination of the pipes, is to allow a fall of one-half inch for each ten feet run. It goes without saying that gate valves only should be used in a system of pipes for exhaust steam.

FREDERIC A. HALSEY.
Primary Batteries for Illuminating Pur-poses. At a recent meeting of the Society of Engineers, at Westminster, England, Perry F. Nursey read a long paper on this subject. The author took the ground that there was abundant room for electric lighting by pri-mary batteries in houses, owing to the costli-ness of steam-driven dynamos. He then described several primary batteries. some of which had proved successful in mansions

EXHAUST HEATING.
cause of congratulation, but it is only one of the reasons why we meet here to-night un-der such auspicious circumstances. Another is, that the character of the work done by the society is improving year by year, while its transactions are being sought for by sim-ilar societies in different parts of the world. As mechanical engineers, we may perhaps be pardoned if we inquire what relation we bear to what has been done, and what re-mains to be done, in the line of the world's progress. As very truthfully said at a preliminary meeting for the organization of this society, by one we delight to honor, A. L. Holley, the profession of the mechanical engineer underlies all forms of engineering, as well as architecture, manufactures and commerce, while science is even dependent upon it for the means of progress. The civil engineer may plan railroads with their, bridges, tunnels, cuttings and embankments, or lay out cities and water-ways, but he cannot execute nor equip them without the mechanical engineer. Neither can the mining, electrical, marine or hydraulic engineer get along without calling in the assistance of his brother who deals mainly with dynamics. But the mechanical engineer's profession is not only the most important, it is also the oldest art or profession on the face of the earth, excepting agricultural, if the latter we may call a profession. Already man has dug deep and made grand discoveries of hidden treasures, such as iron, copper, gold, and about fifty other metals, coal, salt, etc., and a hundred other minerals,

metals known, but eighteen are at present, and twelve of these but recently, used in the mechanic arts. Outside of that, how-ever, there are immense fields for mechanic-al conquests. Waste is going on all around us in the great forces of nature. We are called upon to devise methods to store up the heat of the sun. If we can in the future utilize heat as fully in thermo-electric power as now in ordinary boilers, and in addition, when the radial heat of the sun can be manufactured into electrical force we will have reached The time when ma-chinery will run at very little or no cost , outside of the interest, wear and tear. The society must be a factor in such results. Its every meaning is to mingle experiences, to discuss causes and to extend research. The mission of the mechanical engineer is to subjugate all natural forces and elements. At the conclusion of the president's ad-dress, Prof. John E. Sweet read a paper (published in full in our last week's issue) on "A New Principle in Steam Piston Pack-ing " The discussion which followed was very brief, and although no one seemed to disagree with the author, it seemed that the members were not ready to pass opinions upon the packing until more experience with it had been obtained. In connection with this subject, some of the members asked for the reason of steam cylinders wearing more in the center than at the ends. President George H. Babcock closed the discussion by saying that he found many cylinders had worn more at the ends than at the center, and the probable reason why

the conditions here described, with a con-stant speed secured by the action of a throt-tling governor, is sensibly constant for all loads, and that the variations occurring at the points of connection in the train trans-mitting the work of the engine, when the power varies, form too small a proportion of the total friction to have important or sen-sible effect on the total, or to be observed in presence of other usual causes of irregular-ity. 2. The conclusion reached by a compari-son of the results of this investigation with those which have preceded is as obviously that the internal friction of this class of engine (the non-condensing) is sensibly in-dependent of the magnitude of the load and of the power developed; but that it is vari-able with speed and with efficiency of lubri-cation in a very observable degree. 3. In the engine here used, the total fric-tion was considerably less than in that em-ployed in the investigation last reported, probably in consequence of its having been longer in service, and its bearing having thus come to a better condition. We may thus readily find here confirmation of a fact well known to engineers of experience, that the operation of a well-cared-for engine will continuously, and for a long time, appre-ciably reduce the internal friction of the machine.

CENTRIFITGAL PUMPS AND THEIR EFFICIENCIES.
In this paper, presented by Wm. 0. Webber, the results of several tests are de-tailed for reference, an efficiency of from 50 to 64 per cent. having been obtained. Then the author says : Mr. Parsons deduces some very valuable facts in relation to centrifugal pumps, which may be briefly stated as follows : 1. There are two totally different con-ditions in which a centrifugal pump may be situated while it is rotating. One, in which it is revolving just fast enough to raise the water up to the discharge pipe, and no fur-ther ; and another in -which it is revolving slightly faster, and discharging water out of this pipe. In the first case there is only centrifugal force, which is produced by the water in the fan rotating, that maintains the column of water in the discharge pipe. In the second case this force is still pro-duced, but in addition to it another, which may be called the force of impact, or in other words, the force with which the blades of the fan impinge against the water dis-charged by the pump. 2. That a fan when rotating will support a column of water, the velocity due to whose height is equal to the tangential velocity of the circumference of the fan. 3. That the internal angles of the blades vary both with the lift and discharge with which the pump is intended to work. 4. That the pump should be so propor-tioned in its passages as to have a gradually
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DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 7 DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 7

DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST
increasing velocity in the water until it ar-rives at the circumference of the disk or fan, and then to have a gradually decreasing velocity until it issues from the discharge pipe. This condition is obtained by having a conical or tapering suction pipe, a spiral casing surrounding the fan, a proper amount of " whirlpool " space in which to eliminate the " eddies " produced by the ends of the blades of fans, and a taperinc, or coniOal discharge pipe. And lastly, that the tangential velocity of the fluid being pumped, on leaving the fan or disk, should not be more than from 24 to 30 feet per second.

THE USE OF KEROSENE OIL IN STEAM BOILERS.
In this paper the author, L. F. Lyne, gives his experience in the use of kerosene oil in steam boilers at the Jersey City Electric Light Company's station. There was trouble with scale in these boilers, and after some experi-mental work the following plan was fol-lowed : We then adopted a rule of one quart of kerosene oil per day for each of the 100 horse-power boilers, and three pints for the 155 horse-power boiler. The water is blown down two gauges every week and the entire contents every month. Water is never used to wash them out, nor is a scraper necessary ; for the mud all goes out with the water. An examination is made of the in-terior and we put them to work again. This is a wonderful relief to us, for the reason that no scale forms in any of our boilers, and the corrosive action mentioned as having existed at first, has entirely ceased. Another thing worthy of special notice is, that it was impossible to keep a glass -water tube in use more than three months at a time, and oftentimes they would break within two months. Before using kerosene these tubes would become badly grooved and eaten away at the upper ends, so that they would break. Our engineer came very near losing his eyesight through the break-ing of one of these glasses, and his face was badly disfigured by being cut with the broken glass. Now these tubes do not show any such action, and they have been in use more than a year. I admit that rubber packing and kerosene oil do not agree, so to guard against any trouble from that source, I had new nuts one and one half inches deep placed at the ends of the glass tubes, and used asbestos wicking dipped in boiled oil, and then squeezed dry, for packing They do not leak, and these joints are permanent. In conclusion, 1 desire to say that crude petroleum has, to my certain knowl-edge, been used in steam boilers during the past eleven years and upwards, where, with judicious application, it has been success-ful in removing and preventing scale. removing
fectly, the percentage of reduction of area in the last test pieces broken being much higher than in those broken on the same day that the bar was rolled. Here was evidently something worth invest-igating. Knowing the. very misleading conclusions which can be obtained by rea-soning from an insufficient number of ex-periments, where the conditions are as com-plicated and variable as in the making of a steel bar, it seemed best to get as large an accumulation of data as possible together, and then endeavor to read their story and deduce a theory which would explain what they told. Accordingly, at such times as it has been possible during the past two years, experiments have been carried on by testing bars of steel immediately after rolling, and again after several days have elapsed, and the data so accumulated are now thought to be sufficient to arrange and discuss intel-ligently. As a result of a large number of experi-ments the author concludes : To sum up : The tests made upon the three-quarter inch round bars seem to prove quite conclusively that after rolling, steel increases in percentage of reduction of area, in percentage of elongation and in ultimate strength, and decreases in elastic limit. I have endeavored to account for these changes by supposing that the rough me-chanical treatment of the metal by the rolls has temporarily weakened the hold of its
All applications from the United States for space must be made before January 15, and all entries must be made by April 15, and must be in place by April 25.
"Star" Screw Cutting Engine Lathe.
The illustration on this page shows a new foot lathe, made by the Seneca Falls Manu-facturing Co., of Seneca Falls, N. Y. It swings 9 inches over the bed, 51 inches over the carriage, and takes 25 inches be-tween centers. It is back geared and has an automatic cross feed. The spindle is of steel, 11 inches in diameter, and has a a in. hole through it, the boxes being adjustable for wear, and lined with anti-friction metal. The carriage is substantially gibbed to the rest, and is so made as to admit of the use of milling or other fixtures, if desired. A friction feed is provided for turning, which is reversible by the movement of a lever. It will cut screws, either right or left hand, from 3 to 64 per inch, without compound-ing, and can be compounded for other pitches. All gears are cut from solid metal by improved automatic machinery and will run smoothly.
is left exposed to the action of the atmo sphere. Houses so constructed are very sanitary, and the necessary ventilating and heating arrangements can readily be carried out.—Industries.
The Practical Mechanics' Institute of Poughkeepsie.
Not long since, we referred to the forma-tion of an educational association of me-chanics and engineers at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Our correspondent, F. H. Treacy, of that place, writes us in reference to this association : " The Practical Mechanics' Institute," re-cently started in this city, is meeting with good success. The membership is increas-ing, and a good, healthy interest is taken by the members at the meetings each week. We are now installed in our own quarters. which, although rather plain and unpreten-tious, answer very well until the state of our finances permit something better. At pres-ent our meetings are devoted to the dis-cussion of some subject which, has been de-cided upon at a previous • meeting ; this arrangement gives each one time to prepare himself. Any member may ask for in-formation on any question relating to the different trades embraced by the Institute, during the time set apart for such ques-tions. The idea is this : Suppose one of the members has had trouble with a job ; be can at the next meeting state his case and re-ceive the opinions and ideas of the other members who are familiar with the branch he is engaged in. The society admits to membership, engineers, marine and steam; machinists, moulders, pattern makers, and millwrights. The cost of membership has been made as low as possible, in order to give those who are serving an apprentice-ship at any of the above trades a chance to join without seriously feeling it. Wanted—Information About Mutual Ben-efit Associations. We give place to the following letter, in i hopes that it may bring information beyond that which we are able to give. We shall be glad to hear of the workings of mutual benefit societies, unconnected with other as-sociations : Publishers American, Machinist, New York City : GENTLEMEN-Our workmen are moving in the matter of establishing a mutual benefit society amongst themselves, and we are de-sirous of giving them all the assistance we can. To this end, we will appreciate it if you will give us any suggestions that may occur to you in this connection, or send us plans of any such association of which you may be cognizant.
LW V V PJGG. 111 UMC more than a year. I admit that rubber packing and kerosene oil do not agree, so to guard against any trouble from that source, I had new nuts one and one half inches deep placed at the ends of the glass tubes, and used asbestos wicking dipped in boiled oil, and then squeezed dry, for packing They do not leak, and these joints are permanent. * * * In conclusion, 1 desire to say that crude petroleum has, to my certain knowl-edge, been used in steam boilers during the past eleven years and upwards. where, with judicious application, it has been success-ful in removing and preventing scale. While this is admitted, I must also acknowl-edge that great damage to boilers has re-sulted by not observing the necessary pre-cautions in the quantity put into the boiler each time. I will mention but one instance, which is that of a tug-boat now running in New York harbor. The boiler was badly scaled, and some one advised the engineer to use crude petroleum ; so he "gave the boar a good dose," as he said. In a few days the tubes began to leak, and the crown-sheet bagged down. The boat was then laid up, when it was found that the heavy oil had mixed with the mud and had formed a paste on the crown-sheet. This paste kept the water from reaching the plates, hence the result stated above. This paste was so dense that water from a hose would not dislodge it; and I do not hesitate to say that, had kerosene oil been used in this in-stance, instead of crude petroleum, the boiler would not have been injured. The reason is that there is not sufficient body in kerosene oil to form a paste. The chief ob-jection to crude petroleum is that it is too heavy, while in kerosene oil there is no sub-stance which will stick fast to the interior of a boiler. * ** Our boilers do not lift their water, they are free from scale, and our fuel bill is thereby greatly reduced. NOTES ON RESULTS OBTAINED FROM STEEL TESTED SHORTLY AFTER ROLLING. This paper, presented by Edgar C.. Felton, deals with the following observation : Two years or more ago, some interesting facts were noticed in connection with cer-tain tests then being made by the Pennsyl-. vania Steel Company on structural steels for a well known bridge across the Ohio River. These facts were as follows : The inspector employed by the bridge company for whom the work was being done, being in a great hurry to leave our works, had tested several heats on the same day that the test bars had been rolled, and had rejected each heat so tested ; the cause of rejection in each case being a low percentage of reduction of area. Several days later, pieces cut from the same bars were tested and found to fill the re-quirements of the same specifications per- 44111 11 .4111t-44 STAR" SCREW CUTTING ENGINE LATHE. molecules upon each other, and that this hold is regained when the metal is allowed to rest. STANDARD SECTION LINING. This subject was presented by Frank Van Vleck. The argument of the author was for standard practice in respect to section lining, to represent various kinds of mate-rial. The subject was presented, with il-lustrations, in our issue of April 9, 1887. The Brussels International Convention and Exhibition. ----- This exhibition, which opens May 3 1888, is for a twofold purpose. We quote from the rules and by-laws sent us by Arm-strong, Knauer & Co., 822 Broadway, New York, who are the agents in this country, as follows : " The object of the great interna-tional competition of sciences and industry is : First, the organization of a competition between the industrial products of all coun-tries, with prizes allotted to those who have discovered, after following a complete given formula, the greatest usefulness of matter as to science and economy. Second, the or-ganization of a universal international ex-hibition, to which are admitted all products of commerce, industry, agriculture and hor-ticulture, as in preceding exhibitions." The foot power is of entirely new design The treadles work independently of each other, are movable lengthwise, each being connected at opposite ends of the driving-wheel shaft in such a manner as to produce a strong, positive, and continuous motion, and may be operated with both feet, sitting, or with one foot, standing, as desired. A countershaft is furnished, in place of the foot-power motion, if desired. In a lengthy paper, read by Capt. Rogers Birni, Jr., before the Military Service Insti-tution at Governor's Island, the 'author, after a historical review of gun making in this country, concluded that guns made from steel castings were but little better than those of cast-iron, and that the only material fit for use for large guns was forged steel. •411110. A new system of building houses of steel plates is being introduced by M. Danly, manager of the Societe des Forges de Chat-eleneau. It has been found that corrugated sheets, only a millimeter ( 0394") in thick-ness, are sufficiently strong for building houses several stories high, and the material used allows of architectural ornamentation. The plates used are of the finest quality, and as they are galvanized after they have bten cut to the sizes and shapes required, no portion be glad to hear of the workings of mutual benefit societies, unconnected with other as-sociations : Publishers American Machinist, New York City : GENTLEMEN-Our workmen are moving in the matter of establishing a mutual benefit society amongst themselves, and we are de-sirous of giving them all the assistance we can. To this end, we will appreciate it if you will give us any suggestions that may occur to you in this connection, or send us plans of any such association of which you may be cognizant. Yours very truly, ATLAS ENGINE WORKS. An example of the rage to start new com-panies upon a small basis of success is seen in the instance of the investment in the Go-beic iron range, in Michigan. Money flowed like water into the companies or-ganized to operate here, and in less than a year hundreds of thousands of dollars of the stock could be bought for anything offered. *4110* Under the heading, " Co operation be-tween Railroads and the Navy," the Spring-field Union says : " As soon as we get over the rush, we are going to invent a big navy gun that will throw deadly car stoves into the enemy's vessels. Two grand results will be accomplished. The enemy will be annihilated in a particularly melancholy manner, and we shall get rid of the car stoves." Wherever our manufacturers have ob-tained and held foreign trade, they have done it by virtue of furnishing the articles wanted, without reference to their own prejudices in the matter ; sometimes they have failed because they have assumed to know the wants of their customers better than the customers themselves. It has taken British manufacturers years to learn that buyers had rights in the way of decid-ing what they should buy, and it has cost them a good deal of trade, even in British provinces. As American manufacture rs reach out after a foreign outlet for their goods, they should profit by the mistakes of others. Because certain lines of goods are in demand here there is no evidence that they will satis-fy the demand in some other locality. And this is especially true of machinery. Noth-ing but an intimate knowledge of a people and their surroundings will enable a manu-facturer to offer them what they want,


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AMER,ICAN MAhinINIST DECEMBER 17, 1887 To prevent delays all Communications should be addressed to the Company. PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY American Machinist Publishing Co. 96 Fulton Street, New York. HORACE B. MILLER, Pres't and Bus. Manager. LYCITRGITS B. MOORE, Treas. and Sec'y. F. F. HEMENWAY, Editor and Mech. Engineer. J. G. A. MEYER, Associates. FRED J. MILLER,

Photographing Machinery.

It is generally conceded by photographers that one of the most difficult objects to make a satisfactory photograph of, is a piece of machinery. The reason for this is quite apparent upon a little consideration, and lies in the fact that machinery almost always consists of parts which are unfinished, and painted a dark color, so that they reflect very little light, while other parts are brightly finished, and often polished, so as to reflect about all the light which falls upon them. The re-sult is, that when a negative is exposedlong enough to bring out the dark parts of the machine distinctly, the exposure is entirely too long for the finished parts, and if, on the

Special Announcements. other hand, the exposure is timed for the 'Positively we will neither publish anything in bright parts, the darker portions are usually our reading columns for pay or in consideration of represented by black patches which show advertising patronage. Those who wish to recommend their wares to our readers can do so as fully as they absolutely nothing of form or construction. choose in our advertising columns, but our editorial opinions are not for sale. We give no premiums to secure either subscribers or advertisers. @' Everycorrespondent, in order to insure atten-tion, should give his full name and address, not for this difficulty. Among other methods, publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. i lamps with reflectors are placed so as to H-aw- We are not engaged in procuring patent rights, luminate the dark portions. or in selling machinery, nor have we any pet scheme This makes the machine itself look about to advance, or hobby to ride. 11V- We invite correspondence from practical ma- right to the eye ; but since no artificial light, chinists, engineers, inventors, draftsmen, and all those A great many photographs of machinery come to this office, and many of them show that efforts have been made to overcome except the electric light, has any effect upon

specially interested in the occupations we represent, a photographic negative, it will be seen that on subjects pertaining to machinery. such a plan can be of no benefit, and the re-Vir" Subscribers can have the mailing address of sults show that it is not. their paper changed as often as they desire. Send both old and new addresses. Those who fail to receive their There is a plan not generally known, Rapers promptly will please notify us at once. which always produces satisfactory results, and that is to paint the machine all over ; using for the finished parts a paint mixed with any oil which will not readily harden or dry out, so that after the negative is taken, the paint may readily be wiped off. It will be seen that by this means all parts of the machine can be made to reflect light equally. It is a good idea, also, to have several different shades of this paint, and after the first exposure, any parts which do not come out sufficiently may be painted lighter, while those which are too light may be painted darker, and thus, by a few experi-ments, a perfectly satisfactory negative may be obtained. This is a matter of considerable import-ance to many manufacturers and mechanics, whether they make photographs to send to prospective customers or whether they are taken for engravers to work from, and the method indicated above has been used Subscription. $2.50 a year In advance, postage prepaid in the United States, Canada and Mexico. $3.50 a year to Other Countries, postage prepaid.

Advertising. Transient, 35c. per line, eac

h insertion. "Business Specials," 50c. a line. The American News Company, Publishers' Agents, New York. The International News Company, ii BOUVERIE STREET, Fleet Street, LONDON, Ems., will receive subscriptions for the AMERICAN MACHIN-.sr, at 14/7 per annum, postage paid. DEALERS SUPPLIED BY The Albany News Company, Albany, N. Y. The American News Company, New York, N. Y. The Baltimore News Company, Baltimore, Md. The Brooklyn News Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. The Central News Company, Philadelphia, Pa. The Cincinnati News Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. The Cleveland News Company, Cleveland, Ohio. The Colorado News Company, Denver, Colorado.

The Detroit News Company, Detroit, Mich. YEA

statement which, to a mechanic, is quite en-tertaining, to say the least of it. The assumption upon which the whole affair is based, viz. : that adhesion would be increased by increasing the surface of con-tact between the tire and the rail—if such a thing were possible—is contrary to well-es-tablished laws of friction, and has been re-peatedly disproved ; but such trifling ob-stacles are of course not allowed to stand in the way of a genius and a newspaper re-porter who start out to revolutionize things, and a claim is therefore confidently put forth that this engine, on account of the absence of " side bars" and the increased frictional surface will pull more cars and go around curves much faster than the en-gines now in use, and up hill as fast at down hill. " This being the fact, it will be seen that the particularly fast time of six hours to New York can be shortened very considerably." Locomotive engineers have a very strong antipathy to flat places on driving wheel tires, even one such place being strongly objected to, and we imagine it would be in teresting to be present at an interview in which the genius was trying to persuade an engineer to make the attempt to shorten the time between Boston and New York with an engine having, not one, but 105 flat places on each driver. Altogether, we do not remember to have seen an article relating to a mechanical matter in which the statements and claims were more unanimously and ludicrously absurd, and if the engine ever revolution-izes anything, it will probably be the pocket-books of those who may be induced to become interested in it.

Present Tendency in the Manufacture of Firearms.
What at the first glance seem to be para doxical operations are now taking place in the manufacture of firearms. The tenden cy in the manufacture of cannon is to make them constantly larger and heavier ; to throw heavier projectiles to greater dis-tances, and with greater destructive force. On the other hand, there is a decided move-ment among the European nations to reduce the caliber of the rifles used by infantry, and such a reduction is under consideration by the military authorities of our own country. Germany having recently equipped its who read Mr. Sellers' vigorous articles will be interested in knowing that he is now more than eighty years old, that he has always been a busy man, and was well entitled to a little recreation.

Railroad Commissioners and the Standard Oil Trust.
In the fight which the people of this coun-try are evidently destined to make with gi-gantic monopolies and abuses which seek to strangle legitimate trade, and control all avenues and means by which the necessaries of life are to be obtained, the fact must be faced, that those who engineer these affairs are men of exceptional ability, are able to devote much time and money to devising and arranging their schemes, and entirely unscrupulous in carrying them out. As an additional evidence on this al-ready well understood point, some tes-timony has been recently brought out be-fore the Inter-State Commerce Commission, which is interesting as going to show some of the methods of the Standard Oil Com-pany in its efforts to supply to every citizen his necessary illuminant. A certain proportion of the profits of the combination is paid to each member of the trust, and if, for any reason, it is thought desirable to shut down auy certain factory for a time, its owners still draw their share of the general profits. Thus it is clear that if the trust can secure the levying of very heavy charges for the transportation of oil over any road which must be used by one of their competitors in reaching his market, they can then shut down their own factories, depending on that road, until the strength of the opposition is exhausted, and it is com-pelled to yield. By this arrangement, the prohibited discrimination in rates by the railroad is avoided, and yet the object of the monopoly is attained by crushing out competition.

SIDERS.
Under this head we propose to answer questions sent us, pertaining to our specialty, correctly, and according to common-sense methods. Every question, to insure any attention, must invari-ably be accompanied by the writer's name and address.

The American News Company, Publishers' Agents, New York. The International News Company, 11 BOUVERIE STREET, Fleet Street, LONDON, ENG., will receive subscriptions for the AMERICAN. MACHIN-- _ST, at 14/7 per annum, postage paid. DEALERS Sl7PPLIED BY The Albany News Company, Albany, N. Y. The American News Company, New York, N. Y. The Baltimore News Company, Baltimore, Md. The Brooklyn News Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. The Central News Company, Philadelphia, Pa. The Cincinnati News Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. The Cleveland News Company, Cleveland, Ohio. The Colorado News Company, Denver, Colorado. The Detroit News Company, Detroit, Mich. The International News Company, New York, N. Y. The Minnesota News Company, St. Paul, Minn. The Montreal News Company, Montreal, Canada. The National News Company, New York, N. Y. "he Newark News Company, Newark, N. J. The New England News Company, Boston, Mass. The New Orleans News Company, New Orleans, La, The New York News Company, New York, N. Y. The Northern News Company, Troy, N. Y. The Omaha News Company, Omaha, Neb. The Pittsburgh News Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. The Rhode Island News Company, Providence, R. I. The San Francisco News Co., San Francisco, Cal. The South West News Company, Kansas City, Mo. The St. Louis News Company, St. Louis, Mo. The Toronto News Co., Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Toronto News Co., Clifton, Ontario, Canada. The Union News Company, New York, N. Y. The Washington News Company, Washington, D. C. The Western News Company, Chicago, Ill. The Williamsburgh News Co., Brooklyn, E. D., N. Y NEW YORK, DECEMBER 17, 1887. CONTENTS. PAGE Planing1Machine 1 The Milling Machine as a Substitute for the Planer in Machine Construction 1, 2 Dean Brothers' Duplex Pump 2 Shop Notes 2 Fair of the American Institute 2, 3 Practical Drawing. By J. G. A. Meyer. Fifty-fourth paper 3 The Improved Castle Engine 4 Crystallization by Repeated Heatings 4 The Resistance of Cylinders to Bursting Pressure 4, 5 Thirteen-Tnch Slotting Machine 5 Letters from Practical Men. Examination of Locomotive Engineers. By J. J. Clair—The Spring Roller Problem. By J. Torrey—Ex-haust Heating. By Frederic A. Halsey.. 5, 6 Primary Batteries for Illuminating Purposes 6 Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 6, 7 " Star " Screw Cutting Engine Lathe 7 The Practical Mechanics' Institute of Pough-keepsie 7 Wanted—Information About Mutual Benefit As-sociations . 7 Photographing Machinery 8 A Wonderful Locomotive 8 Present Tendency in the Manufacture of Fire-arms 8 Railroad Commissioners and the Standard Oil Trust 8 Questions and Answers 8, 9 Manufactures 9 Machinists' Supplies and Iron 10 It is a good idea, also, to have several different shades of this paint, and after the first exposure, any parts which do not come out sufficiently may be painted lighter, while those which are too light may be painted darker, and thus, by a few experi-ments, a perfectly satisfactory negative may be obtained. This is a matter of considerable import-ance to many manufacturers and mechanics, whether they make photographs to send to prospective customers or whether they are taken for engravers to work from, and the method indicated above has been used enough to prove that it is of great practical value. A Wonderful Locomotive. The mechanical world is continually being amused by accounts in the daily papers of wonderful inventions which are to entirely revolutionize the established practice, and demonstrate the utter fallacy of long ac-cepted and well understood principles of mechanics. The latest specimen in this line is the scheme of a genius who has invented and built a locomotive, in which are embodied some very radical departures from -estab-lished practice in locomotive building. The machine is illustrated and described in a recent issue of a Boston daily; the writer of the article evidently being pos-sessed of much more enthusiasm for his sub-ject than knowledge of locomotive and rail-road matters. It is very refreshing to a mechanic to read a description of a locomotive by a writer who refers to the main rods as " the main bars which connect the forward driving wheel with the cylinder," and who makes the statement that with the present form of locomotive it is necessary to reduce the speed to 15 miles an hour in going around curves. The new engine has only one pair of driv-ing wheels, and instead of the tires being round, they are provided with " 105 facets," or flat places " two inches long." It is furthermore announced that an ordinary tire bears upon the rail only upon a mathe-matical line, which is the reason that it lacks adhesion and does so much slipping, while the new wheel will always have two inches of surface lying flat on the rail," a What at the first glance seem to be para doxical operations are now taking place in the manufacture of firearms. The tenden-cy in the manufacture of cannon is to make them constantly larger and heavier to throw heavier projectiles to greater dis-tances, and with greater destructive force. On the other hand, there is a decided move-ment among the European nations to reduce the caliber of the rifles used by infantry, and such a reduction is under consideration by the military authorities of our own country. Germany having recently equipped its army with a repeating rifle at enormous ex-pense, and having kept its armories at work night and day to get ahead of France in the matter, is now to begin all over again with a new small bore rifle, because the French have a small bore. The new arni will have a caliber of eight millimeters, or .315"—a reduction from the present one of .117". The rifle adopted by the French is of only .307" caliber, and is provided with a maga-zine which carries eight cartridges. A new concentrated and smokeless powder is used, and a steel bullet. At customary ranges the trajectory is almost flat, which, of course, results in greater precision of fire. Not only France and Germany, but Aus-tria, England, Holland and Italy are moving in the same direction. All the arms are to be provided with magazines, and the advan-tages claimed are 'greater precision, rapidity of fire, and the fact that the soldier will be able to carry about twice as many cartridges as is poseible with the arms of larger bore. The European nations watch each other very closely in the matter of armament, and if any one of them adopts a superior arm, it infallibly results in improvement by all the rest, the decided effect on the soldier's mor-ale, of the confidence resulting from the knowledge that he carries as good an arm as the one in the hands of the enemy, being ap-preciated at its full value. ....- Our readers will be pleased to know that George Escol Sellers is to contribute further articles upon ' Early Engineering Remi-niscences." In a recent letter from Mr. Sel-lers, he informs us that he has been away from home for a few months, taking a vaca-tion, as it were, and that he has returned and has another article nearly ready. Those the monopoly is attained by crushing out competition.

Under this head we propose to answer questions sent us, pertaining to our specialty, correctly, and according to common-sense methods. Every question, to insure any attention, must invari-ably be accompanied by the writer's name and address. If so requested, neither name, correct initials nor loca-tion will be published.

(506) W. J. C., New Brunswick, N. J., writes : I am desirous of knowing how an ordinary steam engine piston is constructed, the arrange-ment of the rings, etc. A.—See AMERICAN MA-CHINIST, page 6, June 11, 1887, and page 4, June 25, 1887. (507) a S. S., Morenci, Mich., asks : 1. What would be the size of a brick made j size, the standard brick being 2" x 4" x 8'" ? A.—According to the general understanding and practice among mechanics, it would be 4" x 1" x 2". 2. What would be the size of a drawing made X size of same ? These questions are to settle a dispute. A.—%" x 1" x 2".

(508) J. S., Hoboken, N. J.,. writes : Please give me the size of the ventilator necessary to take off the moisture from a drying room (foundry) of the following dimensions : 12' x9' x7' with 12 hanging horses. The steam coil is 6 x 8 feet 1 inch pipe with 50 pounds pressure. A .—For the area of clear opening of ventilator allow 3 square inches for every square foot of the radiating surface of the coil. (509) R. B., Brooklyn, N. Y., asks : 1. What is the average length of steam cylinders to their diameter I A .—There is no way of stating an average. In some cylinders the stroke is five or six times the- diameter, in others no more than half. In stationary engine practice they generally rmn from stroke, equal to diameter to stroke three times the diameter. 2. What is meant by expansion eight fold, sixteen fold, etc.? A.—When steam follows Ili of the stroke the expansion is said to be eight fold, and so on

. (510) A. C. B., Windsor, Conn., writes : My teacher says that he thinks air has been re-duced to a lump or solid. Will you kindly inform me if it has been done, and if so, how P A.—In Prof. John Tyndall's book, " Heat a Mode of Mo-tion " (sixth edition), it is stated that air has been liquefied, a description of the manner of doing so, with some unsuccessful attempts, is also given in the same book. We have never heard of air being reduced to a solid, and believe it has not been done.
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 9 pg 9

1887

DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MA_CiNIST.
W. H. S., Kittanning, Pa., asks : Why are two main air reservoirs carried on the locomotives of the P. R. R. ? A.—To obtain a sufficient capacity for air. One tank whose capacity is as great as the sum of the capacities of the two reservoirs would be inconvenient to use, and in fact, on some engines, room cannot be found for it. (512) J. H., Cleveland, Ohio, asks : 1. Will an application for a patent be rejected if it is wholly written instead of using a printed blank, such as is used by patent solicitors ? A.—A patent could not be rejected on that ground. 2. Is there anything better than clear water for washing blue prints? A.—Not that we are aware of. Your other questions cannot well be answered unless you know the date of the issue in which the article appeared, but we think the usual practice is to give to the face of pulleys a certain amount of crown or taper per foot, regardless of width. (513) E. A. R., Boston, Mass., writes: In order to settle a dispute please state which of the two locomotive works has built the greatest number of engines in the last five years, the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia, or the London and Northwestern Locomotive Works in Crewe, England ? A .—W e believe the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia has turned out the greatest number of locomotives. In fact, we believe that the Baldwin Locomotive Works turns out a greater number of engines in each year than any other locomotive works in the world. (514) A. F. B., New York, writes : Will you kindly inform me what the safe steam pressure of a cast-iron jacket kettle may be ? It is a small one and fed by a % inch pipe with an 34 inch ex-haust. Please inform me what the steam gauge on boiler should show to make it safe for the kettle with above conditions ? A.—You do not give any conditions ; before we can answer your question we must know the dimensions of the kettle. But we may state this, that there will be no difficulty in making the jacket strong enough to stand any pres-sure which the steam gauge may show and which you may need. (515) G. H. C., Brooklyn, N. Y.. asks : Will you kindly inform me as to the requirements for obtaining an 'engineer's certificate ? Is it reqtii-site to be a citizen ? A .—You need not be a citizen. If you wish to obtain a marine engineer's license you will have to apply to the inspectors of the dis-trict in which you reside. If you wish to obtain in New York city a stationary engineer's license you will have to apply at the police headquarters in Mulberry street, New York city. Different regula-tions exist in other cities, which you may easily obtain by inquiring at police headquarters. In all cases you will have to pass an examination. (516), C. C. B., East Vassalboro, Me., writes : I am runnng an engine whose cylinder is 12 inches diameter and stroke 20. The steam ports are %" x 83 " ; exhaust port 1 1-7" x 8%". The valve has 34 inch lap, and inch inside lap ; bridges, 1. inch thick ; travel Df valve, 2% inches, and lead 1-16 of an inch. If I cut out the of an inch inside lap, making the valve line and line, will I get any more power from the same amount of steam, or in what way will it affect the erarine? A .—Y ou will steam ports in the high-pressure cylinder are 9-32 inch by 234 inches ; exhaust port, 9-16 inch ; bridges, 7-32 inch ; valve travel for both cylinders, 1% inches. The ports in low pressure cylinder are 4 inches long, and in all other particulars are the same as in high pressure cylinder. The steam supply pipe of the high pressure cylinder is % inch ; that of the low .4 . ,N ' , , 4111—...,,,a0 . • ... ...... pressure 1 inch ; the exhaustpipe from low pressure T. M. Scott is interested in building a machine cylinder is 1% inches. What I want to know is: will shop near Hempsted, Texas. these dimensions give good enough results for the The Elyton Land Company will build boiler and money that it will cost to complete the work, or sheet iron works at Birmingham, Ala. will it be better to make the low pressure cylinder H. M. Winslow is interested in a company organ-up as a simple engine, on account of the small ports ? A.—You do not give the speed at which you ized to build gas works at Carollton, Ky. propose to run, but on general principles the ports Francis A. Clark will build a factory at the corner in the large cylinder are too small, and we do not think it will pay to use the cylinder at all. In any of First avenue and 98th street, New York. case we should not recommend making compound The Athens (Tenn. Mining and Manufacuuring engines so small as this. 2. I also intend to make a Company have begun work on a large cotton mill. 3" x 54" yacht engine, with steam jacket exhaust • that is, the exhaust steam to pass from each side of R. A. Wallace will build a five-story factory on the cylinder around and to the back of cylinder. 10th avenue, between 53rd and 54th streets, New Will this give better results than to exhaust from one side of the cylinder in the usual way ? A .—As York. the exhaust steam is cooler than the steam inside The Hazen Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, the cylinder, the proper thing is to get it away with the least possible contact with the outside of cyl- Ohio, has changed its name to the Cincinnati Wire inder. 3. The steam ports in the cylinder are 2% , Company. inch by % inch : exhaust. % inch ; travel of valve, 1 7-16 inch. What should be the size of steam and exhaust pipe ? A.—One inch steam pipe and 134 The Standard Oil Company will erect a cooperage factory in connection with other buildings, at Knox-inch exhaust pipe will do very well. vine, Tenn. The shops of the Cincinnati Southern Railway, covering two acres of ground in Ludlow, Ky., were destroyed by fire recently. i USIRESO brLuipLS The contract has been let for building the factory of the Birmingham (Ala.) Safe and Lock Company. '---__ It will be 125 x 200 feet, two stories. Transient Advertisements 50 cents a line for each The Decatur (Ala.) Car Wheel and Car Spring insertion under this head. About seven words make a Company has let the contract to build their shops. line. Copy should be sent to reach us not later than The main building will be 75 x 280 feet. Wednesday for the ensuing week's issue. The shops of the Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Co., at Springfield, Ohio, are being furnished with Gear Wheels. See Adv., page 16. 600 electric lights, at a cost of about $6,000. Link-Belting. The Standard Machine Company, of Bay City, Send for catalogue of Link-Belting. Mich., will build shops at Chattanooga, Tenn., under Over 50,000,000 feet of Link Belt in use. the name of the Chattanooga Machine Company. Link-Belt Machinery Co., Chicago and N. Y. Shafting Straighteners. J. H. Wells, Tampa Fla. Steel Name Stamps, etc. J. B. Roney, Lynn, Mass. Lamb Knitting Machine Co., Chicopee Falls. Mass. The Lancaster (Pa.) Radiator Company has found it necessary to erect new buildings and has ' increased its capital stock and applied for a charter. Machine work and patternmaking. Anderson The Ohio Falls Car Works, Jeffersonville, Ind., Machine Works, Peekskill, N. Y. who have recently spent $100,000 in improving their Light articles built to order by the American Sew- ing Machine Co., Philadelphia, Pa. works, have further improvements in contempla-tion. For Electric Recording Steam Gauge, write Tele-meter Co., 44 Barclay st., New York. Sales of the Babcock & Wilcox boiler for the The Best Upright Hammers run by belt are made month of October aggregated nearly 4,000 horse-by W. P. Duncan & Co., Bellefonte, Pa. power, a good proportion of which was on foreign For Catalogue of 2d hand lathes, planers, etc., write to John Steptoe & Co., Cincinnati, 0. Pattern and Brand Letters. Vanderburgh, Wells orders. G Good & Tierney, machinists and contractors for & Co., cor. Fulton and Dutch sts., New York. engines, boilers and complete factory outfits, have Solid Nickel-Seated " Pop " Safety Valves. Con- established themselves at 28 to 32 Washington street, solidated Safety Valve Co., 111 Liberty st., N. Y. R. Dudgeon, 24 Columbia st., New York. Improv- ed Hydraulic Jacks and Roller Tube Expanders. Davis Key-Seating Machines, kept in stock, by Chicago, Ill. The Rue Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has removed its manufactory to 116 North Manning, Maxwell & Moore, 111 Liberty st., N. Y. Ninth street, for the purpose of securing more room The bulldozer forming, forging and bending ma- for increasing business. chine. Williams, White & Co., Moline, Ill., m'f's. The Niagara Stamping and Tool Company has " Bradley's Power Hammers, the best in the world." 20 sizes. Bradley & Co., Syracuse, N. Y. Ice and Refrigerating Machines. 124 built, and all issued a new illustrated catalogue of tinners' ma-chines and tools. It seems to embrace about every-successful. David Boyle, 521 Monroe st., Chicago, Ill thing that tinners require. Selden Packing, for stuffing-box, with or without The Scottdale Iron Works, of W. H. Everson & rubber core. Randolph Brandt, 38 Cortlandt st., N.Y. and forges they make castings of all descriptions for outside parties. They expect to occupy the new foundry about the first of January. A press dispatch from Bellows Falls, Vt., says : " Parties who have been mining iron:and manganese in South Wallingford for several months past have struck, at a depth of 600 feet, the most extensive deposit ever found in this section. The iron is in so pure a state that it is shipped as it comes out to Bessemer, where, being mixed with other metal, it is said to form the best quality of steel. The de-posit shows that at some time in the past great heat has caused the melting and running together of the metal, leaving it free from impurity. From 50 to 100 tons per week are being shipped. It bids fair to be a great and paying industry for that section. Another lead has been started, which will in a short time reach the depth of 850 feet from the entrance." The News-Herald, Jacksonville, Fla., says of the new shops of T. Murphy and the Merrill-Stevens Co., of that city : The foundry and machine shop which has just been completed, and which will be occupied by Mr. Murphy early next month, is a sub-stantial corrugated iron building 30 x 70 feet, two storms high, with an L 25 feet square. The lower floor will be used as the machine shop and foundry, while the upper apartment is intended for the making and storing of patterns. The L portion wil be devoted to office purposes. Just east of this is the boiler and blacksmith shop of the Merrill-Stevens Company, thirty feet front and extending back 175 feet, with a space thirty feet square in front, two stories high. The Standard Foundry Company [St. Louis, Mo.] are preparing for the manufacture of pulleys of every diameter, from 6 inches up to 48 inches, and of any width of face, straight or crown. To this end they are building several pulley moulding machines of im-proved design, all of which will be in operation by January 1st next. One of the machines, capable of moulding pulleys from 6 to 20 inches diameter, will be started up this month. The very latest improved patterns will be used in this branch of manufacture. To make room for the pulley business, and to permit of larger operations in respect of present specialties, the company will at once enlarge their plant by one-half, and add new appliances. They are now put-ting in three new cranes. —A ge of Steel. We are pleased to notice that a move has been made to bring Western Kentucky into prominence in the manufacture of pig iron. It is proposed to build two large furnaces at Paducah, one to use coke and the other to use charcoal. Major Thomas H. Hays, and Col. C. E. Sears, of Louisville, and Col. W. S. Thomas, of Philadelphia, backed by the Paducah Land and Improvement Company and various railroad interests, are in the front of this movement. These are all well-known gentlemen. It is also proposed by the Grand Rivers Coal, Iron and Railroad Company to establish a new city in Livingston county, to be called Grand Rivers, at which pig iron, among other articles, is to be made. This latter scheme remains for t' e present in abeyance. It is, however, a fact of much signifi-cance that the attention of enterprising business men has at last been turned to this section of the try steel T uhne l mill at Hammond (Chicago) will coie—w st/ commence operations in a few days. The buildings trict in which you reside. If you wish to obtain in New York city a stationary engineer's license you will have to apply at the police headquarters in Mulberry street, New York city. Different regula-tions exist in other cities, which you may easily obtain by inquiring at police headquarters. In all cases you will have to pass an examination. (516) C. C. B., East Vassalboro, Me., writes : I am runnng an engine whose cylinder is 12 inches diameter and stroke 20. The steam ports are %" x 8%" ; exhaust port 1 1-7" x 8%". The valve has 36 inch lap, and % inch inside lap ; bridges, 1. inch thick ; travel a valve, 2% inches, and lead 1-16 of an inch. If I cut out the % of an inch inside lap, making the valve line and line, will I get any more power from the same amount of steam, or hi what way will it affect the engine ? A.—You will not gain anything by cutting out the inside lap unless you run at very high speed ; if you do cut it out, the exhaust steam will be releaSed a little sooner, that is, with the inside lap, steam will follow the piston from about 7A of an inch to 1. inch further than it will follow with the lap cut out. (517) W. H., Dover, N. J., writes : I would ask : 1. Which is liable to roll the most, a wide steamboat or a narrow one, both having the same draft of water ? A.—That will depend greatly upon the relative height of the loads ; but if both are loaded alike the narrow one will roll the most. 2. Will a screw steamer roll more than a steamer with paddle wheels, both having the same draft ? A.—If the lines of both ships are alike, the screw steamer will roll the most. 3. A steamer draws 26 feet of water and has a propeller 24 feet 4 inches in diameter ; do you think the propeller is too large, as it is not more than 1 foot 8 inches below the surface of the water ? A.—Your question is very indefinite ; considerable more data would be re-- quired to answer it ; but on general principles we shoulday the propeller is not too large. (518) 0. M., Cincinnati, Ohio, writes : 1. We have a 20 horse-power return flue boiler which we charge in winter with steam from another boiler. Is it best to cover flues with water when so in use ? A.—You do not state whether you have a fire in the boiler or not. If you have a fire in boiler, then by all means cover the flues with water. If not, we believe it will also be best to have the flues covered with water, which will retain the heat of the steam better than when no water is used. 2 How can we keep the inside of boiler from rusting when not In 11140 during the summer? A.—There are several ways of preventing the boiler from rusting. Probably the best way is to blow out the water while hot, allow the boiler to dry, and then close it perfectly air-tight. Others will fill the boiler with water and close it up tight, while again some engineers will nearly fill the boiler with water, pour oil on top of the water, and then let the latter gradually flow out of the boiler, the idea being that as the water flows out the oil will adhere to the plates and keep them from rusting. (519) E. M , Boston, Mass., writes: 1. I have two steam cylinders that I intend to make a compound engine of. The high pressure cylinder is 2311" x 144" ; the low pressure is 6" x 5". The The Best Upright Hammers run by belt are made by W. P. Duncan & Co., Bellefonte, Pa. For Catalogue of 2d hand lathes, planers, etc., write to John Steptoe & Co., Cincinnati, 0. Pattern and Brand Letters. Vanderburgh, Wells & Co., cor. Fulton and Dutch sts., New York. Solid Nickel-Seated " Pop " Safety Valves. Con-solidated Safety Valve Co., 111 Liberty st., N. Y. R. Dudgeon, 24 Columbia st., New York. Improv-ed Hydraulic Jacks and Roller Tube Expanders. Davis Key-Seating Machines, kept in stock, by Manning, Maxwell & Moore, 111 Liberty st., N. Y. The bulldozer forming, forging and bending ma-chine. Williams, White & Co., Moline, Ill., m'f's. " Bradley's Power Hammers, the best in the world." 20 sizes. Bradley & Co., Syracuse, N. Y. Ice and Refrigerating Machines, 124 built, and all successful. David Boyle, 521 Monroe st., Chicago, Ill Selden Packing, for stuffing-box, with or without rubber core. Randolph Brandt, 38 Cortlandt st., N.Y. Drawing Materials, all kinds. Get catalogue. Men-tion this paper. G. S. Woolman, 116 Fulton st., N.Y. Buy the Excel. Upright Drill ; sizes, 20", 25", 28", 32", 36" swing. Currier & Snyder. Worcester, Mass. Foundry ladles and shanks wanted ; send sizes and prices to Shriver's Foundry,333 E 56th st., New York City. The Improved Tabor Steam Engine Indicator, made and sold by The Ashcroft Mfg. Co., 111 Lib-erty st., N. Y. Engine Lathes, Hand Lathes, and other fine tools. Assortment large ; prices low. Frasse & Co., 92 Park row, N. Y. For the latest improved Diamond Prospecting Drill, address the M. C. Bullock Mfg. Co., 138 Jack-son st., Chicago, Ill. Inventors should write R. G. DuBois, Patent Attorney, 916 F street, Washington, D. C., for re-liable information pertaining to patents. Ten 16 in. Engine Lathes, ten 18 in. Eng. Lathes, ten 14 in. Eng. Lathes, ten 15 in. Engine Lathes. Nicholson & Waterman, Providence, R. I. The Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. have placed at No. 23 S. Canal st. Chicago, 111.,.a sample line of milling machines and other machinery with S. A. Smith. Machinists' supplies, brass goods, m'f'rs' supplies, polishing materials, all kinds wire, metals, etc.; in any quantity. Jordan az Gottfried, ried, 208 Canal st. , N. Y. For Best Return Steam Traps, Pressure Regula-tors, Positive-Acting Pump Goys. Back-Pressure Valves. T. Kieley, 11 W. 13th st., N. Y. Send for des'n. Curtis Pressure Regulators, Curtis Return Trap, Curtis Damper Regulator. See Dec. 10, p 15. Send for circular No. 17. Curtis Reg. Co., Boston, Mass. Patents relating to machinery should be secured by experienced mechanics acquainted with the law. Write to A. K. Mansfield & Co., mechanical engineers and patent experts, 280 Broadway, N. Y. W. H. Hoffman, consulting engineer, 94 Liberty st., N. Y. Mechanical engineering in all its branches ; working drawings for the transmission of power by steam, water, air and electricity. Hot' Water Supply. A practical treatise on the fitting of hot-water apparatus for domestic and general purposes. By F. Dye. 82 pages, with 25 illustrations. 12mo., cloth, $1. Send for catalogue. E. & F. N. Soon, 35 Murray st., N. Y " Indicator Practice and Steam Engine Economy." By F. F. Hemenway. Contains plain directions for using the indicator, and making all required calcu-lations from the diagram ; also the principles of economy in operating steam engines, and current practice in testing engines and boilers. Price, $2, postpaid. Published by John Wiley & Sons, 15 Astor Place, New York. " Binders " for the AMERICAN MACHINIST. Two styles—the " Common Sense," as heretofore sold by us, and mailed to any address at $1.00 each, and the "New Handy," mailed at 50c. each. The former has stiff board covers, while the latter has flexible covers, the full page opening flat. Either will hold the entire 52 issues of any volume. AMERICAN MA-CHINIST PUB'O Co., 96 Fulton st., New York. month of October aggregated nearly 4,000 horse-power, a good proportion of which was on foreign orders. Good & Tierney, machinists and contractors for engines, boilers and complete factory outfits, have established themselves at 28 to 32 Washington street, Chicago, Ill. The Rue Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has removed its manufactory to 116 North Ninth street, for the purpose of securing more room for increasing business. The Niagara Stamping and Tool Company has issued a new illustrated catalogue of tinners' ma-chines and tools. It seems to embrace about every-thing that tinners require. The Scottdale Iron Works, of W. H. Everson & Co., at Scottdale, Pa., which were recently sold at assignee's sale, will probably be put in operation during the present week by the purchasers. The hours of work at Colt's armory, Hartford, Conn., in most of the departments, have lately been increased from eight to ten hours per day. Busi-ness in the gun department is better than it has been for some time. The Waterhouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, Hartford, Conn., are uncommonly busy on electric light orders. They are now filling orders for several large mills, also furnishing an arc light plant for Baltimore, Md., and Newark, N. J. The contract for the erection of the car wheel and car spring manufactory at Decatur, Ala., has been awarded. There will be several buildings, the main one to be 80 x 275 feet. The works will be in opera-tion by January 1, 1888, and will turn out 100 car wheels a day. Plans prepared for a better water supply for Allegheny City, Pa., look to taking water from the Allegheny river at Nine-mile island and leading it through a sixty-inch plate steel conduit to the present water-works. Pumping engines of 30,000,000 gallons daily capacity would be needed. It has been decided that the extensive machine works of the Jones & Lamson Company will be re-moved from Windsor to Springfield, Vt., Adna Brown, of that place, securing control of the stock of $50,000, which will immediately be increased to $60,000. Extensive shops will be erected at once. The company owns valuable patents and manufac-tures iron-working machinery. The Hall Steam Pump Company, 91 Liberty street, New York, has issued a new catalogue very finely illustrated. It contains cuts and descriptions of a large variety of steam pumps, simple and compound, adapted to a variety of purposes ; also combined boiler and power pump and independent con-denser and pump. Instruction to those ordering pumps is given, with directions for setting up pumps ; also useful information for engineers and others. The Champion Blower and Forge Company, Lan-caster, Pa., owing to increase of business, have been compelled to seek new and more commodious quar-ters. They have contracted for the building of a new foundry 40 x 80 feet, of brick, and have secured a large brick building adjoining, which will be fitted up as a machine shop. In addition to their blowers coke and the other to use charcoal. Major Thomas H. Hays, and Col. C. E. Sears, of Louisville, and Col. W. S. Thomas, of Philadelphia, backed by the Paducah Land and Improvement Company and various railroad interests, are in the front of this movement. These are all well-known gentlemen. It is also proposed by the Grand Rivers Coal, Iron and Railroad Company to establish a new city in Livingston county, to be called Grand Rivers, at which pig iron, among other articles, is to be made. This latter scheme remains for V_ e present in abeyance. It is, however, a fact of much signifi-cance that the attention of enterprising business men has at last been turned to this section of the try e .—Bust llee tiln. T uhne new mill at Hammond (Chicago) will country.—Bulletin. commence operations in a few days. The buildings are all substantial structures, and of modern de-sign. The nail factory and bluing-house is built of brick and stone, while the steel and rolling-mills are built entirely of iron. The rolls and steel mill adjoin the factory on the south, so that the plate iron when rolled and cut is virtually within the fac-tory. The steel mill is constructed on the latest plan, and supplied with all conveniences. One of the principal features of the mill is two large hy-draulic pumps by which the steel mill is operated. The steel m111 will commence operations in a few days. The rolling mill and a portion of the nail factory have already commenced operations. The factory contains 101 machines, nearly all of which are self-feeders. The total number of machines to be put up is 150. The entire factory is illuminated by electric lights. Chicago Journal of Commerce. The propositions for the two large overhead traveling cranes for the new gun shops for the U. S. Navy, Washington, D. C., by the Morgan Engin-eering Company, Alliance, Ohio, have been accept-ed, and work will be commenced on them fortb-with. One is to be completed in ten months and the larger in fifteen months, as follows : One overhead traveling crane to have a span of about 62 feet at a height of about 40 feet above floor line. This crane will have a capacity to lift guns weighing 125 tons, about 200 feet travel lengthwise, and about 50 feet crosswise of shops, and will be one of the largest cranes ever built in the world. Another overhead traveling crane for one of the other gun shops to have a span of about 52 feet, to have a lifting capacity of about 45 tons, to have a travel of about 480 feet. These cranes will cover workshops respectively of about 220 x 62 feet, and 480 x 52 feet, with a lift of about 40 feet. Each of the cranes is so designed as to have various speeds of hoist and travel in all directions to suit the varying weights of loads from the lightest to the greatest or maxi-mum loads, the lightest loads being handled in all directions rapidly, and the heaviest at speeds to suit the greatest activity such load could be han-dled. Automatic stop motions are placed on the various motions that automatically prevent the travel of cranes in any direction beyond their max-imum limits, thereby preventing (through neglect or otherwise, on the part of operator) accidents of any kind through such neglect. The magnitude of these immense cranes can best be imagined when it is considered that it will take from fifteen to twenty freight cars to ship them. These cranes will, it is claimed, place our gun shops of Navy department in regard to handling work equal to any such institutions in the world. 1
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 9 pg 9

1887

DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MA_CiNIST.
W. H. S., Kittanning, Pa., asks : Why are two main air reservoirs carried on the locomotives of the P. R. R. ? A.—To obtain a sufficient capacity for air. One tank whose capacity is as great as the sum of the capacities of the two reservoirs would be inconvenient to use, and in fact, on some engines, room cannot be found for it. (512) J. H., Cleveland, Ohio, asks : 1. Will an application for a patent be rejected if it is wholly written instead of using a printed blank, such as is used by patent solicitors ? A.—A patent could not be rejected on that ground. 2. Is there anything better than clear water for washing blue prints? A.—Not that we are aware of. Your other questions cannot well be answered unless you know the date of the issue in which the article appeared, but we think the usual practice is to give to the face of pulleys a certain amount of crown or taper per foot, regardless of width. (513) E. A. R., Boston, Mass., writes: In order to settle a dispute please state which of the two locomotive works has built the greatest number of engines in the last five years, the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia, or the London and Northwestern Locomotive Works in Crewe, England ? A .—W e believe the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia has turned out the greatest number of locomotives. In fact, we believe that the Baldwin Locomotive Works turns out a greater number of engines in each year than any other locomotive works in the world. (514) A. F. B., New York, writes : Will you kindly inform me what the safe steam pressure of a cast-iron jacket kettle may be ? It is a small one and fed by a % inch pipe with an 34 inch ex-haust. Please inform me what the steam gauge on boiler should show to make it safe for the kettle with above conditions ? A.—You do not give any conditions ; before we can answer your question we must know the dimensions of the kettle. But we may state this, that there will be no difficulty in making the jacket strong enough to stand any pres-sure which the steam gauge may show and which you may need. (515) G. H. C., Brooklyn, N. Y.. asks : Will you kindly inform me as to the requirements for obtaining an 'engineer's certificate ? Is it reqtii-site to be a citizen ? A .—You need not be a citizen. If you wish to obtain a marine engineer's license you will have to apply to the inspectors of the dis-trict in which you reside. If you wish to obtain in New York city a stationary engineer's license you will have to apply at the police headquarters in Mulberry street, New York city. Different regula-tions exist in other cities, which you may easily obtain by inquiring at police headquarters. In all cases you will have to pass an examination. (516), C. C. B., East Vassalboro, Me., writes : I am runnng an engine whose cylinder is 12 inches diameter and stroke 20. The steam ports are %" x 83 " ; exhaust port 1 1-7" x 8%". The valve has 34 inch lap, and inch inside lap ; bridges, 1. inch thick ; travel Df valve, 2% inches, and lead 1-16 of an inch. If I cut out the of an inch inside lap, making the valve line and line, will I get any more power from the same amount of steam, or in what way will it affect the erarine? A .—Y ou will steam ports in the high-pressure cylinder are 9-32 inch by 234 inches ; exhaust port, 9-16 inch ; bridges, 7-32 inch ; valve travel for both cylinders, 1% inches. The ports in low pressure cylinder are 4 inches long, and in all other particulars are the same as in high pressure cylinder. The steam supply pipe of the high pressure cylinder is % inch ; that of the low .4 . ,N ' , , 4111—...,,,a0 . • ... ...... pressure 1 inch ; the exhaustpipe from low pressure T. M. Scott is interested in building a machine cylinder is 1% inches. What I want to know is: will shop near Hempsted, Texas. these dimensions give good enough results for the The Elyton Land Company will build boiler and money that it will cost to complete the work, or sheet iron works at Birmingham, Ala. will it be better to make the low pressure cylinder H. M. Winslow is interested in a company organ-up as a simple engine, on account of the small ports ? A.—You do not give the speed at which you ized to build gas works at Carollton, Ky. propose to run, but on general principles the ports Francis A. Clark will build a factory at the corner in the large cylinder are too small, and we do not think it will pay to use the cylinder at all. In any of First avenue and 98th street, New York. case we should not recommend making compound The Athens (Tenn. Mining and Manufacuuring engines so small as this. 2. I also intend to make a Company have begun work on a large cotton mill. 3" x 54" yacht engine, with steam jacket exhaust • that is, the exhaust steam to pass from each side of R. A. Wallace will build a five-story factory on the cylinder around and to the back of cylinder. 10th avenue, between 53rd and 54th streets, New Will this give better results than to exhaust from one side of the cylinder in the usual way ? A .—As York. the exhaust steam is cooler than the steam inside The Hazen Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, the cylinder, the proper thing is to get it away with the least possible contact with the outside of cyl- Ohio, has changed its name to the Cincinnati Wire inder. 3. The steam ports in the cylinder are 2% , Company. inch by % inch : exhaust. % inch ; travel of valve, 1 7-16 inch. What should be the size of steam and exhaust pipe ? A.—One inch steam pipe and 134 The Standard Oil Company will erect a cooperage factory in connection with other buildings, at Knox-inch exhaust pipe will do very well. vine, Tenn. The shops of the Cincinnati Southern Railway, covering two acres of ground in Ludlow, Ky., were destroyed by fire recently. i USIRESO brLuipLS The contract has been let for building the factory of the Birmingham (Ala.) Safe and Lock Company. '---__ It will be 125 x 200 feet, two stories. Transient Advertisements 50 cents a line for each The Decatur (Ala.) Car Wheel and Car Spring insertion under this head. About seven words make a Company has let the contract to build their shops. line. Copy should be sent to reach us not later than The main building will be 75 x 280 feet. Wednesday for the ensuing week's issue. The shops of the Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Co., at Springfield, Ohio, are being furnished with Gear Wheels. See Adv., page 16. 600 electric lights, at a cost of about $6,000. Link-Belting. The Standard Machine Company, of Bay City, Send for catalogue of Link-Belting. Mich., will build shops at Chattanooga, Tenn., under Over 50,000,000 feet of Link Belt in use. the name of the Chattanooga Machine Company. Link-Belt Machinery Co., Chicago and N. Y. Shafting Straighteners. J. H. Wells, Tampa Fla. Steel Name Stamps, etc. J. B. Roney, Lynn, Mass. Lamb Knitting Machine Co., Chicopee Falls. Mass. The Lancaster (Pa.) Radiator Company has found it necessary to erect new buildings and has ' increased its capital stock and applied for a charter. Machine work and patternmaking. Anderson The Ohio Falls Car Works, Jeffersonville, Ind., Machine Works, Peekskill, N. Y. who have recently spent $100,000 in improving their Light articles built to order by the American Sew- ing Machine Co., Philadelphia, Pa. works, have further improvements in contempla-tion. For Electric Recording Steam Gauge, write Tele-meter Co., 44 Barclay st., New York. Sales of the Babcock & Wilcox boiler for the The Best Upright Hammers run by belt are made month of October aggregated nearly 4,000 horse-by W. P. Duncan & Co., Bellefonte, Pa. power, a good proportion of which was on foreign For Catalogue of 2d hand lathes, planers, etc., write to John Steptoe & Co., Cincinnati, 0. Pattern and Brand Letters. Vanderburgh, Wells orders. G Good & Tierney, machinists and contractors for & Co., cor. Fulton and Dutch sts., New York. engines, boilers and complete factory outfits, have Solid Nickel-Seated " Pop " Safety Valves. Con- established themselves at 28 to 32 Washington street, solidated Safety Valve Co., 111 Liberty st., N. Y. R. Dudgeon, 24 Columbia st., New York. Improv- ed Hydraulic Jacks and Roller Tube Expanders. Davis Key-Seating Machines, kept in stock, by Chicago, Ill. The Rue Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has removed its manufactory to 116 North Manning, Maxwell & Moore, 111 Liberty st., N. Y. Ninth street, for the purpose of securing more room The bulldozer forming, forging and bending ma- for increasing business. chine. Williams, White & Co., Moline, Ill., m'f's. The Niagara Stamping and Tool Company has " Bradley's Power Hammers, the best in the world." 20 sizes. Bradley & Co., Syracuse, N. Y. Ice and Refrigerating Machines. 124 built, and all issued a new illustrated catalogue of tinners' ma-chines and tools. It seems to embrace about every-successful. David Boyle, 521 Monroe st., Chicago, Ill thing that tinners require. Selden Packing, for stuffing-box, with or without The Scottdale Iron Works, of W. H. Everson & rubber core. Randolph Brandt, 38 Cortlandt st., N.Y. and forges they make castings of all descriptions for outside parties. They expect to occupy the new foundry about the first of January. A press dispatch from Bellows Falls, Vt., says : " Parties who have been mining iron:and manganese in South Wallingford for several months past have struck, at a depth of 600 feet, the most extensive deposit ever found in this section. The iron is in so pure a state that it is shipped as it comes out to Bessemer, where, being mixed with other metal, it is said to form the best quality of steel. The de-posit shows that at some time in the past great heat has caused the melting and running together of the metal, leaving it free from impurity. From 50 to 100 tons per week are being shipped. It bids fair to be a great and paying industry for that section. Another lead has been started, which will in a short time reach the depth of 850 feet from the entrance." The News-Herald, Jacksonville, Fla., says of the new shops of T. Murphy and the Merrill-Stevens Co., of that city : The foundry and machine shop which has just been completed, and which will be occupied by Mr. Murphy early next month, is a sub-stantial corrugated iron building 30 x 70 feet, two storms high, with an L 25 feet square. The lower floor will be used as the machine shop and foundry, while the upper apartment is intended for the making and storing of patterns. The L portion wil be devoted to office purposes. Just east of this is the boiler and blacksmith shop of the Merrill-Stevens Company, thirty feet front and extending back 175 feet, with a space thirty feet square in front, two stories high. The Standard Foundry Company [St. Louis, Mo.] are preparing for the manufacture of pulleys of every diameter, from 6 inches up to 48 inches, and of any width of face, straight or crown. To this end they are building several pulley moulding machines of im-proved design, all of which will be in operation by January 1st next. One of the machines, capable of moulding pulleys from 6 to 20 inches diameter, will be started up this month. The very latest improved patterns will be used in this branch of manufacture. To make room for the pulley business, and to permit of larger operations in respect of present specialties, the company will at once enlarge their plant by one-half, and add new appliances. They are now put-ting in three new cranes. —A ge of Steel. We are pleased to notice that a move has been made to bring Western Kentucky into prominence in the manufacture of pig iron. It is proposed to build two large furnaces at Paducah, one to use coke and the other to use charcoal. Major Thomas H. Hays, and Col. C. E. Sears, of Louisville, and Col. W. S. Thomas, of Philadelphia, backed by the Paducah Land and Improvement Company and various railroad interests, are in the front of this movement. These are all well-known gentlemen. It is also proposed by the Grand Rivers Coal, Iron and Railroad Company to establish a new city in Livingston county, to be called Grand Rivers, at which pig iron, among other articles, is to be made. This latter scheme remains for t' e present in abeyance. It is, however, a fact of much signifi-cance that the attention of enterprising business men has at last been turned to this section of the try steel T uhne l mill at Hammond (Chicago) will coie—w st/ commence operations in a few days. The buildings trict in which you reside. If you wish to obtain in New York city a stationary engineer's license you will have to apply at the police headquarters in Mulberry street, New York city. Different regula-tions exist in other cities, which you may easily obtain by inquiring at police headquarters. In all cases you will have to pass an examination. (516) C. C. B., East Vassalboro, Me., writes : I am runnng an engine whose cylinder is 12 inches diameter and stroke 20. The steam ports are %" x 8%" ; exhaust port 1 1-7" x 8%". The valve has 36 inch lap, and % inch inside lap ; bridges, 1. inch thick ; travel a valve, 2% inches, and lead 1-16 of an inch. If I cut out the % of an inch inside lap, making the valve line and line, will I get any more power from the same amount of steam, or hi what way will it affect the engine ? A.—You will not gain anything by cutting out the inside lap unless you run at very high speed ; if you do cut it out, the exhaust steam will be releaSed a little sooner, that is, with the inside lap, steam will follow the piston from about 7A of an inch to 1. inch further than it will follow with the lap cut out. (517) W. H., Dover, N. J., writes : I would ask : 1. Which is liable to roll the most, a wide steamboat or a narrow one, both having the same draft of water ? A.—That will depend greatly upon the relative height of the loads ; but if both are loaded alike the narrow one will roll the most. 2. Will a screw steamer roll more than a steamer with paddle wheels, both having the same draft ? A.—If the lines of both ships are alike, the screw steamer will roll the most. 3. A steamer draws 26 feet of water and has a propeller 24 feet 4 inches in diameter ; do you think the propeller is too large, as it is not more than 1 foot 8 inches below the surface of the water ? A.—Your question is very indefinite ; considerable more data would be re-- quired to answer it ; but on general principles we shoulday the propeller is not too large. (518) 0. M., Cincinnati, Ohio, writes : 1. We have a 20 horse-power return flue boiler which we charge in winter with steam from another boiler. Is it best to cover flues with water when so in use ? A.—You do not state whether you have a fire in the boiler or not. If you have a fire in boiler, then by all means cover the flues with water. If not, we believe it will also be best to have the flues covered with water, which will retain the heat of the steam better than when no water is used. 2 How can we keep the inside of boiler from rusting when not In 11140 during the summer? A.—There are several ways of preventing the boiler from rusting. Probably the best way is to blow out the water while hot, allow the boiler to dry, and then close it perfectly air-tight. Others will fill the boiler with water and close it up tight, while again some engineers will nearly fill the boiler with water, pour oil on top of the water, and then let the latter gradually flow out of the boiler, the idea being that as the water flows out the oil will adhere to the plates and keep them from rusting. (519) E. M , Boston, Mass., writes: 1. I have two steam cylinders that I intend to make a compound engine of. The high pressure cylinder is 2311" x 144" ; the low pressure is 6" x 5". The The Best Upright Hammers run by belt are made by W. P. Duncan & Co., Bellefonte, Pa. For Catalogue of 2d hand lathes, planers, etc., write to John Steptoe & Co., Cincinnati, 0. Pattern and Brand Letters. Vanderburgh, Wells & Co., cor. Fulton and Dutch sts., New York. Solid Nickel-Seated " Pop " Safety Valves. Con-solidated Safety Valve Co., 111 Liberty st., N. Y. R. Dudgeon, 24 Columbia st., New York. Improv-ed Hydraulic Jacks and Roller Tube Expanders. Davis Key-Seating Machines, kept in stock, by Manning, Maxwell & Moore, 111 Liberty st., N. Y. The bulldozer forming, forging and bending ma-chine. Williams, White & Co., Moline, Ill., m'f's. " Bradley's Power Hammers, the best in the world." 20 sizes. Bradley & Co., Syracuse, N. Y. Ice and Refrigerating Machines, 124 built, and all successful. David Boyle, 521 Monroe st., Chicago, Ill Selden Packing, for stuffing-box, with or without rubber core. Randolph Brandt, 38 Cortlandt st., N.Y. Drawing Materials, all kinds. Get catalogue. Men-tion this paper. G. S. Woolman, 116 Fulton st., N.Y. Buy the Excel. Upright Drill ; sizes, 20", 25", 28", 32", 36" swing. Currier & Snyder. Worcester, Mass. Foundry ladles and shanks wanted ; send sizes and prices to Shriver's Foundry,333 E 56th st., New York City. The Improved Tabor Steam Engine Indicator, made and sold by The Ashcroft Mfg. Co., 111 Lib-erty st., N. Y. Engine Lathes, Hand Lathes, and other fine tools. Assortment large ; prices low. Frasse & Co., 92 Park row, N. Y. For the latest improved Diamond Prospecting Drill, address the M. C. Bullock Mfg. Co., 138 Jack-son st., Chicago, Ill. Inventors should write R. G. DuBois, Patent Attorney, 916 F street, Washington, D. C., for re-liable information pertaining to patents. Ten 16 in. Engine Lathes, ten 18 in. Eng. Lathes, ten 14 in. Eng. Lathes, ten 15 in. Engine Lathes. Nicholson & Waterman, Providence, R. I. The Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. have placed at No. 23 S. Canal st. Chicago, 111.,.a sample line of milling machines and other machinery with S. A. Smith. Machinists' supplies, brass goods, m'f'rs' supplies, polishing materials, all kinds wire, metals, etc.; in any quantity. Jordan az Gottfried, ried, 208 Canal st. , N. Y. For Best Return Steam Traps, Pressure Regula-tors, Positive-Acting Pump Goys. Back-Pressure Valves. T. Kieley, 11 W. 13th st., N. Y. Send for des'n. Curtis Pressure Regulators, Curtis Return Trap, Curtis Damper Regulator. See Dec. 10, p 15. Send for circular No. 17. Curtis Reg. Co., Boston, Mass. Patents relating to machinery should be secured by experienced mechanics acquainted with the law. Write to A. K. Mansfield & Co., mechanical engineers and patent experts, 280 Broadway, N. Y. W. H. Hoffman, consulting engineer, 94 Liberty st., N. Y. Mechanical engineering in all its branches ; working drawings for the transmission of power by steam, water, air and electricity. Hot' Water Supply. A practical treatise on the fitting of hot-water apparatus for domestic and general purposes. By F. Dye. 82 pages, with 25 illustrations. 12mo., cloth, $1. Send for catalogue. E. & F. N. Soon, 35 Murray st., N. Y " Indicator Practice and Steam Engine Economy." By F. F. Hemenway. Contains plain directions for using the indicator, and making all required calcu-lations from the diagram ; also the principles of economy in operating steam engines, and current practice in testing engines and boilers. Price, $2, postpaid. Published by John Wiley & Sons, 15 Astor Place, New York. " Binders " for the AMERICAN MACHINIST. Two styles—the " Common Sense," as heretofore sold by us, and mailed to any address at $1.00 each, and the "New Handy," mailed at 50c. each. The former has stiff board covers, while the latter has flexible covers, the full page opening flat. Either will hold the entire 52 issues of any volume. AMERICAN MA-CHINIST PUB'O Co., 96 Fulton st., New York. month of October aggregated nearly 4,000 horse-power, a good proportion of which was on foreign orders. Good & Tierney, machinists and contractors for engines, boilers and complete factory outfits, have established themselves at 28 to 32 Washington street, Chicago, Ill. The Rue Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has removed its manufactory to 116 North Ninth street, for the purpose of securing more room for increasing business. The Niagara Stamping and Tool Company has issued a new illustrated catalogue of tinners' ma-chines and tools. It seems to embrace about every-thing that tinners require. The Scottdale Iron Works, of W. H. Everson & Co., at Scottdale, Pa., which were recently sold at assignee's sale, will probably be put in operation during the present week by the purchasers. The hours of work at Colt's armory, Hartford, Conn., in most of the departments, have lately been increased from eight to ten hours per day. Busi-ness in the gun department is better than it has been for some time. The Waterhouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, Hartford, Conn., are uncommonly busy on electric light orders. They are now filling orders for several large mills, also furnishing an arc light plant for Baltimore, Md., and Newark, N. J. The contract for the erection of the car wheel and car spring manufactory at Decatur, Ala., has been awarded. There will be several buildings, the main one to be 80 x 275 feet. The works will be in opera-tion by January 1, 1888, and will turn out 100 car wheels a day. Plans prepared for a better water supply for Allegheny City, Pa., look to taking water from the Allegheny river at Nine-mile island and leading it through a sixty-inch plate steel conduit to the present water-works. Pumping engines of 30,000,000 gallons daily capacity would be needed. It has been decided that the extensive machine works of the Jones & Lamson Company will be re-moved from Windsor to Springfield, Vt., Adna Brown, of that place, securing control of the stock of $50,000, which will immediately be increased to $60,000. Extensive shops will be erected at once. The company owns valuable patents and manufac-tures iron-working machinery. The Hall Steam Pump Company, 91 Liberty street, New York, has issued a new catalogue very finely illustrated. It contains cuts and descriptions of a large variety of steam pumps, simple and compound, adapted to a variety of purposes ; also combined boiler and power pump and independent con-denser and pump. Instruction to those ordering pumps is given, with directions for setting up pumps ; also useful information for engineers and others. The Champion Blower and Forge Company, Lan-caster, Pa., owing to increase of business, have been compelled to seek new and more commodious quar-ters. They have contracted for the building of a new foundry 40 x 80 feet, of brick, and have secured a large brick building adjoining, which will be fitted up as a machine shop. In addition to their blowers coke and the other to use charcoal. Major Thomas H. Hays, and Col. C. E. Sears, of Louisville, and Col. W. S. Thomas, of Philadelphia, backed by the Paducah Land and Improvement Company and various railroad interests, are in the front of this movement. These are all well-known gentlemen. It is also proposed by the Grand Rivers Coal, Iron and Railroad Company to establish a new city in Livingston county, to be called Grand Rivers, at which pig iron, among other articles, is to be made. This latter scheme remains for V_ e present in abeyance. It is, however, a fact of much signifi-cance that the attention of enterprising business men has at last been turned to this section of the try e .—Bust llee tiln. T uhne new mill at Hammond (Chicago) will country.—Bulletin. commence operations in a few days. The buildings are all substantial structures, and of modern de-sign. The nail factory and bluing-house is built of brick and stone, while the steel and rolling-mills are built entirely of iron. The rolls and steel mill adjoin the factory on the south, so that the plate iron when rolled and cut is virtually within the fac-tory. The steel mill is constructed on the latest plan, and supplied with all conveniences. One of the principal features of the mill is two large hy-draulic pumps by which the steel mill is operated. The steel m111 will commence operations in a few days. The rolling mill and a portion of the nail factory have already commenced operations. The factory contains 101 machines, nearly all of which are self-feeders. The total number of machines to be put up is 150. The entire factory is illuminated by electric lights. Chicago Journal of Commerce. The propositions for the two large overhead traveling cranes for the new gun shops for the U. S. Navy, Washington, D. C., by the Morgan Engin-eering Company, Alliance, Ohio, have been accept-ed, and work will be commenced on them fortb-with. One is to be completed in ten months and the larger in fifteen months, as follows : One overhead traveling crane to have a span of about 62 feet at a height of about 40 feet above floor line. This crane will have a capacity to lift guns weighing 125 tons, about 200 feet travel lengthwise, and about 50 feet crosswise of shops, and will be one of the largest cranes ever built in the world. Another overhead traveling crane for one of the other gun shops to have a span of about 52 feet, to have a lifting capacity of about 45 tons, to have a travel of about 480 feet. These cranes will cover workshops respectively of about 220 x 62 feet, and 480 x 52 feet, with a lift of about 40 feet. Each of the cranes is so designed as to have various speeds of hoist and travel in all directions to suit the varying weights of loads from the lightest to the greatest or maxi-mum loads, the lightest loads being handled in all directions rapidly, and the heaviest at speeds to suit the greatest activity such load could be han-dled. Automatic stop motions are placed on the various motions that automatically prevent the travel of cranes in any direction beyond their max-imum limits, thereby preventing (through neglect or otherwise, on the part of operator) accidents of any kind through such neglect. The magnitude of these immense cranes can best be imagined when it is considered that it will take from fifteen to twenty freight cars to ship them. These cranes will, it is claimed, place our gun shops of Navy department in regard to handling work equal to any such institutions in the world. 1
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 AMERICAN MACHINIST 1887 page 10 DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST.
UNIVERSAL RADIAL! , RADIAL DRILLING MACHINES "q 'I" THREE DESIGNS, SIX SIZE It :EMBODY ALL DESIRABLE FEATU R E PRICES$450.N&UPWARD ngss UNIVERSAL RADIAL DRILL CO CINCINNATI.0 U S A AMERICAN MACHINIST Thunman 17, 114H7

Machinists/ Supplies and Iron.

New YORK, Dec. 1, 1887. Iron-American Pig-The demand has been mod-erate and almost entirely confined to small lots for immediate delivery. The market has ruled quiet and steady, but trade has developed no new fea-tures. There appears to be very little desire to pro-vide for future requirements, but furnacemen say the outlook is not discouraging, current production being very fairly absorbed, with the prospect that prices will be steadily maintained. There is nothing to indicate any special change in the situation. No. 1 X Foundry can be had at $20.50 to $21.50. accord-ing to brand ; No. 2. X at $18.50 to $19.25, and Grey Forge at $16.50 to $17.25. Scotch Pig-The market has ruled quiet and steady, and is without new features or quotable change. We quote Coltness, $21.25 to $21.50 ; Glen-garnock, $19.75 to $20.25 ; Gartsherrie, $21 to $21.25 ; Summerlee, $20.75 to $21 •, Eglinton, $19 to $19.25 ; Langloan, $20 to $20.50 ; Dalmellington, $19.75 to $20, and Clyde $19.50 to $20. Lead-Considerable business has been transacted at higher prices, as the result of the firmer tendency of the market, which has ruled strong and active. About 1,200 tons Western, spot and December and January deliveries, have been taken by consumers at 4-W. to 4.55c and 4.60c. Antimony-There has been no change of import-ance in the value of Regulus. There is a fair jobbing demand, supplies being firmly held at 9.}4 cents for Hallett's and Mc. for Cookson's. Copper-Transactions in the market have been quite active, chiefly on account of the operations of speculators. Prices have ruled at 14.35 up to 14.95 cents per pound for spot, and 14% to 14.95 for De-cember. 1„..,-Tin-There has been a steady upward movement of prices, the speculators in Europe having caused prices there to rapidly advance. The market here has responded with higher prices, bu' trading both here and there has been light The available stock here is comparatively light, and dealers and con-sumers are buying only to supply immediate wants. We quote Straits and Malacca 35;ic. cash, and 3530 to 36, 30 days.

WANTED " Situation and Help" Advertisements only invertea under this head. Rate, 30 cents a line for each inser-tion. About seven words snake a line. Copy should be sent to reach us not later than Wednesday morning for the ensuing week's issue. Wanted-As foreman, a capable man thoroughly familiar with all kinds of shop work. Address R, An. MACHINIST. A good machinist (lathe hand) ; steady, reliable workman, wants employment. Address H. J. B., 117 E. Chicago ave., Chicago, Ill. Wanted-A position as superintendent or foreman of machine shop ; all kinds of machinery ; best of references. Address W. L. S., An. MACHINIST. Wanted-Situation as foreman boilermaker by a man of experience on all kinds of boiler work ; good references ; age 35. Eclipse, AM. MACHINIST. Wanted- Foreman for brass finishing department must be experienced in valve and cock work. Ad-dress with reference and salary, Valves, AM. MA-CHINIST. Wanted-A man.who is capable of laying out all kinds of work in a boiler shop •, one who thoroughly understands his business. Address, giving past experience, Layer Out, AM. MACHINIST. A young technical graduate wants work under a skillful man ; has experience in drawing room ,• is a practical machinist ; good mech'l ability ; intelligent and steady. Address, II., 357 Court st., B'klyn, N. Y. Wanted-Situation as foreman boiler maker ; have had long experience on all kinds of marine, station-ary, and locomotive work ; no objection to any part of the TT. S. Boiler Maker, 689 Notre Dame st.. Montreal, Canada. . Wanted-Foreman for college shops, to begin

A. C. Christensen, 26 Church st., N. Y.', mech. and hydraulic engineer, late cht draftsman at H. R. Worthington. Designs and working drawings of water works, pumps, geu. mach. & pat. drawings. 'For Sale-39" x 12', 24" x 16', 18" x 9' screw cut-ting lathes Daniels wood planer, 20" x 18'; Hotch-kiss belt power hammer ram, 100 pounds, air cylin-der, 4" x 16"; all second-hand, in good lorder J. & G. Rich, 120 N. 6th st.. Phila., Pa.
AMERICAN MACHINIST BRADLEY'S UPRICHT CUSHIONED
HELVE HAMMER
Combines all the best elements es-sential in a first -class Hammer. Has more good points, does more and better work and costs less for re-pairs than any other Hammer in the World. BRADLEY'S HEATING FORGES.

Ii) P:1 co For Hard Coal or Cok,.. Indispensable in all shops to keep Bradley's Cushioned Hammers and men fully employed and reduces cost of production. BRADLEY& CO. Syracuse, NJ.

EPHEN S ONE-HALF TImE
and LABOR saved by using this solid, strong, durable, firm- hold,quick-working Lever (Not Serew)V ise. Has improved Taper. Pipe and other attachments. Sold by the trade. Send for circular TOWER & LYON, 95 Chambers Street, New York. Successors to MELVIN STEPHENS.

J. A. FAY &, C CI. TRW/ io• BUILDERS OF IMPROVED WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY

Embraces nearly 400 Machines for PLANING ab MATCHING Surfacing, Moulding,Tenoning, Mor-tising, Boring, and Shaping, etc. Variety and Universal WOOD WORKERS.
THE DEANE STEAM PUMP CO.,Holyoke, Mass.
BUILD AND Water Works, ENGINES

SEND FOR CATALOGUE No. 18. S we are filling up our works with Engine Lathes of our own make, we offer a variety of second-hand Engine Lathes of various makes, ranging in size from 14 in. x 6 ft. to 23 In. x 10 11. These Lathes will be thoroughly overhauled and put in first-class oilier, and sold at reasonable prices. Steam Pumping MAOMNERY.

THE HENDEY MACHINE CO., Torrington, Conn.
FIN .0 In BARS, For TOOLS, MINN, CRUCIBLE SHEETS, SAWS, IKNIVI4104, - STEEL, WIRE, NEEDLES, SPRINGS, &U. WRITE FOR FURTHER INFORMATION. MILLER, METCALF & PARKIN, 64 & 66 SO. CLINTON ST., CRESCENT STEEL WORKS, 480 PEARL STRERT, CHICAG, ILL. PITTSBURGH, PA. NEW YORK, N. V. STEAM PUMPS forer oorr Water ; for Oils, Naphtha, Tar ; for Cane juice, Liquors, Syrups, Scum; for Am-monia, Alkalies, Extracts, Acids ; for Thick, Volatile, Viscous or Foul Liquids, etc. VACUUM PUMPS of the highest efficiency. FILTER PRESS PUMPS. Air, Gas and Acid Blowers. AIR COMPRES-SORS. Et C. BUILT BY GUILD & GARRISON Brooklyn, N. Y. TANITE FOR S' AIDil aERTNEDRIYNcvv anHAEcEHLISNEan MACHINE FAuCCHirlettEarsSaHddOrPesS: TEE TANITE COMPANY, STROUDSBURG, MONROE CO., PA. Or II A. ROGERS, 19 John a., II Ts Exhaust Tumbling Barrels.
Henderson Bros. MANUFACTURERS, Waterbury, Ct., SEND FOR CIRCULAR. PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING CENTER J D. EZT4IKAl22ECA04.D, TWIST DRILL GAUGE. Pins Xaaltmiste Tools.-111. Roston. Mass-Bond for Oiraul.. THE Association of En B OF V'AYS:AND COMMUNICIATIO17,1 OF ST. PETERSBURG, RUSSIA.
Having special Government Marto!. favoring negotiations on a large Pen I., and doing already %heavy Nisi tit. Iii Europe, invites American Matniturt urers, Inventors'and'Engineers of all branches topa rtI,1 in the permanent exhibition at St. Petersburg with first glass prospects of doing a profitable business. GENERAL AGENT FOR AMERICA, A. WARSCHAWSKY, 14 Dey It, N. Y. P. 0. Box 3,348. ARCHITECTS, NAVAL ARCHITECTS, MARINE, MECHANICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY AND ELECTRIC ENGINEERS
use Smith's Patent Calculator, being in 10x%x 1% inches a complete pocket book and instantaneous calculation slide. Complete with logarithms, sines and tangents, :3.50. Without sines and tangents, $2.50 and $1.50. Will be mailed on the receipt of price. R. 0. SMITH, 0. E., No. 1 Broadmay, N.Y. COOKE & CO Dealers 9 In ******************************* DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN- MACHINIST 18 MORSE TWIST DRILL AND MACHINE COMPANY, New Bedford, Mass. Manufacturers of Morse Patent Straight-Lip Increase Twist Drills. D. SAUNDERS' SONS Yonmilikuenrith.Y. OF Steam & Gas Fittersaand Tools, SEND FOR CIRCULAR. Pipe Cutting, THREADING, Solid and Shell Reamers, Beach's Patent Self-Centering Chuck, Bit Stock Drills, DRILL GRINDING MACHINES, MILLING CUTTERS AND SPECIAL TOOLS TO ORDER. STEEL BALLS FOR ANTI-FRICTION BEARINCS, OF BEST CAST STEEL. HARDENED GROUIVII & _BURNISHED. 3-16" to 3" Diameter. Samples and prices on application. SIIVIONDS ROLLING-MACHINE CO. FITCHBURG, MASS. lj Drill Presses, Tap Drill Gauges. Wood -Working Mahler) For Chair, Furniture and Cabinet Factories,Box Shoos, Planing Mills, Pattern Mak-ers' use, etc. ROLLSTONE MACHINE CO. 45 Water St.,Fitchburg,Mast. SPECIAL MACHINERY, TOOLS. Brandon's Piston Ring Packiflg Perfectly balanced against un-due pressure in all directions. Preserves bothcylinder and rings. Allows no waste by either fric-tion or leakage. Call and see working model, expressly made to demonstrate advantages claimed. For packing or shop rights, address JAMES BRANDON, 390 Eleventh Ave., New York. A Complete Cutting-off Machine, $4.00. Larger ones which cut to 2 in. $8.00. S. ELLIOTT, Newton, Mass. We are making a specialty of 14 Inch ENGINE LATHES; And are selling them at such very low prices that even the Poverty-St ricken can afford to buy them. Don't sleeP another night until you write us for Photographs and Prices. S. Ashton Hand Mfg. Co, , Toughkenamon, Pa, UPRIGHT DRILLS A SPECIALTY. ALL SIZES Patent Quick Return — AND — Latest Improvements. III, For Catalogues and Prices, address, EE NGINE Lathes, Hand Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Drills, and Milling Machines. Agents, MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, 111 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK. SHAPINGMACHINES FOR HAND AND POWER. 6", 8" and 10" Stroke. Adapted to All Classes of Work to their Capacity. Circulars Furnished. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, WORCESTER, MASS. PUNCH AND DIE GRINDER. For grinding punches and dies, such as are used in making bolts, rivets, screws and a large variety of square or circular pieces requiring one or more finished f a ces. Works equally well on hard steel, chilled iron or softer metals. Can be ar-ranged to grind convex, concave or flat surfaces. Work can be ground to any desired thickness or several piece s ground to same thickness. Write for Circu-lar. Springfield AND Tapping Machines. ..THE PATENT WHEEL PIPE CUTTER shown in the cut combines sim. plicity with strength and lightness. Easily adapted to various sizes of pipe. Rolling instead of sliding motion. No loose parts to become detached and mislaid. All wearing surfaces are of tool steel. hardened. Less friction of parts than any other pipe cutter made. 10 INCH, 15 INCH CRANK SHAPERS, INCH, 26 INCH GEARED SHAPERS, 16 inch to 42 inch ENGINE LATHES, 22 inch to 60 inch IRON PLANERS JOHN STEPTOE & CO., Cincinnati, Ohio. IT WILL PAY YOU TO WRITE FOR PRICES AND CATALOGUE. W ALAI-WS Lk:ATI-11ER 13 UPPING wHEEL MUSLIN and CLOTH BUFFING FELT 13 0 1.4 S II I INT G-NXT LRE ..ek.1\T31=1 BIZ'S ri" M 3Ft. T...7" X-3CM Si. POLISHING AND FINISHING IMPLEMENTS A SPECIALTY. F. W. CESSWEIN, MFR., NEW YORK. S. 39 JOHN STREET, CAE ILICHINE17 CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. Manufacturers of 66 AL Srogutl! Ailtomatic Boltcutters, Cutting from 3-8 in. to 6 in. diameter. Also Separate Heads and Dies. Send for Catalogue and Discounts. Agents, Maaaint, Maxwell h Moore, New York. '1'1'411 5- , 1882. 41- PAT. DEC. 1883. PA 1885 L. S. STARRETT Manufacturer of ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL LIST. Sterling Emery Wheel Co. -L BEST, Manager,- MANUFACTURERS, and Supplier free to any address on receipt of Ten Cents in stamps (for postage). CHAS. A. STRELINGER Detroit, Mich, *********************************

Wanted--
Situation as foreman boilermaker by a man of experience on all kinds of boiler work ; good references ; age 35. Eclipse, AM. MACHINIST. Wanted - Foreman for brass finishing department must be experienced in valve and cock work. Ad-dress with reference and salary, Valves, AM. MA-CHINIST. Wanted—A man.who is capable of laying out all kinds of work in a boiler shop ; one who thoroughly understands his business. Address, giving past experience, Layer Out, AM. MACHINIST. A young technical graduate wants work under a skillful man ; has experience in drawing room ; is a practical machinist ; good mech'l ability ; intelligent and steady. A ddress, IL, 357 Court st., B'klyn, N. Y. Wanted—Situation as foreman boiler maker ; have had long experience on all kinds of marine, station-ary, and locomotive work ; no objection to any part of the IT. S. Boiler Maker, 689 Notre Dame st., Montreal, Canada. Wanted—Foreman for college shops, to begin March 1, 1888 ; $1,000 salary for eight months' work per year ; must be a young man, energetic, well posted, a first-class machinist, and able to teach pattern making. Please give experience in detail and references. Address Room 81, 189 La Salle st•, Chicago, Ill. Wanted—Two good machinists, accustomed to sectional tap and die work, in new pipe mill at Wheeling ; steady work for right men ; men accus-tomed to tube works practice will have the prefer-ence. Reply, giving reference and wages expected, and how soon can come. Riverside Iron Works, Wheeling, W. Va. Wanted—A thoroughly practical and experienced draftsman and machinist capable of taking charge of works ; 30 to 40 men employed when busy ; busi-ness carried on, manufacture of marine and sta-tionary engines, saw mill machinery, railroad and general iron work ; will pay good salary to the right man. Address S. F. G., P. 0. Box 25, St. John, N. B., Canada.

\ MISCELLANEOUS WANTS.
Advertisements will be inserted under this head al 35 cents per line, each insertion. Crescent steel tube scrapers are unquestionably the best. Crescent Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Crescent boiler tube cutter, for setting new and removing old tubes. Crescent Mfg. Co., Cieveland,O. Wanted- Parties having machinery specialties to build, to correspond with. Box 75, AM. MACHINIST. For Sale—One improved Tabor steam engine indi-cator, cheap, used but once. S. M. Mallalieu, Coates-ville, Pa. Wanted-20" to 24" second-hand engine lathe, in first-class order ; give full particulars and cash price. Bargain, Box 76, An. MACHINIST. For Sale—Pond planer 40 x 36. to plane 12 feet; in good order, with chuck, at $950 ; also several second-hand bolt cutters. S. M. York, Cleveland, 0.

firm- hold,quick-worki ng Lever (Not Serew)V ise. Has improved Taper-Pipe and other attachments. Sold by the trade. Send for circular TOWER & LYON, 95 Chambers Strpet, New York. Successors to MELVIN STEPHENS.

J. FAY & BUILDERS OF IMPROVED
WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY
Embraces nearly 400 Machines for PLANING & MATCHING Surfacing, Moulding ,Tenoning, Mor-tising, Boring, and Shaping, etc. Variety and Universal WOOD WORKERS. Band, Scroll and Circular Saws,Re-sawing Machines. Spoke and Wheel Machinery, Shafting, Pulleys, etc. All of the highest standard of excel-lence. W. II. DOANE, Pres' t. D. L. LYON, Sec'y JOHN WLEY & SONS 15 ASTOR Pj ., NEW YORK. PUBLISHERS OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL WORKS. Send for Catalogues and Circulars.—Free by mail.
AUCTION SALE OF MACHINERY. The tools of the WALNUTPORT MA-CHINE WORKS, Walnutport, Pa., will be sold at auction at that place, Thursday, Dec. 15th, 1887, at I P. M. Send for Catalogue of Machinery to W. W. BOWMAN, Lehigh-ton, Pa. Sale positive.

Baker's Common Sense Oil Filter. Is the most Simple, Neat, Ornamental, I1 fie c t, I v e: Complete and Convenient OIL FILTER in the Ill) ket. The whole operatioi• is visible, and any ordinal': man can operate it sneees.. fully. It will pay for itself the first year, if a little pains is take: to catch the waste oil from you Engine, Dynamo, Shafting, , et, etc. Manufactured and for s. by CHAS. F. BAKER, 223 Third Ave., S. E , NINNEAPOLI3,
GEO. F. BLAKE MANF'G. CO. BUILDERS Ir VERY VARIETY OF OF Tnu 95 & 97 LIBERTY ST., 111 FEDERAL ST., NEW YORK. BOSTON. wATEB, WORKS PUMPING ENGINES A SPECIALTY TIIE TANITE COMPANY, OTROUDCBUItO, MONl20E CO., PA. Or H. A. ZONIS, 19 John St., N. I Exhaust Tumbling Barrels. PRICES $450.N&UPWARD floss UNIVERSAL RADIAL DRILL CO CINCINNATI. O.U.S.A. Henderson Bros.
MANUFACTURERS, Waterbury, Ct., CIRCULAR. PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING CENTEB ,TWIST DRILL GAUGE. has Machinists' Tools.—E. Boston. Mass—Send for Circular Iron and Steel
DROP FORGING Of Every Description, at Reasonable Prices. THE R. A. BELDEN CO., DANBURY, CT.

STEAM ENGINES
Upright and Horizontal, Stationary, Portable and Semi-Portable. 8 to 16 Horse Power. " Illustrated Pamphlet Free. Address ';JAMES LEFFEL dc.CCY SPRINGFIELD, 011I0, or 1 1 0 Liberty St.. New Yorac. ARCHITECTS, NATAL ARCHITECTS, MARINE, MECHANICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY AND ELECTRIC ENGINEERS use Smith's Patent Calculator, being in 10xWiX1% inches a complete pocket book and instantaneous calculation slide. Complete with logarithms, sines and tangents, F:3.50. Without sines and tangents, 12.50 and $1.50. Will be mailed on the receipt of price. R. C. SMITH, C. E., No. 1 Broadway, N. Y. COOKE & CO., Dealers MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES,
22 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK,

AGENTS FOR The Waters Perfect Governor. Having Adjustable Speed, Automatic Safety Stop, Sawyer's Lever, and Solid Com-position Valves and Seats. Also, SUPPLIES For Machinists, Railways, Mills, Mines, Etc. Please send for circular and state that you saw the advertisement in this paper For Pressure and Vacuum Gauges of every descrip-tion, Exhaust Steam, and other Injectors, Address, SCHAFFER & BUDENBERC, 40 John Street, New York.

Sebastian, May 86 Co.'s Improved Screw Cutting LATHE Drill Presses, Shapers, Band, Circular and Scroll Saws. Machinists' Tools and Supplies. Lathes on trial. Catalogue mailed on application. 167 West Second Street, CINCINNATI, 0. DON'T FAIL TO SEE OUR

NEW 48 IN. RADIAL DRILL
BEFORE PLACING YOUR ORDER FOR ANYTHING IN THAT LINE. BETTS MACHINE COMPANY, Wilmington, Del.


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15 JANUARY 1, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 11

NICHOLSON FILE COMPANY, Sole Mfrs. of
FILES and RASPS Having the Increment Cut, also, FILERS' TOOLS and SPECIALTIES.
The above illustration represents a device in which files may be held for service in surface filing, and while in this condition READILY SPRUNG, in order to give at the will of the operator, more or less convexity to the working face of the file. It does away with unnsna I care to obtain a true convexity or "belly" to file sides, and in fact renders great service by enabling the operator to utilize the file to its full capacity. SURFACE FILE HOLDER No. 4, Adapted to Hold Files 12, 13 14 in. Long. 14,15,16 " Si
MANUFACTORY AND OFFICE - PROVIDENCE, R. I., U. S. A.

THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR. THE STANDARD BOILER FEEDER FOR ALL CLASSES OF BOILERS. OVER 85 000 IN USE. Send for Circulars and Price Lists. THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR CO. OFFICE, 33 INDIA WHARF, BOSTON, MASS. HE NEW "GRESHAM" PATENT AUTOMATIC INJECTOR RE-STARTING

" Invaluable for use in Traction, Farm, Portable Marine and Stationary Boilers of all kinds. No handles required. Water supply very difficult to break. Capability of restarting automatically, immediately after interruption to feed from any cause." SEND FOR CATALOCUE. RELIABLE AND CHEAP. Sole Manufacturers in the United States & Canada,

NATHAN MANUFACTURING CO, 92 & 94 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. ROOTS' NEW ACME HAND ” BLOWER, For Blacksmiths, etc. Slow Speed, Positive Blast. Is Durable Compact and Cheap, also Portable Forges, Tuyere Irons and Foundry Blowers.

STEAM ENGINE, ETC. DUBOIS' Weisbach's Steam Engine, 8vo cloth, $5 00 DUBOIS' Rontgen's Hot Air Gas and Steam Engines, 8vo cloth 5 00 CLERK'S Gas Engine, 12mo, cloth ........... 2 50 GRIMSHAW'S Steam Engine Catechism, 18mo, cloth 1 00 MAW'S Chief Types Modern Marine Engines. folio, one half morocco 18 00 SINCLAIR'S Locomotive Engine, 12mo,cloth, 2 01) "THURSTON'S Stationary Engines for. Elec-SEBASTIAN , MAY & COMPANY'S Improved Screw Cutting root or Power Lathes

C. W. LE COUNT," South. Norwalk, Conn. REDUCED PRICE OF LE COUNT'S • HEAVY STEEL DOG a No. Inch. Price. 1171Z '4=2 2 1-2.." ,O) e g", cD., 2 F.,. 3 5-8 .60 . c(?; 4 3-4 60 cn co ,73 5 7-8 .70 b 0 6....1 70 cr3 1-1,„ c-o-, S 7-...1 M.__ 80 Ss'o 8....1 1-4 ,80 o m . . If ; tg. - 13....2 1-4 1.35 go ?o" 'ne4 14....2 1-2 15. U .. 1.454 g...0 Cn ....3 1.60 .4 16....3 1-2 1 .80 Er 0 CD ti+-4 17....4 2 10 0 g 18....4 1-2 2.75 A 4. 19.___5 3.25 coo Full set of 19,1323.60 r, cro. 20 (ext.) 5 1-2 4.00 o E. 21 (ext.) 6 5.00 One Small Set of 8-by 1-4 inches to 20 inch . 5 6.15 One bet of 12-by 1-4 in. to 2 in continued by 1-2 in. to 4 in. 13.20 Catalogue of Lathes, Drill Presses and Machinists' Tools and Supplies mailed on appli-cation. Lathes on Trial. 167 W. Second St.,Cincinnati, 0. E. P. B. SOUTHWORTH, 94 Exchange street, Rochester, New York. Indicating Engineer and Mechanical Draftsman. Correspondence solicited. ON HAND FOR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY ONE 60" PLANER

FOR WOOD AND IRON GEARS SPUR OR BEVEL. WILLIAM GLEASON, Manufacturer of Machinists' Tools, ROCHESTER, N. Y.

***************************

Generates steam rapidly and economi-cally. Constant circulation of water. Easily Cleaned. Furnace produces per-fect combustion. Best evaporative duty. Material and workmanship Al. Large number in use. WM. T. BATE & SON, Sole Manufacturers, Conshohocken, Penn. Tu ditiFAC_: RE 4EvERy DESCRIPTION STEAM SOILERS u .8 LINE OF BINRS IN STOC IMMEDIATE DELIVERY. THE WAINWRIGHT MAN'F'G CO., 65 and 67 Oliver Street, Boston, Mass., MANUFACTURERS OF Corrugated Ttlfalg, Feed Liu Elgin, CONDENSERS, FILTERS, EXPANSION JOINTS, Radiators and Water Purifying Plants for Steam Boilers. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. nue tibAil,Ei Foundry SEND FOR LIST OF USERS. Evansville Spar Mining Co., Evansville, Ind. PATEN R. G. Du Bois, Patent Att'y, 916 F St., Washington, D. O. Good references. Send for pamphlet. THOS. H. DALLETT & CO., 13th & Buttonwood Sts., Phila., Pa. MANUFACTURERS OF PATENT PORTABLE DRILLS 3 HAND DRILLS, BOILER-SHELL DRILLS, MULTIPLE DRILLS, Light Drill Presses, Special Machinery, &c., &c. Double Anglo Iron Shear NIECESiBY JONES, WILMINGTON, DEL. We claim many advantages in this tool over any other style made : Being double, it will cut either right or left ; Its knives are of a proper height for convenience of working ; It will cut a bar square off or on a bevel ; Being supplied with a clutch, it can be stopped instantly. It is a serviceable tool for bridge building, ship build--=--- ing. or any kind of =railroad work. It is the machine for shop work, as the knives can be changed to cut round, flat and square iron THREE SIZES. ACCURACY SIMPLICITY OF CONSTRUCTION. 72 PAGE CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST MAILED ON APPLI-CATION. "CUSHMAN" CHUCKS Are guaranteed to be right in all respects. Ask to see them at your dealer's, or write direct to the factory. Respectfully, THE CUSHMAN CHUCK CO. HARTFORD, CONN. MACHINISTS' SCALES, PATENT END GRADUATION. Ws Invite Comparison for Accuracy with all others. EVERY SCALE GUARANTEED. SEND FOR LIST. COFFIN & LEIGHTON, SYRACUSE, N. Y. END for Illustrated Price List of Fine Tools, manufactured by Standard Tool Co., Athol, Mass. 83 and 85 Washington Street, BROOKLYN, N. Y. THE NEW HOPPES LIVE STEAM FEED-WATER Heater and Lime Extractor. CLEAN BOILERS GUARANTEED. rOOSS 14004 Any Tool we make will be sent by mail or express to any address, all charges prepaid, on receipt of price. MC! CUD PROVIDENCE, R. I. SUPPLIES FROM HYDRANT PRESSURE the cheapest power known. Invaluable for blowing Church Organs, running Printing Presses, Sewing Machines in Households, Turning Lathes , Scroll Saws, Grindstones, Coffee Mills, Sausage Machines, Feed Cutters. Electric Lights, Elevators, etc. It needs little room, no firing up, fuel,ashes, repairs, en-gineer, explosion, or delay, no extra insurance, no coal bills. Is noiseless, neat, compact, steady; will work at any pressure of water above 151b. ; at 40 lb. pres- sure has 4-horse power, and capacity up to 10-horse power. Prices from $15 to $300. Send for circular to THE BACKUS 'WATER MOTOR CO., Newark, N. J. THE NATIONAL FEED- WATER WELDLESS OW DRAWN HEATER. A brass coil heater supplying feed water at 210° to 212° Fahr-enheit by use of exhaust steam. Our prices are low and rea-sonable, and we aim to supply the cheapest, best and most effect. ive Heater in the market. Six-teen sizes. 10 H. P., $20; 100 H. P., $150 ; 500 H. P., $600. Iron, Brass and Copper Coils and Bends made to order. pip. Circulars and price lists sent on application. SMOOTH INSIDE & OUT: JOHN SIENG„ 4 FlettherSt N.Y1 Nattooal Pipe &WO Co, EX'W"PE NEW HAVEN, CONN. Greenwood's Universal Planer Chuck. For Straight, Curved (Concave or Convex), or Angle Work. Used on any Planer with Cross-Feed for Links, Wedges, Keys, etc. Indispen-sable for Locomotive Builders and Master Me-chanics. Circulars with full description on application. PEDRICK & AYER, - Philadelphia, Pa. br>
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 AMERICAN MACHINIST 1887 page 12

Dec 17 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 12

AMERICAN MACHINIST DECEMBER 17, 1887

A PHOTOCRAPH OF A 6 H. P. HARRISON SAFETY BOILER
WILL BE MAILED TO ANY ONE INTERESTED IN Safe and Economical Steam Plants of Small Capacity. Address, Germantown Junction, Philadelphia, Penna.

TEAM" A VALUABLE BOOK for EVERY STEAM USER AND ENGINEER PUBLISHED FOR FREE DISTRIBUTION, BY THE BABCOCK & WILCOX .CO. Manufaoturers of WATER-TUBE BOILERS, 107 Hope St., GLASGOW. 30 Cortlandt St.,' NEW YORK. This System of Feed Water Heater is the Best Agents, TEE POND AND THE LOWE is the simplest HEAT ER on the system. Has Straight Tubes With reliable provision for expansion and will HEAT AND PURIFY THE WATER. EQUAL TO ANY With same Feet of Heating Surface and Year the Longest. Send for description and Histories of Boilers and Feed Water Heaters, to Bridgeport Boller Works, Bridgeport, Conn. ENGINEERING COMPANY, St. Lcuis and Sansas City, Mo 31Et.XCM7611 Mi..1%.111.3E1114V1' Feed-Water Heato and purifier, (WITH PUMP COMBINED.) is guaranteed to be more economical than any other, and users say: "It is all that -you. Claim." Send for Descriptive Catalogue . FRANK M. CLARKSON, Exclusive Sales Agent, Detroit, Mich,, SEND FOR CATALOCUE. STER MACHINE SCREW CO. IMPORTANT TO USERS OF VALVES. Owing to the popularity the JENKINS BROS. VALVES have attained, the market has been subjected to BASE IMITATIONS. One important defect in the imitations referred to is insufficient opening for inlet of steam or Fluid, thereby checking the flow. Purchasers of Valves should be careful to know that they are of capacity suited to size of pipe to which the Valves are to be attached. All Valves manufactured by Jenkins Bros. are Warranted Full Opening. JENKINS BROS., 71 John St., N. Y. ; 105 Milk St., Boston ; 13 So. Fourth St., Phila. ; 54 Dearborn St., Chicago. WESTCOTT CHUCK COMPANY, ONEIDA, N, Y FORMERLY ONEIDA STEAM ENGINE & FOUNDRY CO., MANUFACTURERS OF ALL KINDS ( LATHE DRILL CHUCKS. Send for Catalogue. Under Westeott's Patent. Capacity Little Giant Improved. No. 00 .. .. holds 0 to 4 inch. " 0 " 0 to " " 1 " 0 to 543 " " 2 " 0 to 1 " " 2 " 0 to 1 " ECONOMICAL STEAM BOILERS A SPECIALTY. PRICES „"° ,O• Pond Euilleerilli Co. ST.3147, Hydrostatic Machinery Manufacturers of Set, Cap and Machine Screws, Studs, etc. SECTION _ PH BRIO GSENTEERAATMOR Generates steam rapidly and economi-cally. Constant circulation of water. Easily Cleaned. Furnace produces per-fect combustion. Best evaporative duty. Material and workmanship Al. Large number in use. WM. T. BATE & SON, Sole Manufacturers, Conshohocken, Penn. PRESSES, PUMPS, P UNCIIES, Accumulators, JACKS, VALVES, FITTINGS, Vault Elevators, &Um WATSON & STILLMAN, 204-210 East 43d St., N. v. ESTABLISHED 1851. The Horton LatheChuck. SHE E. NORTON & SON CO. UNIVERSAL I INDEPENDENT ! (12 ECCENTRIC ! 4 UNEQUALED 4 IN STRENGTH, ACCURACY SIMPLICITY OF CONSTRUCTION. 72 PAGE CATALOGIII AND PRICE LIST MAILED ON APPLI-CATION. "CUSHMAN" CHUCKS Are guaranteed to be right see them at your dealer's, factory. Respectfully, THE CUSHMAN in all respects. Ask to or write direct to the CHUCK CO.. .911 c't Windsor I „ U. S. The Almond Coupling ANEW quarter turn motion to replace quarter turn belts and bevel gears. T. R. ALMOND, MFR. , 83 and 85 Washington Street, BROOKLYN, N. Y. THE NEW HOPPES LIVE STEAM PEED-WATER Heater and Lime Extractor. CLEAN BOILERS GUARANTEED.




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 DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN- MACHINIST 13

1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 13

DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN- MACHINIST 13

MORSE TWIST DRILL AND MACHINE COMPANY
, New Bedford, Mass. Manufacturers of Morse Patent Straight-Lip Increase Twist Drills. D. SAUNDERS' SONS

Steam & Gas Fittersaand Tools, SEND FOR CIRCULAR. Pipe Cutting, THREADING, Solid and Shell Reamers, Beach's Patent Self-Centering Chuck, Bit Stock Drills, DRILL GRINDING MACHINES, MILLING CUTTERS AND SPECIAL TOOLS TO ORDER. STEEL BALLS

FOR ANTI-FRICTION BEARINCS, OF BEST CAST STEEL. HARDENED GROUIVII & _BURNISHED. 3-16" to 3" Diameter. Samples and prices on application. SIIVIONDS ROLLING-MACHINE CO. FITCHBURG, MASS.

Drill Presses, Tap Drill Gauges.
Wood -Working Mahler) For Chair, Furniture and Cabinet Factories,Box Shoos, Planing Mills, Pattern Mak-ers' use, etc. ROLLSTONE MACHINE CO. 45 Water St.,Fitchburg,Mast. SPECIAL MACHINERY, TOOLS.

Brandon's Piston Ring Packiflg
Perfectly balanced against un-due pressure in all directions. Preserves bothcylinder and rings. Allows no waste by either fric-tion or leakage. Call and see working model, expressly made to demonstrate advantages claimed. For packing or shop rights, address JAMES BRANDON, 390 Eleventh Ave., New York. A Complete Cutting-off Machine, $4.00. Larger ones which cut to 2 in. $8.00. S. ELLIOTT, Newton, Mass.

We are making a specialty of 14 Inch ENGINE LATHES; And are selling them at such very low prices that even the Poverty-St ricken can afford to buy them. Don't sleeP another night until you write us for Photographs and Prices. S. Ashton Hand Mfg. Co, , Toughkenamon, Pa, UPRIGHT DRILLS

A SPECIALTY. ALL SIZES Patent Quick Return — AND — Latest Improvements. III, For Catalogues and Prices, address, EE NGINE Lathes, Hand Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Drills, and Milling Machines. Agents, MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, 111 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK.

SHAPING MACHINES
FOR HAND AND POWER. 6", 8" and 10" Stroke. Adapted to All Classes of Work to their Capacity. Circulars Furnished. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, WORCESTER, MASS. PUNCH AND DIE GRINDER.

For grinding punches and dies, such as are used in making bolts, rivets, screws and a large variety of square or circular pieces requiring one or more finished f a ces. Works equally well on hard steel, chilled iron or softer metals. Can be ar-ranged to grind convex, concave or flat surfaces. Work can be ground to any desired thickness or several piece s ground to same thickness. Write for Circu-lar. Springfield AND Tapping Machines.

..THE PATENT WHEEL PIPE CUTTER
shown in the cut combines sim. plicity with strength and lightness. Easily adapted to various sizes of pipe. Rolling instead of sliding motion. No loose parts to become detached and mislaid. All wearing surfaces are of tool steel. hardened. Less friction of parts than any other pipe cutter made.

10 INCH, 15 INCH CRANK SHAPERS, INCH, 26 INCH GEARED SHAPERS,
16 inch to 42 inch ENGINE LATHES, 22 inch to 60 inch IRON PLANERS
JOHN STEPTOE & CO.,

Cincinnati, Ohio. IT WILL PAY YOU TO WRITE FOR PRICES AND CATALOGUE. W ALAI-WS Lk:ATI-11ER 13 UPPING wHEEL MUSLIN and CLOTH BUFFING FELT 13 0 1.4 S II I INT G-NXT LRE ..ek.1\T31=1 BIZ'S ri" M 3Ft. T...7" X-3CM Si. POLISHING AND FINISHING IMPLEMENTS A SPECIALTY. F. W. CESSWEIN, MFR., NEW YORK. S. 39 JOHN STREET,

CAE ILICHINE CO., CLEVELAND, OHIO. Manufacturers of 66 AL ititlEM 'f Srogutl! Ailtomatic Boltcutters, Cutting from 3-8 in. to 6 in. diameter. Also Separate Heads and Dies. Send for Catalogue and Discounts. Agents, Maaaint, Maxwell h Moore, New York. PAT. DEC. 1883. PA 1885

L. S. STARRETT
Manufacturer of ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL LIST.

Sterling Emery Wheel Co.
-L BEST, Manager,- MANUFACTURERS,

L. S. STARRETT
and Supplier -,nt free to any address on receipt of Ten Cents in stamps (for postage). L. S. STARRETT , br>
< *************************************************************************************

BICKFORD DRILL CO.
Cor Front &Pike Sts. CINCINNATI, 0. " Eclipse" Hand Pipe- Cutting Machines. No. I.—Powerful, inex-pensive, simple in construc-tion. Cuts and screws pipes i% to 2-inch. Easily carried about. "ECLIPSE" Nbs. 2 and 3. These are powerful and most effi ci ent machines for cutting large PIPES, with which one man can easily cut of and threadb-inch fiipe. No. 2 Cuts and Screws 2% to 4in. No.3 " " " 2% to 6. in. It will 'ay you to write us for particulars. PANCO AST e.g. MAULE, [Mention this paper.] Philadelphia. lEirWe also build Power Machines. L. W. Pond Machine Co Manufacturers of and Dealers in iron Working Machinery. Improved Iron Planers a spe-cialty. Feed, pat-ented Feb. 14, 1886. Belt Shifter, patented NOV . 2, 1886. 140 Union St. Worcester, 111a004- NEW YORK AGENTS. FRASER & ARCHER, NEW AND SECOND-HAND MACHINERY, SHAFTING, HANGERS AND PULLEYS, 121 art.4.711B_ERS STREET. CARS & STEEL WIRE OF Z34- w. EVE r‘i& STEESPRINGS. ND IYORK CITY WORCESTER, MASS.

PUNCH AND DIE GRINDER.
For grinding punches and dies, such as are used in making bolts, rivets, screws and a large variety of square or circular pieces requiring one or more finished faces. Works equally well on hard steel, chilled iron or softer metals. Can be ar-ranged to grind convex, concave or fiat surfaces. Work can be ground to any desired thickness or several pieces ground to same thickness. Write for Circular.

Springfield Glue and Emery Wheel Co.,
SPRINGFIELD, MASS. DIXON'S SILICA

Graphite Paint FOR BOILER FRONTS.
Two coats will last two years. Send for circular. Equally good for all Iron Work exposed to ex-treme temperatures, salt air, acid fumes, etc. Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. JERSEY CITY, N. J.

NEW HAVEN MANUFACURING CO.
New Haven. Conn. Planers, Shapers, Drills, Blotters, Etc.

William Barker & Co.
Manufacturers of IRON AND BRASS —WORKING— MACHINERY 140 & 142 E. sizth street, N'r Culvert, Cincinnati, 0. Send for circulars and prices.



1. S. STARRETT
Manufacturer of ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL LIST.

Sterling Emery Wheel Co.
—L. BEST, Manager,—MANUFACTURERS, West Sterling, Mass. ACENCIES:—Frank J. Scott, Boston, Mass ; New York Supply Co. L't'd., N.Y.; E. L. Hall & Co., Philadelphia Pa,; Brown & King, Atlanta, Ga.; Taylor Bros., Pittsburgh, Pa.; Columbus Sup-ply Co., Columbus 0.; Marinette Iron I Works, Chicago, ll.; Ripley & Bron son, St. Louis, Mo. MACHINERY For Reducing & Poluting Wire I Especially adapted to pointing wire rods and wire for drawing. For Machines or information, address the manufacturer, S. W. GOODYEAR, Waterbury, Ct. PowelManfres-T.II Co. IROSHEPLANEBS, l Worcester, Mass.

Manufacturer and Supplier —Ant free to any address on receipt of Ten Cents in stamps (for postage).
CHAS. A. STRELINGER & CO., Detrolt, Michigan

No more trouble with Loose Pulleys. ORMSBY'S PATENT SELF-LUBRI-CATED PULLEY BEARING settles the business. Can be used on old or new shafts, and in any position. Send for circular and price list. GLOBE LOOSE PULLEYCO. Uovington, K y.

P. BLAISDELL & CO: Manufacturers of Machinists' Tools, FORBES & CURTIS 66 NEW ST., Bridgeport, It., MANUFACTURERS OF The Forbes Pat, Die Stocks, Power Pipe Cutting and Thread. ing Machines, Cutting-off Ma-. chines, Ratchet Drills, Machinery, achinery, etc., etc. WRITE FOR CATALOGUE. Mention. Paper.

BEVEL GEARS,
Cut Theoretically Correct. For particulars and estimates apply to BREHMER, BROS. Machinists, 440 IL 12th It., Philadelphia, Pa. WORCESTER. MASS. the mason REDUCING VAL vIVES SATISFACTION WHEREVER USED OFFICE 22 CENTRAL ST. BOSTON, MASS.


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DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN- MACHINIST 14

1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 14

DECEMBER 17, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST 14

14 AMERICAN MACHINIST DECEMBER 17, 1887 HIGR SPEED POWER -TRCIVELING CRIMES. We are now prepared to build HIGH SPEED POW LB TRAVELING CRANES for any capacity of load, any length of runway and any width of span, with one or with two trolleys on the bridge. These trolleys to work either slow or fast, together or independently, in like or in opposite directions, horizontally or vertically, while the bridge can be traversing slow or fast at the same time in either direction. The speeds of bridge on runway are 100 feet czncl 200 feet per minute ; the speeds of trolleys on bridge are 50 feet and 100 feet per minute ; and there are four hoisting speeds of 5, 10, 20 and 40 feet per minute; all can be varied quickly without the least shock or Jar from zero to maximal m or to any intermediate speed. The load is always automatically sus-tained, thus avoiding absolutely the great danger and anxiety which are inseparable from the use of those Cranes which require the operator to apply the brake. We have had one of these Cranes of 26 tons capacity in constant use in oar foundry for nearly two years, and we offer them with full confidence for the greatest range of service. We invite the correspondence of partiers interested in the subject. WM n Fe 80 CO., Iirkocoirjr)4a3r*x-te5c1, PHILADELPHIA. PA.

Double, Single, Angle-Bar, Gang, Horizontal, Twin, Boiler, Spacing, Gate, Multiple, Belt and Steam-Driven Paulin and Shears. Over 300 Sizes. ALSO, Power Cushioned Hammer. Send for New Catalogue.

SIDE PLANING MACHINE
Has quick return, automatic feeds, and is easy to handle. Takes less power, and will do more work than can be done in the old way with machines having a movable table or platen. SEE THIS PLANER AT WORK. It will pay you to look into the matter if you want to save money on your planing. E. A. WALKER, Manufacturer, 75 L AU ttEL ST., Philadelphia, Pa.

16" ENGINE LATHES' FIRST CLASS WORKMANSHIP. ACCURATELY AND SUBSTANTIALLY BUILT, WITH OR WITHOUT COMPOUND REST AND TAPER ATTACHMENT. WRITE FO :t CUTS AND PRICES. THE MULLER MACHINE TOOL CO., EICHTH AND EVANS ST. CINCINNATI, 0. J. E. LONERGAN CO: 211 Race St., Phila. Manufacturers of Pali? MEM, Cylinder Sight Feed C up s, Government Regulation Pop Safety Valves, for Locomotive, St a - tionary and Marine Boilers, also the "Reliable " Steam Trap.

The Castle Engine. A NET MECHANICAL. MOVEMENT. Only eight moving pieces. No packing re-quired. Takes up it s own lost motion. Noise-less and self-lubricating. Large wearing surfaces. More economical after long usage than a slide valve engine when new. High-test Steel Boilers. Size: 1 to 10 H. Power. Send for Circular No. 5. Castle Engine Works, Indianapolis, Ind.

. BEMENT, MILES tic CO., P.1-3 AJC0 -BUILDERS OF- METAL-WORKING MACHINE TOOLS FOR Railroad Shops, Locomotive and Car Builders, Machine Shops, Rolling Mills, Steam Forges, Ship Yards, Boiler Shops, Bridge Works, Etc., Etc. A. FJ-IEW PRACTICAL OPINMINTS OF THE OPEN SIDE PLANERS.

No. 1. - CARNEGIE, PHIPPS & CO., Limited. HOMESTEAD STEEL WORKS. DETRICK & HARVEY, Baltimore, Md. HOMESTEAD, PA., November 9th, 1887. Gentlemen -Replying to yours of 5th we can cheerfully say the open side planer furnished us by you does everything claimed for it. We find it very strong and rigid, runs very smoothly and takes heavy cut. We can do a great deal of work on much larger pieces than could be handled on ordinary type of planer of same size. We are well satisfied with the tool and consider it first class in every particular. Yours truly, JULIAN KENNEDY, Gen'l Supt. PROTOTYPES, ON APPLICATION. DETRICKr& HARVEY, Manufacturers, BALTIMORE, MD. ARC- LIGHTS 2 CENTS EACH. We call attention to the Low Cost of Maintaining- a Waterhouse Arc Light for one hour. It is less than 2 cents each. Large or small Plants from 4 Lights up. SEND FOR CATALOGUE. The Waterhouse Electric & Nana' g Co., Factory: Colt's West Armory, HARTFORD, CONN.

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE DEPARTMENT, HARRISBURG CAR MFG. CO. HARRISBURG, PA. SILVER MEDAL and DIPLOMA

Highest Award AT FRANKLIN INSTITUTE NOVELTY EXHIBI-TION, PHILADELPHIA. We are operating the- finest and most successful Electric Light Stations in the world. A change of speed not exceeding one per cent. guaranteed, running light and loaded. Send for catalogue.

Section of Copper-Wire-Sewed Light Double Belting, specially adapted to use on cone pulleys and other hard places. Manufactured by the PACE BELTNC CO., Concord, N. H. Also manufacturers of Staple and Special Grades of Leather Belting end the "HERCULES,' Lacing. Send for Catalogue No. 2. RICE AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF ENGINE. Self-Contained. Sensitive Gover br>
< ************************************************************************************* 211 %co M., Phila. Manufacturers of PATER OMNI Cylinder Sight Feed C u p s, Government Regulation Pop Safety Valves, for Locomotive, S t a - tionary and Marine Boilers, also the "Reliable " Steam Trap. FO R SUBSTANTIAL, WELL MADE, • LOW PRICED

20 INCH DRILLS, With latest improvements, Lever or Wheel feed, address Sibley & Ware, SOUTH BEND - INDIANA. 13ICKH'01-,I) MANUFACTURER OF A NEW MECHANICAL MOVEMENT. Only eight moving pieces. No packing re-quired. Takes up i t s own lost motion. Noise-less and self-lubricating. Large wearing surfaces. More economical after long usage than a slide valve engine when new. high-test Steel Boilers. Size:1 to 10 II. Power. Send for Circular No. 5. Castle Engine Works, Indianapolis, Ind.

likfit,Ett EXPLOSIONDaTad damage from too little and too much water can be obviated, while securing economical results, by using the RE-LIANCE S1Fe.Ti WATER, COLUMNS. 1Varranted and sold by Boiler Makers and Dealers generally. Viir Send for Illustrated. Price List. RELIANCE GAUGE CO., 27 EUCLID AVENUE, CLEVELAND, 0111(). 5.

BORING AND TURNING MILLS. LAKE VILLAGE, N. H. OSGOOD DREDGE CO.; ALBANY, N. 7. RALPH R. OSGOOD, Pres. JAMES H. BLES SING,Vice-Prey. JOHN K. HOWE, Secretary and Treasurer. MANUFACTURERS OF Dredges, Excavators, Ditcliiiig ladles, Derricks, Etc. Combined Stearn Excavato'r and Derrick Car,

VIER. DIPLOITIA

AT FRANKLIN INSTITUTE NOVELTY EXHIBI-TION, PHILADELPHIA. We are operating the- finest and most successful Electric Light Stations in the world. A change of speed not exceeding one per cent. guaranteed, running light and loaded. Send for catalogue. Section of Copper-Wire-Sewed Light Double Belting, specially adapted to use on cone pulleys and other hard places. Manufactured by the PACE BELTNC CO., Concord, N. H. Also manufacturers of Staple and Special Grades of Leather Belting dnd. the "HERCULES,' Lacing. Send for Catalogue No. 2. RICE AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF ENGINE (0.ip P tal

OIL ENGINES. For Printers, Steam Yachts, pumping water, sawing wood, making ice-cream,Carpenters, Mechanics. 1 to 5 H. P. Fuel, Kerosene. No dust. Auto-matic in fuel and water sup ply. Illustrated Catalogue free. Mention AMERICAN MA-CHINIST. SHIPMAN ENGINE CO., 92 Pearl St., Boston, Mass. SENSITIVE NEW S'T'YLES. GREAT IMPROVEItIEN TS S. KORTING GAS Patented. Gang Drills. Two, Three and Four Spindles. The spindles in thew driliN Vie driven with is single twit made endless, no and tightener pulleys l'or adjusting ten-sion provided. No na.e trouble from slacli belts, slippage, uneven motion from lacings, or time lost taking up belts. ALWAYS READY 1,0• USE and superior to /Lily multiple spindle drill lades. Single Spindle Drills Improved. 500 in use. Send for catalogue.

DWIGHT SLATE MACHINE CO. HARTFORD, CONN. Planers in Stock. One 36" x 36" x 9'. One 42" x 36" x 12'. Two 48" x 48" x any desired travel. One 42" x 42" x any desired travel. . Tl►e above are held at very Low Prices. The Newark Machine Tool Works NEWARK, N. J.

ENGINE. 12 Sizes. 1 to 60 H. P. Satis-faction uaran-teed. Thousands in use in Europe, (75. 36 engines running in N. Y. City. KortingGas Engine Co., Ld. 60 Barclay St, New York.

Self-Contained. Sensitive Governor. Balanced Valve. High Speeds. Stationary Oilers. Best Economy. Gold Medal Cincinnati Exposition, 1884.

THE JOHN T. NOME MFG. CO., THE SEINER ERIE, PA. ENGINE CO.

PORTABLE AND STATIONARY ENGINES and BOILERS Send for Catalogue and Prices. PORTER-HAMILTON ENGINE. 11
FOR HEAVY WORK & LARGE POW-ERS. EXTRA HEAVY DESIGN. Send for Catalogue. WILLIAM TOD & CO., YOUNCSTOWN, OHIO.
13 A.11,GA..IN ,Dne 70 H. P. Stationary Boiler Second Hand. " 60 H. P. " " 50 H. P. " Two 40 H. P. " One 30 H. P. Vertical " Two 15 H. P. " One 40 H. P. Portable Engine " 30 II. P. " 64 " 8 II. P. " " 60 II. P. Stationary " " 20 II. P. " " 20 II. P. Vertical " Two 12 P. " One Surface Planer, 27" wide, " Resawing Machine, " Circular Saw Mill, 52" Saw, New and Second Hand Shafting, Hangers, Pulleys and Belting. S. L. HOLT & CO., 67 SUDBURY ST., Boston, Mass.


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