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William-Gleason-60 inch Gear Planer,

Jan 1 1887










William-Gleason-60 inch Gear-Planer, for 1887.

We present with this an illustration of Gear-William-Gleason-60 inch Gear-Planer, for 1887
It is well understood by persons versed in gearing that while the teeth of spur-gears may be correctly formed by the revolving cutters as used in the ordinary gear-cutter, those of bevel-gears can be only indifferently-well formed by the same means. The error in the teeth of bevel-gears cut in this manner is serious, in causing them to "rattle" when run at a moderately-high speed, to "crowd' and run hard and in subjecting them to an uneven wear. It is also well understood that in a correctly-cut tooth of a bevel-gear every line truly drawn along the surface of either face, or the point of the same, or bottom of the space between the teeth, should tend toward a common central point lying in the plane of the axis of the gear. To produce a machine that will thus correctly cut the teeth of bevel-gears is the object of my invention; but it is equally well calculated to cut the teeth from blanks by first grooving the blank around to the proper depth for the spaces, and then giving to the faces of the teeth the desired curvature.
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Spiel-s-Petroleum-American-Machinist-Jan-15-1887 how-it-works

(Q9-- A JOURNAL FOR MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS, FOUNDERS, BOILER MAKERS, PATTERN MAKERS,
D BLACKSMITHS, VOL. 10, No. 3 WEEKLY. NEW YORK, JANUARY 15, 1887.
COPYRIGHT 1887, BY AMERICAN MACHINIST PUBLISHING COMPANY. For Sale Everywhere by News dealers.
82.50 per Annum. SINGLE COPIES, S CENTS. ENTERED AT POST OFFICE, NEW YORK, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER.


VERTICAL MILLING In a great variety of operations upon metals, formerly altogether performed with planing and shaping tools, the use of milling cutters has become very general, producing better and more uniform work with great economy. For many purposes a machine is required in which work of large dimensions can be milled ar oun its entire edge, in curved or straight lines and at all ang es, as well as on por-tions of its upper surface. Such is the vertical mill-ing machine built by Bement, Miles & Co. , Philadel-phia, and illus-trated by our en-graving. The , spindle has eight changes of speed by a cone and back gearing, which give ample power and range of speed for large a n d small cutters. Its lower bearing is upon a counter-balanced vertical slide, which is VERTICAL MILLING graving. The , spindle has eight changes of speed by a cone and back gearing, which give ample power and range of speed for large .a n d small cutters. Its lower bearing is upon a counter-balanced vertical slide, which is controlled by s c r e w, gearing and hand wheel. The cutter is thus capable of a r ertical movement of 10 inches. As the steadiness of the cutter de-pends much up-on these parts, their wea ing sur-faces are large and the means of adjustment complete. Provision is made for drawing the cutter mandrel tightly into its place, as well as for re-moving it from the spindle without the use of a hammer. The center of the cutter is 32 inches from inside of frame. The table is 42 inches in diameter, and has circular and right angular movements, the latter of 28 and 33 inches re pectively, all reversible and self-acting with five changes of speed or operated by hand. In cutting steel or wrought iron a liberal supply of some lubricating liquid is required. This is drawn from a tank in the interior of the upper part of the frame through nozzles to which pipe and hose may be attached. It drains into- a wide gutter surounding the table, and through suitably arranged openings into a settling tank in the lower part of the frame. A pump, not visible in the engraving, driven from the countershaft, then raises it to the upper tank to be used again. The strength and stiffness of all parts of the machine enable it to do work rapidly and well.

Lively Boiler Explosion, With a Cause. A correspondent sends us an account of a boiler explosion in Evansville, Ind., accom-panied by photographs of the wreck. The boilers, there was a battery of three, he claims were perfectly safe if they had been in good hands. He writes : " The back end of one of the Early Engineering Reminiscences.

By GEORGE ESCOL SELLERS. TWENTY-EIGHTH PAPER.
The machine I referred to, believing it to have been the first machine on this Continent to make continuous paper, and that I had a perfect recollection of, was in the paper mill Powder Mills, whom I had frequently met in my father's office ; he took me through the mills explaining everything ; this made a last-ing impression, for it was the first time I had seen the process of gun-powder making. I also visited the cotton factory of my father's old friend, Mr. William Young, who had, in connection with his factory, a good machine shop for that period. It was in this shop that my uncle, Franklin Peale, served his apprenticeship, and who afterwards became the chief coiner of the U. S. Mint, and the inventor of the steam coining press, which he constructed and put into practi-cal operation. I had the gratification of witnessing the first coin struck by it, and of being one of the select few in-vited to witness the first steam coinage on March 23d, 1836, and still have in my possession o n e of the coins, or rather, I should boilers was found about 500 yards from the .mill, top of what is called the coal mine hill, and at an elevation of about 100 feet. The front end of one of the boilers sailed over the river, just missing the pilot-house of a steamer, and landed high and dry on the Kentucky side, at least 1,000 yards from the mill." An eye witness says: " The dome went straight up at least 400 feet ; it landed about 10 steps from the boiler. * * * * The fireman, poor fellow, was killed. * * * * Out of all three boilers no two sheets can be found together. Small pieces can be found in every direction. All this destruction was caused by a blockhead of a machinist left in charge, who had made application to join the N. A. S. E., but had been rejected from in-competency. Unfortunately the blockhead escaped unhurt." Altogether our correspond-ent details a lively time, caused by incompetency, as is almost invariably the case.

. of Mr. Thomas Gilpin on the Brandywine Creek a few miles from Wilmington, Del., but I cannot with certainty fix the date that I first saw it in operation ; but from other circumstances connected with the visit to the mill with my father I do not think it was earlier than 1817 or later than 1818, and then the machine had been in operation for a con-siderable time. I have no distinct recollection of the special object of my fa her's visit to the mill at that time. But I do remember that he and Mr. Gilpin and his manager, Mr. Great-rake, spent much time in the machine room watching the operation, sketching and discuss-ing points in connection with the forming cyl-inder and the exhaust pumps. The millwright had been called in, and while some changes were being discussed I left them ; having considerable portion of the afternoon to my-self I took advantage of it to call on Mr. Irene Du Pont, the founder of the Du Pont had the gratifica-tion of witness-ing the first coin struck by it, and of being one of the select few in-vited to witness the first steam coinage on March 23d, 1836, and still have in my possession o n e of the coins, or rather, I should say, one of a few that were struck a few days pre-vious when my uncle was adjust-ing the press, testing its capa-b lity, and also the dies. This test was only in the presence of Dr. R. M. Patter-son, the then di-rector of the U. S. Mint, Adam Eckfeldt, the old and first coiner of the U. S., Mr. Gobrecht, the die sinker, Jos. Sax-ton and myself. Of those present at the select exhibition on the 23d, I recollect Matthew W. Bald-win, Rufus Tyler, Wm. Mason, S. V. Merrick, and S. Morris, as among the most prominent mechanics of the time. The dollar press went into operation the fall of the same year, 1836. I have one among the first that were struck. It bears that date, and has the die sinker's name, C. GOBREOHT, F., in very small sunken le tern under the figure of the Goddess of Liberty, thus per-petuating and passing to posterity in letters that will remain when all the raised ones are worn away, not the name of Thomas Sully, the artist who designed the figure of the goddess, but the copyist who only repro-duced it, when the name of the artist as well as that of the creator of the unerring press that struck the coin is lost. But all this has nothing to do with paper making or paper making machinery. We >
AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 3 Spiel's Petroleum Engine.

Spiel's Petroleum Engine.
We present with this an illustration of Spiel's petroleum gas engine, which F. St. George How, agent for the patent holders, is now introducing in this country. In general appearance, the petroleum en-gine does not differ greatly from some hori-zontal types of gas engines, except that it carries a small reservoir above it for oil. The operation of the engine may be briefly explained as follows : The petroleum is drawn from a tank to the reservoir on the engine by means of a small centrifugal pump fitted to the engine. When the number of hours in which the engine has to run can be previously ascertained, the size of the reservoir can be so arranged as to supply petroleum during the whole time without any further attention. In this case the reservoir is filled before starting. Vaporization of the petroleum previous to use does not take place, the engine using it in its fluid condition. From the reservoir the petroleum is conducted by a pipe to a pump, by which small measured quantities are injected into the cylinder of the engine, and at a given point it is ignited proverbial " long felt want." It should be something that any man of ordinary intel-ligence can use and under-stand, and from which he can obtain results accurate enough for practical pur-poses.

Practical Drawing. By J. G. A. MEYER. FORTIETH PAPER.
375. Remarks relating to Problem 51 : It may often appear difficult to find the projections of straight lines, and more so to find the projections of curved lines ; but if we remember that, when we have the projections of two points of a given straight line, its projection is known ; and when we have the projections of several points of a given curve, the projection of the curve is also known ; consequently, we see that many problems can be reduced to very simple ones, in which all difficulties will disappear. Therefore we should be very particular to understand thoroughly the method of find-ing the projections of points in whatever position these may be given, or in whatever curve they may lie. It is the great import-ance of this subject which leads us to make the following remarks, thereby trusting to enable the student to become as familiar as possible with this subject. In Fig. 268 it will be seen that in order to obtain the horizontal projection of the bases we first established a number of points, as f, h, etc., all equal distances apart in the vertical projection of the upper base of the cylinder. In relation to these points, it must be said that it is not necessary to make the distances between these points equal to each other; we did so simply to make the figure appear symmetrically ; neither is it necessary that two points, for instance, such as e2 and f2, should lie in one straight line, drawn perpendicular to the upper base m n of the cylinder; we simply adopted this method to save labor. We will obtain the same curve in the horizontal projection by taking any number of points (the more the better) in any position whatever in the circum-ference of the circle m2 n2 e,d2; thus: Fig. 269, let A B be the ground line, and let m n repre-sent the vertical projection of the upper base of a cylinder having the same diameter, and the same inclination to the hori-zontal plane of projection as that represented by m n in Fig. 268, and let the circle m2 ne c2 d2 in straight line drawn perpendicular to the ground line A B; we therefore draw a ver-tical line through the point e, and this line will contain the horizontal projection e3 of the given point. It now only remains to find the distance between the point e3 and the ground line A B. Since e2 represents the given point when its projecting plane coin-cides with the vertical plane of projection, and since the projecting plane is turned around its trace, it follows that when the projecting plane stands perpendicular to the vertical plane of projection, then the distance between the vertical plane of pro-jection and the point will be equal to that ings the ground line A B is not drawn, and therefore, instead of laying off the point e3 from A B, or in other words, measuring its distance from the ground line, we first draw the diameter ma n3, which is the horizontal projection of a diameter parallel to the ver-tical plane of projection, and from the point f, in which the vertical e f5 cuts m3 n., we lay off on the line e f5 the point e3; the dis-tance between these points must, of cour.e, be equal to that between the points e2 and f4; the point f4 being the point in which the line e e2 produced, cuts the diameter m2 n2 drawn parallel to m n. The result will be the same as before. 376. When a right cylinder with a circu-lar base is standing in an oblique position, as shown in Fig. 268, the horizontal pro-jection of each base will be an ellipse. The center line c3 d3 (Fig. 268), which is the longest straight line that can be drawn in the ellipse, is called the major axis ; and the center line m3 na (Fig. 268), which is the shortest line that can be drawn in the ellipse, is called the minor axis. A more precise definition of these axes will be given when we consider the properties of an ellipse.

Problem 52. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PROBLEM 51. 377. To FIND THE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL PROJECTION OF A FLANGED CYLINDER, THE DIMENSIONS AND POSITION OF THE SAME BEING GIVEN. In this problem it is required to make an elevation and a plan of a flanged cylinder whose diMensions are given in the illustra-tion ; the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the vertical plane of projection, and oblique to the horizontal plane of projection. In order to refresh the student's memory, we will remark that by the term " vertical DECEMBER 31, 1887

- - Draw any horizontal line A B (Fig. 270).. Since the point f of the upper flange is to 'be 52 inches above the line A B, draw another line f s at a distance of 52 inches above and parallel to A B. The total length of the cylinder (including the flanges) is to be 1.1 inches, therefore from any point h on the line A B as a center, and with a radius of 14 inches, describe a short arc cutting the line f s in the point f, join the points h and f by a straight line; this line will give the correct inclination of the cylinder. From the point on the line h f lay off a point m ; the dis-tance between these points must be equal to the thickness of the flange, namely 11 inches; also on the line h, f lay off, 11 inches from f, a point k. Through the points h, m, k, f; draw lines perpendicular to h f • to do this use the T and set squares in a manner as illustrated in Figs. 71 and 80. Draw the center line a o parallel to, and at a distance of 58 inches from h f ; again at a distance of 58 inches from a o draw the lines i n and l g, which will complete the vertical projection of the flanges. On each side of the center line a o, and parallel to it, draw a straight line ; the distance between the axis and each one of the lines must be 4 inches, making the total distance between these lines equal to the diameter of the cylinder, namely 8 inches. Also indicate the thickness of the metal in the cylinder by drawing two dotted lines, parallel to a o, and each line 3 inches away from a o ; these lines will complete the elevation of the flanged cylinder. In order to find the horizontal projection consider this flanged cylinder to be com-posed of three separate right cylinders (Art. 299) whose axes lie in one straight line and their bases in contact. Two of these separate cylinders will be represented by the flanges, and therefore each one of these two cylinders will be 11 inches long and 111 inches in diameter ; the remaining cylinder will be 8 inches in diameter and 112 inch-es long. We have now only to find the horizontal projection of each one of these cylinders by the method, given in Problem 51, and thus obtain the out-line of the flanged cylinder in the horizontal projection. In Article 18 it is stated that ; the science of geometry treats

taking any number of points (the more the better) in any position whatever in the circum-ference of the circle m2 n2 c2 d2; thus: Fig. 269, let A B be the ground line, and let m n repre-sent the vertical projection of the upper base of a cylinder having the same diameter, and the same inclination to the hori-zontal plane of projection as that represented by m n in Fig. 268, and let the circle m2 n, c2 d2 in Fig. 269 represent the same base when its projecting plane co-incides with the vertical plane of projection. For reasons given in Problem 51, the center C., of this circle will lie in a straight line drawn perpendicu-lar to the line m n, and drawn through the point c midway between the extremities m and n. Now let us take any point as e2 in the circumference m2 n2 c2 d2, and find its horizontal projection. Our first step will be to find the position of the same point on the line m n, or in other words, find the posi-tion of the point e2 after the plane which contains the same has been revolved about its trace m n until it stands perpen-dicular to 1 he vertical plane of projection. Now,inrevolving this plane about its axis, which" is the trace m n, the path of the point e2 will be represented by a straight line e2 e drawn through e2 perpendicular to a,, and therefore the point e in which the line cuts the line m n, is the point sought. From the foregoing we see that the points e and e2 represent one and the same point in space the former is the position of the point when the projecting plane stands perpen-dicular to the vertical plane of projection, and the latter is the position of the point when the projecting plane coincides with the vertical plane of projection. Our next step will be to find the horizontal projec-tion of this point. Let us consider the point e to be the vertical projection of a given point in space ; we know, according to Article 227, that both the vertical and hori-zontal projection of a point must lie in a

Fig. 272 between the points e and e2. We therefore lay off on the line e e3 from the point e4, in which it cuts the line A B, a point e3, the distance between the points e4 and e3 being equal to that between the points e and e2. Then will the point es be the horizontal and the point e the vertical projection of a given point in space, and this same point is also represented by e2. But since e2 lies in the circumference of the circle, the point e3 will also be a point in the boundary line of the horizontal projection of this circle. In a similar manner we may obtain the hori-zontal projections of any number of points chosen in the circumference of the circle, and then by joining these horizontal pro-jections by a curved line we will obtain a boundary line of the base in the horizontal projection precisely the same as that shown in Fig. 268. Once more, in working draw- Pig. 273

projection " is meant an elevation of an object, and by the term " horizontal projection " is meant a plan of the object (see Articles 215 and 222); and when we say" the axis of the cylinder is to be parallel to the vertical plane of projection" we simply mean that in drawing the elevation of the cylinder we must assume the axis of the same to be parallel to the surface of the paper on which it is drawn ; and by the ex-pression " oblique to the horizontal plane of projection "we mean that in drawing the plan of the cylinder we must assume the axis of the same to be *inclined to the sur-face of the paper on which it is drawn. In problems of this kind we must always make first that view of an object in which the true lengths of all the lines can be seen, and therefore we commence with the vertical projection or elevation of the cylinder.

two cylinders will be 11 inches long and 111 inches in diameter ; the remaining cylinder will be 8 inches in diameter and 112 inch-es long. We have now only to find the horizontal projection of each one of these cylinders by the method, given in Problem 51, and thus obtain the out-line of the flanged cylinder in the horizontal projection. In Article 18 it is stated that the science of geometry treats on the laws relating to space, and that a geometrical solid is that portion of space which a material object may occupy. hence, to find the horizontal projection of the hole in the cylinder, we simply consider it to be another right cylinder whose axis coincides with the others, and whose length is limited by the face f g and h i of the upper and lower flanges, and then find the projection of this cylinder in precisely the same manner as shown in Fig. 268 and explained in Problem 51. Directions. ”In the space marked Prob. 52 draw the vertical and horizontal projections of a flanged cylinder whose position and dimensions will agree with those given in Fig. 270. Use a 1I---inch scale. The ellipses which represent the horizontal projection of the faces i h, n m, 1 k, g of the flanges are exactly alike, and therefore we need to find only the points in one ellipse. In drawings of this kind, the points so found can be joined sufficiently accurate by arcs of a circle, and, consequently, when one curve has been drawn in this manner, similar curves can be readily drawn without finding points in each curve. The manner of joining the points by arcs of a circle is explained in Article 379. In the case before us, we have only to find the correct positions of the major and minor axes, :and on these establish centers from which the arcs com-posing the curve can be drawn. Thus : For the horizontal projection of the uppe fit flange we need only find, as is clearly shown in Figs. 270, 271, the position of the major
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 4
pg 4 AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 15, 1887

4 AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 15, 1887
Machine Tools for Patternmakers.
BY F. W. BARROWS.

In preparing work for the lathe it is necessary to provide some way of holding split patterns firmly together. Small patterns may be held together by gluing a short space at each end, beyond the length of finished piece, but if fastened in this way the turning must all be done before separating the pat-tern. A better way is to put a screw in each end, then you may take it apart as many times as you wish. This is sometimes de-sirable ; as, for instance, in turning a piece any portion of which is required to be as nearly a perfect sphere as possible. After the pattern has been centered accurately in the joint turn down a place opposite the center of ball to the size required, and make a line to locate center of ball, then take the pattern apart and draw the center line across one-half, then strike a circle the diameter of required ball, having its center located on line already made, and with your knife or a chisel cut off one side of pattern to the line of circle, taking care to cut off the right side. This will be on the side of joint towards you, at the top, as the pattern revolves in the lathe, or hold the half pattern with the live center end towards you and the joint up, and cut off the right hand side. Replace the pat-tern in the lathe and turn down just to this line and you will have, practically, a true sphere. Any split pattern, the outline of whose surface is composed of. curved lines which are hard to locate from the outside, may be laid out in this way and turned up more accurately than is possible in any other way. The lathe should be stopped as often as is necessary to note where you must cut away the pattern. If your lathe has iron cones on counter and spindle you won't get along as 'fast as you could if they were properly provided with wooden cones, as it takes longer to stop and start the heavy iron ones. Large split patterns may be held together by dogs driven in each end, at one or both sides of the centers, or hardwood centers may be used, like Fig. 77. Iron plates are some-times used similar to 77, but these are hard on the lathe centers, especially the tail center, when it isn't in line with the spindle, although they may used at the spindle end in connec-tion with some form of lathe-dog for driving the joint, how can you tell when the centers are all located in the correct plane? and if the casting is to be hollow, how will you make the core box so as to leave the casting of the right thickness throughout ? There is a way of getting round all these difficulties. You may fit your pattern to-gether, making offsets in the parting, to keep the centers of all the different pieces in the same plane. These offsets give the pattern a kind of rustic look, and perhaps the moulder will have to borrow a stepladder to
O Fig. 71 weight if it is perfectly balanced, it is hard on the front bearing of spindle, where it overhangs much. Then, if it is a tool to drive some piece of work, the nearer the work is to the journal the better it is for both work and lathe. Again, if it, the tool, isn't balanced and is also made to project away out toward the other end of lathe, you will have hard work to keep the lathe from running hot or to turn up a piece of work round and true. In my next paper I will describe a chuck which is very useful on some kinds of small work, and which" will, 'space, off _and, center holes to be drilled or bored anywhere within the limits of the tool. I;will,;also describe a peculiar job of turning. New boilers for the Consett Iron Works, England, are to be built so they can be fired with gas instead of coal, if found advisable to do so.

Centre line of Spindle fig. 78

Axis of revolution Pattery, get up and down over these offsets, in making his parting. They will also help to make a poor casting. Another, and a much easier way, is to lo-cate the center exactly in the joint of each and every piece. Face-plates should be put on with a well-fitted thread, and a good liberal shoulder. You will find it very easy to get one fast on the spindle, if the thread is a loose fit and the shoulder small. On the contrary, when they are properly fitted, it will be a pretty hard matter to get one fast ; but as we are all li-able to meet with accidents when turning, we may be so unfortunate as to get one stuck fast: To prevent this I have found a paper washer, well soaked in oil and placed between face-plate and shoulder on spindle, to be a good thing. If you have never tried this, you will be surprised to see what a difference it will make. To keep the dirt from collect-ing on the thread inside face plate hub, file a Tail Centre

Some Notes on Steel.
BY JOHN COFFIN.
ONE OF THE UNEXPECTED THINGS EXPLAINED.
Prof. Sweet said in his paper on " The Unexpected Which Often Happens " : " One who would predict how a steel rail would behave in cooling would find himself twice wrong," I am not certain that I quote him literally. Before I undertake to explain I will first state the facts for the benefit of those whose attention has never been called to the subject. As a rail leaves the rolls the head being thicker than the flange (see sketch) retains more heat, so that if the rail is straight at this time when it becomes cold the head will be concave. To avoid this and leave it straight when cold it is cambered while hot, thus making the head convex, so that when it cools it will be straight. It was the peculiar action•of the through the same action, and there is no hot head against it. Furthermore, if a rail be pushed out by itself and allowed to cool, it behaves exactly the same. We must look elsewhere for the reason of the head becoming concave for a time while the rail is cooling. I think we can look for the cause in the re-heating due to the chemical change of car-bon, as explained by an eminent Swedish en-gineer.
I will digress to give his theory. . In cooling, the carbon changes, hardening carbon to cement carbon, and in this change there is a certain amount of chemical energy destroyed, which results in giving out heat. He illustrates by a,beautiful and simple experi-ment, which I will cite:
A piece of high carbon steel is heated to an )range color on one end, and then taken in the dark, and the cooling observed. It is evi-dent, as all grades of heat, from a black to an orange, are represented, that some part of the bar is at a temperature at which its car-bon is almost ready to change. This is made manifest by a bright streak, or band, appear-ing between the highly heated end and the black part. This band appears hotter than the metal adjoining it on both sides ; yet it is certain that a moment before this part was cooler than the metal on one side of it. So the only conclusion we can draw is that this metal has re-heated itself. Furthermore, the corners, which first began to cool, again get bright, and at one time in the cooling opera-tion are hotter than the center of the bar. This is a simple experiment anyone can try. A bar of ordinary tool steel, 1" thick and 1" wide, being a very good size, though any size will do. The question naturally arises, although it appears to get hotter, does it actually do so, and does it expand at the same time ? To determine this I took a bar of steel 9 per cent. carbon, 4 feet long, and heated it uniformly to an orange color.
I then took it out of the furnace and by a previously ar-ranged device clamped one end and measured the contraction at the other end, having pre-viously made a center punch mark near the end for one point of an ordinary pair of di-viders, and prepared a surface on a fixed plate to scratch on with the other point. I found the contraction was as follows : It first con-tracted 8" when expanded , then contracted until cold, TV, making a total contraction of ,1-32". It was not quite cold vet : I could hoer it out of the furnace and by a previously ar-ranged device clamped one end and measured the contraction at the other end, having pre-viously made a center punch mark near the end for one point of an ordinary pair of di-viders, and prepared a surface on a fixed plate to scratch on with the other point. I found the contraction was as follows : It first con-tracted" when expanded , then contracted until cold, IV, making a total contraction of 2". It was not quite cold yet ; I could bear my hand on it when I took the last observa-tion. I repeated the experiment a number of times with the same result. I then tried a bar of 17 per cent. carbon, and there was no re expansion that I could notice. But its behavior seemed to be as follows : It contracted 64" during each 5 seconds for three-quarters of a minute, and then did not seem to change for 20 seconds, when it commenced contracting again. If my means of measuring had been finer I might have detected a slight re-expansion. It was a ' square bar that I experimented upon. I then took a bar of 7 per cent. carbon and it contracted continually until cold, though not quite regularly. I think now that we have established the remarkable fact that steel ex-pands at a certain time in its passage from a hot to a cold state. We can return to the rail problem again and offer this explanation : While the rail is cooling the flange reaches the re-expanding stage before the head does, and makes the head concave ; later on, at about the time the flange begins to contract again, the head reaches its re-expanding stage and the head becomes convex again, and more convex than it was when it left the cambering machine. It has always seemed to me that our colleges are the places to try such experiments as these. Where they do not lead to direct practical results the manufact-urer does not Teel like spending money to try elaborate experiments, and to have their full measure of instructiveness they must be elaborate and &curate. Notwithstanding what has been said of business depression in England it appears that the export of rails was somewhat greater in 1866 than in 1865. It is also noticeable that there is a recent large increase in the export of rails. takes longer to stop and start the heavy iron ones. Large split patterns may be held together by dogs driven in each end, at one or both sides of the centers, or hardwood centers may be used, like Fig. 77. Iron plates are some-times used similar to 77, but these are hard on the lathe centers, especially the tail center, when it isn't in line with the spindle, although they may used at the spindle end in connec-tion with some form of lathe-dog for driving the work. In all cases a wooden center piece at tail end, with a center like Fig. 76, will always wear well and run true. I have seen an ordinary face-plate put on head end of pat-tern and then screwed on the spindle. At the same time an iron plate was put on the opposite end of pattern for tail center. J This is a poor way. How are you going to square off the end of pattern for face-plate so that it will run exactly true ; that is, supposing the tail center to be in line with spindle. If it isn't in line, it won't make any difference whether the end is square with spindle or not—it is bound to strain the lathe. After the face-plate is fastened on the work, and then screwed on the spindle, it forms a rigid joint between spindle and work, and they will re-volve as one piece, or more correctly, will strive so to do. The axis of revolution* will be a straight line, drawn from the center of spindle to the tail center ; and if the tail center isn't in line, this axial line won't pass through the center of front journal box, so your lathe will probably run hot. This is illustrated by Fig. 78, where the tail center is below line of spindle. Heavy split-patterns should not be run at too high a speed, as the centrifugal force generated will spring open the joint, and as a result, the pattern, when finished, will not be round. Care should be taken in centering split-pat-terns for the lathe. Get the center exactly in the joint, especially if the pattern is to be ' made of more than one piece ; and if it is only one piece, and has any part of it squared up, how can you square it accurately, if the pattern isn't parted at the center ? If the pattern is made up of two or more pieces, and you get these pieces all centered out of are properly fitted, it will be a pretty hard matter to get one fast ; but as we are all li-able to meet with accidents when turning, we may be so unfortunate as to get one stuck fast: To prevent this I have found a paper washer, well soaked in oil and placed between face-plate and shoulder on spindle, to be a good thing. If you have never tried this, you will be surprised to see what a difference it will make. To keep the dirt from collect-ing on the thread inside face plate hub, file a notch across the thread on spindle; just where it becomes a full thread, cut the notch to the full depth of thread. Then, if you keep the notch clean, it will, in turn, clean out thread inside face-plate. This won't work very well if the thread is a loose fit. Some lathes intended for very heavy face-plate work have no thread cut on spindle, but instead, the end of spindle is turned to a slight taper, and the face-plate bored to fit, and is drawn up to the shoulder on spindle by a taper key passing through the hub of face-plate and through spindle. A face-plate fitted in this way don't get stuck on the spindle. A small face-plate fitted to go into the taper hole in either live spindle or tail spindle is sometimes very useful. A great many tools may be made for the lathe which are useful either in saving time, or by bettering the quality of work turned out, but as these are to a great extent what may be called special tools, I shall not men-tion many of them. There are some that are useful to all, among these are a chuck for drills and another for bits with square ends; both these chucks should be fitted to either spindle. Then a pair of female centers are very handy on small work. Make the live one on a very slight taper, that it may center and hold any round piece that will go into the center. In fitting centers, chucks and all other literally. J6efore- 1 undertake to explain I will first state the facts for the benefit of those whose attention has never been called to the subject. As a rail leaves the rolls the head being thicker than the flange (see sketch) retains more heat, so that if the rail is straight at this time when it becomes cold the head will be concave. To avoid this and leave it straight when cold it is cambered while hot, thus making the head convex, so that when it cools it will be straight. It was the peculiar action of the rail when cooling that Prof. Sweet referred to. It is as follows : When the rail is pushed on the hot bed the head is convex, but as the cooling progresses the rail becomes straight, and then the head becomes concave, then straight again, then convex, and finally straight.

Head _Flange
The explanation commonly given is that the hot head of the next rail being pushed against the flange of the cooling rail causes the flange to cool more slowly, or actually reheats it so that it is hotter than the head, thus causing the rail to be for a short time concave on its head side. This cannot be true, for the rails go
*By this I mean the axis about which the pattern and spindle, now held rigidly together by face-plate, would strive to revolve. tools for a speed lathe, you should always through the same action if pushed on the keep them as close to the housing as possible. bed flange first; and it is absurd to think that In other wards, make them as short as you the head of the first rail can heat the flange can, and as light as is consistent with of the second rail hotter than its head, for strength. Weight in any part of a speed the head of the first rail itself is necessarily lathe which revolves with the spindle is cooler than the head of the second rail, for it something to be avoided, especially where it was rolled first, and has had more time to is in such shape as to overhang the bearing ; ' cool. And besides, the last rail on the bed, for while it doesn't matter much about the 1when they are pushed up heads first, goes

WICKES ~ BROTHERS
220 Water Street, Saginaw, Mich.
801 Fifth Ave., New York 736 White- Henry Bldg., Seattle, Wash.
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 5 January-5-Vol-56-No 1

 AMERICAN MACHINIST January 15 1887 page 5\ AMERICAN MACHINIST January 15 1887

DECEMBER 31, 1887
AMERICAN MACHINIST
nowel was lifted to be rammed on cope No. 2. I shall be excused, I think, for so much apparent repetition in these instructions, because I know that, to those who have had no experience in this class of work, there seems more or less mystery in the use of two copes; but a little thought will over-come all this and the whole thing appear in all its simplicity. To foundries where no pattern makers are employed a knowledge of the methods is indispensable, as it places them (so far as this class of work is con-cerned) on an equal footing with the best equipped firms. To conclude I would say that many in-genious contrivances will suggest them-selves to the moulder engaged on this line of work ; as, for instance, a rough block with bearings for a strickle to work on can be struck off in plaster to any design which runs the same along its whole length ; this can be used as a model and backed out with clay thickness as directed. All such patterns as are shown at Fig. 1 can be treated this way, thereby enabling the moulder to choose either the method ex-plained at Fig, 2 or the one just considered. In fact, this article is but a mere outline of what can be done by these methods ; for when once entered into it will be found that scarcely any limit can be placed to its use fulness.

Good Advice.
In the copy of the constitution and by-laws of a mutual benefit association sent us by Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., of Roch-ester, N. Y., is a loose leaf not belonging to the copy referred to. From this leaf we learn that this firm has established a library consisting of books, newspapers, periodicals, etc.. for the use of their employes. On this leaf are printed a few very simple rules to be observed by those making use of the library—rules in which any intention to hedge about the use of the library by annoy-ing conditions is conspicuously absent. Then follows this advice, which is worthy of being given wide publicity. We think nothing better could be got into the same space: "Read something useful every day, if only for a few minutes.
gineers. Regular meetings will be held at stated intervals, at which papers will be read and topics relating to foundry practice discussed. Following are the offic, rs of the new society : President, Isaac Wirclaester, of Boston ; vice-presidents, N. Balton of Norwich, Conn., R. H. Palmer, of Provi-dence, R. I. ; secretary, J. P. Pero, Stam-ford, Conn.; treasurer, Frank Gibby, Boston, Mass.; councilors, Frank Davey, Bristol, Conn., Joseph Hennessey, Chicopee Falls, Mass.; managers, J. B. Pero ,'Indian Orchard, Mass.; Jno. Witherell, Florence, Mass.; Thos. King, Meriden, Conn.; J. S. Richardson, Rutland, Vt.; H. B. Murless, Rockville, Conn. The next meeting of the society will be at Worcester, Mass., July 2.

A Good Appointment.
Charles A. Bauer, general manager of the Wardner, Bushnell & Glessner Works, at Springfield, Ohio, has been appointed one of the commission( rs of the machinery depart-ment of the forthcoming centennial of Ohio. The officers of the department of machinery should receive credit for appointing a man of Mr. Bauer's well-known mechanical and business ability to this place. Such appoint-ments will go a long way towards establishing confidence in the enterprise, and are in pleas-ing con*rast to those sometimes made for similar purposes. Mr. Robert' E. Masters, well known to our readers, has accepted a new position. The following, from the Richmond Whig, will explain : **Mr. Robert E. Masters has been ap-pointed general superintendent of the Marshall Car Wheel and Foundry Com-pany's plant at Marshall, Texas, and in con-sequence has resigned his position as man-ager of the cast-iron de_ partment of the Tredegar 9 Iron Works, to take effect on the 31st of this month. As an expert in the mixture of metals and in the management of men and work pertaining to foundry practice, Mr. Masters is said to have no superior. His practical, illustrated articles in the A mEiticAN MA-
States in 1886. We call attention to this fact, because there is nothing in the way measuring is done by ordinary mortals in this country to-day, to remind them of it, and they might lose sight of it. There is always the old difference between leading a horse to water and making him drink.

Something About Chucking Drills.
BY FRANK H. RICHARDS.
The makers of small machine tools—the successful and established makers — ac-complish a great good for the trade other than that which arises directly from the diffusion of their own products. They do much to raise the general standard of ex-cellence in such articles. The taps and drills and reamers offered ready-made to our hands to-day are so good that even those that we make for ourselves are better than those we would have made or expected twenty years ago. The ideas of the trade are unconsciously enlarged con-tinually, and the criterion of means and of accomplishment becomes more exacting. There are no articles that I think of that are better in their way than the reamers of the best makers. Taps are by no means so satisfactory. Years ago I used to find chuck or chuck-ing drills advertised ; lately I have been looking through a number of trade cata-logues and have not discovered them any-where. I suppose that when they have been offered to the trade there has not been much sale for themlbecause they are such a simple article. Anybody can make a chuck drill, is the general impression ; con-sequently anybody and everybody do make them, and we find them scattered through our shops in every grade of inefficiency. The importance of the chuck drill as a time-saver can scarcely be overstated. In
points" of the chuck (bill are unim-portant, and that anything that can be crowded through a hole is good enough, is far from the actual fact. I believe, and am Prepared to maintain, that the chuck drill requires as much care and skill in the mak-ing as most tools, and that to maintain it in good condition and efficiency calls for unusual resolution and vigilance. Chuck drills should generally be used in sets of three. For some small work in clean and true castings two will do very well. The first drill wears much faster than the others, but should be kept sharp and true, as the more it does toward straightening and truing the hole the better it will he for the others, and the more satis-factory the final result. The first drill should do the heaviest cutting, while very little should be left for the last, so that it may maintain its size and not throw too much work upon the reamer which is to follow it. The chuck drill should be forged flat, usuallly of an uniform thickness through-out its length, and with the head large enough to be turned to the desired size anu the remainder of the drill small enough to pass freely into the hole it bores. The head may be in length three times the diameter, when it may be worn back twice the diame-ter before renewing. The drills should b e turned, each to its required size, perfectly straight and true, and square at the end, the cutting corner beveled as wide as the expected cut, and this beveled corner filed or ground back enough to give it clearance, and the drill then hardened The drill, Fig. 1, will then be in the best possible condition for boring a true hole. The only objection to it is that it will not work. If it could be once started true it must make a hole nearly true to any reasonable depth, for its turned edge against the side of the hole already trued would not allow it to get out of the way sidewise. But we find upon, trying to force it into the hole, that the fric-tion at the edge is so great that it goes very hard and continually harder, that it heats up, and both the drill and the hole are roughened and abraded by the dust which forces between them. After turning the drill large enough to admit of it I would first grind it true to the circle, the ffrindino hit ter
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etc., for the use of their employes. On this leaf arc printed a few very simple rules to be observed by those making use of the library—rules in which any intention to hedge about the use of the library by annoy-ing conditions is conspicuously absent. Then follows this advice, which is worthy of being given wide publicity. We think nothing better could be got into the same space: "Read something useful every day, if only for a few minutes. " Read not too fast, nor too much at a time. Read attentively, thoughtfully ; by inat-tention you waste your time and injure your memory. " Stop occasionally, after you have read a short time ; see whether you remember the substance, the ideas, of what you have read --if not, or if you do not understand it properly, read it over again, think it over, and try to retain the most important part in your memory. " Have a note book at hand,and copy into it some of the choicest and most important passages or expressions you have read, with page and name of book selected from ; or write down your thoughts about what you have read. Of papers you may cut out these parts if you have permission to do so " Separate and arrange occasionally your notes and papers according to the subjects treated. " The company trusts that their employes will assist as much as they can in keeping the library in as good a condition as possi-ble ; that they will employ some of their leisure time in making use of the same, and by so doing secure to themselves hours of pleasure, as well as useful knowledge, valu-able to them in daily life." A New Society.
A society known as "The New England Foundry Association" was recently brought into existence, at a meeting of some 75 fore-men of brass and iron foundries, at Spring-field, Mass. The greatest interest was manifested at the meeting, and the new society starts under excellent prospects for success. John P. Pero was mainly instru-mental ip getting the men together to form the society. The society is modeled after the American Society of Mechanical En-
sequence nas resigned ins position as man- I time-saver ager of the cast-iron de_ partment of the Tredegar Iron Works, to take effect on the 31st of this month. " As an expert in the mixture of metals and in the management of men and work pertaining to foundry practice, Mr. Masters is said to have no superior. His practical, illustrated articles in the AMERICAN MA-CHINIST for several years past, has made his name familiar to foundrymen and iron workers on both continents. The men under him, as well as the company and the numerous friends he has made in this city, by his urbanity of manner and genial dis-position, will sincerely regret his departure for the South.

71 A Monster Magnet.
One of our leading army engineers has brought before the engineers'' classes of late an experiment of startling nature. Wonderful results are promised. It is a monster magnet made of two Rodman guns, which are connected at the breech. Around them is wound about twenty miles of submarine cable. The cable is some that has been used in the torpedo service. It is wound and fastened in a substantial manner, making a po werful electro-magnet when electricity is applied, that shows strange results. For instance, a bar of railroad iron thirty feet long, if placed in the open cannon's mouth, cannot be dravyn out by all the many men that can grasp it. Another instance of the strength of this big magnet was illustrated Saturday with a 350 pound cannon ball. The shot was placed in the mouth of one of the cannons, the negative side of the magnet. On re-versing the electric current it fell from its position, but was attracted to the opposite cannon and clung to its side. The positive current was then reversed alternately with the negative, and the heavy cannon ball played between the two cannons like a tack between the poles of a toy magnet.—Boston Herald.
A correspondent of Whe Engineer calls attention to the fact that the French system of measurement was legalized in the United

can scarcely be overstated. In the sharp competition of the pulley trade, for instance, the man who would bore his pul-leys with a boring tool would be driven out of the market. Of course the chuck drill's great field is in boring cast-iron, and it is no exaggeration to say that in work to which they are adapted, in size, depth of hole, material to be cut, etc., good drills rightly made and properly used will do four times the work that can be done with the boring tool. As, for the moment, the champion of the chuck drill, I would like nothing better than a chance for a " race " with a boring tool upon the above basis. It will pay establishments of any size, then, to put enough expense into the making of their drills to have them right, and to enforce sufficient care over them to keep them in good condition. An important point not to be lost sight of is that chuck drills, at t heir best, can only do their best with the co operation of the pattern shop and the foundry. Cored holes must be of suitable size ; not too large, so that the drills have to run upon sand and scale, and they should be as true as possi ble. But the worst, and most fatal antago-nist the drill can encounter is hard iron. Against this foe it is helpless, and in the contest it is inevitably defeated. The cents saved and the dollars lost through hard iron, could they be computed, would appall the most thoughtless. I wonder how many miserable machinists have been prematurely driven to their graves, how many once prosperous machine shops have been wiped off the face of the earth by hard iron. The thoughtless impression that the

turned edge against the side of the hole already trued would not allow it to get out of the way sidewise. But we find upon, trying to force it into the hole, that the fric-tion at the edge is so great that it goes very hard and continually harder, that it heats up, and both the drill and the hole are roughened and abraded by the dust which forces between them. After turning the drill large enough to admit of it I would first grind it true to the circle, the grinding giving a better surface than any turning or filing will do. This calls for a grinding machine of some sort, and in these days it is a necessary item of machine-shop equipment. I would then mount the drill upon eccentric centers,
Fig. 3, a center for grinding each edge, which will give it the necessary clearance and allow the opposite edge to swing by the wheel without touching. Upon the eccen-tric center the edge is ground until the original concentric grinding just disap-pears. Centers exactly corresponding are of course required for each end of the drill. The amount of eccentricity required is not great, Fig. 3 being somewhat exaggerated, and it is not always practicable to have, or at least to preserve, these centers in the drill. Many devices for the purpose will suggest themselves. I have done very well, as shown in Figs. 6 and 7.
In each end of the drill I have a hole pff" diameter, and into this I insert the pin which carries the center, turning it half way around to grind the other lip. When the drill has been made and ground to the desired size, and with the necessary clearance, it should thereafter, as it wears, be ground only at the end. When the angle of the cutting lip has been established, as it is when the drill is rightly made, it is neces-sary to insist upon maintaining the angle as established. The outer corner of the drill of course wears first and most, because it is always cutting when the drill is in use, while further in toward the center the lip may or may not be cutting, as the untruth and irregularity of the preceding hole may vary. The outer corner of the drill being most worn, the industrious machinist who goes to grind it naturally grinds it most where it is most worn, as any sensible per-son would, and in his hurry to get back to his lathe, is very likely to change for the
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-Jan 1 1887 page 6

Jan 1, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 6

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AMERICAN- MACHINIST
LETTERS FROM PRACTICAL MEN.
Backing Oft Taps. Editor American Machinist : In issue Nov. 6, W. A. G. (387) asks how to back off taps in a lathe
. This is accomplished through a cam. which for con-venience may be at back of bed driven by a splined shaft, supported in bearings, one at head end of bed and one on carriage. The cam may have one high point and be driven by gears the same as screw or feed rod, and to make as many revolutions to one of spindle as there are flutes in the tap. Thus, for a tap of four flutes the cam would make four revo-lutions to one of spindle. Make a connection piece one end of which is attached securely to cross slides on carriage, the other end arranged to be ac,uated by cam. After the tap has been threaded and fluted, place it aglin in the lathe on center as for threading, connect the cam shaftt by gears of proper ratio to spindle, attach connecting piece before mentioned, disconnect the cross-feed screw and arrange by weight or spring or other suitable device to draw the slides towards the front of lathe. The cam forces the tool into the metal, and the inclination of the cam determines the amount of backing. The carriage should have compound rest, the secondary slides being used to give the proper depth of cut. This is not new. A. S. ALDEN. ?Making Loam Pipes in Casings. Editor American, Machinist Some time since I had to make some special pipe. They were str aight on the inside, but the outside looked more like a big jar. They were 2 inches thick from the socket to within 8 inches of the top ; from there they were 1 inch thick, so as to be of the same diameter as common pipe. There were 20 pipes 36 inches diameter, and 40 which were 30 inches. The order was lik most foundry orders-to be filled yesterday. There were some casings in the shop, used to ram up pipe in, but these pipes could not be rammed up in them because the casings were oblong, and on two sides there would not be more than inch space for the rammer. The casings were made, or supposed to be, in half-segment circles 6 feet long. The pipe

common way of setting SWeepS is to put in the spindle and then put the board on, but this will not work well in this case. The best way is to fit the sweep to the spindle, and lower all together, then put the top cross on and canter it. It is a long way to reach from the bottom of the mould to the top, so I made a scaffold, using two pieces of 2"x4" wood and bored a hole in it 2 inches diameter for the spindle, and two boles to bolt the pieces together. To each of these pieces I nailed a half-round board fitted to the spindle; these bolted together will never slip. Got into the casing as soon as possible after getting the fire out, for if it gets cold the 10010 10111 be liable to slip off again, One man and two boys 10241 011 36-inch pipe in 1) days, and 010 30 inch pipe in one day. I had the top end of the spindle squared, so that a wrench 5 feet long would fit it. This was very handy in turning the spindle; one of the boys could turn it. Some moulders may wonder why I had three instead of four arms to the cross. When a man gets into a casing directly after the fire is withdrawn he raay want to get out very quickly. Three arms offer less obstruc-tion to his exit than four. The casings are made with a rammer on the side from the top to the bottom. The 00055 05 is rammed up with a draw gate at the bottom. Use this rammer to fill up the socket, or to a foot above the bottom. The other rammer is made by a core that fits around the top of the pipe and outside the center core, with 12 or 14 grooves cut in stem for rammers, so when you have about 12 inches of iron -in the bottom rammer you can get it over into the other as quickly as possible. The mould can be dried either where it stands, or put in the oven. r>THOMAS WATHEY. How to Make Good Blue Prints.
Editor American Machinist In reply to the questions concerning blue prints in the issue of December 18,
I have obtained very good prints in the following way Solutions,
one part red prussiate pot-ash,
in six parts water ;
one part citrate of

Limiting Numbers ot Teeth.
Editor American Machinist : Mr. Columbus criticises my reply to your correspondent, J. F. G. As he states, nay statement that the arc of recess could not be less than half the pitch, was a mistake, and I saw it myself, as soon as it appeared in print. As everybody knows, the arc of recess can be zero, and is zero if the adden-dum of the driving gear is zero. My only excuse is haste. " One good turn deserves another," and I will correct Mr. Columbus while the matter is on deck. If a pinion will drive a wheel, the wheel will not always drive the pinion. See "the book." If the arc of recess is equal to the pitch, 11 teeth will drive 22, but nothing less than 515 will drive 11, the recess being the same. The limits are always higher, when the larger wheel drives. The tables of limiting numbers are found on geometrical considerations, and friction has nothing to do with them. Friction has its influence, but it is not considered in the tables. Don't go to "the book" for informa-tion on friction. The difference in friction on the two sides of the line of centers is not small. It is con siderable, and is and must be considered in ordinary practice, to secure good results. But then, it is too mitch the custom to wink at friction, and let it take care of itself. The work done by friction is not "directly proportional to the distance of the point of contact from the pitch point." The work done to any given point is, for the involute. directly proportional to the square of the distance, as measured on the arc of action. For the epicycloid it increases much more rapidly than for the involute. The work done is not " inversely as the cosine of the obliquity." For the involute it has nothing whatever to do with the obliquity, and for other forms the obliquity has varying effects. On work, or friction in general, see Reuleaux. "The book" does not reach that level of the science of the teeth of gears. The distance of the point of contact does not " depend on the arcs of approach and recess." The maximum distance does, but not otherwise. The cosine of the obliquity does not " d nand on ths fix. of annroanh and rAraaa

JANUARY 1, 1887 Practical Drawing. BY J. G. A. MEYER. ELEVENTH PAPER.
Problem 8. 115. Two SIDES OF A TRIANGLE 0100 100 ANGLE WHICH THEY CONTAIN BEING
GIVEN TO CON-STRITCT THE TRIANGLE.

Let the lines A and B (Fig. 81) represent the given sides, and C (Fig. 82) the given angle; it is required to draw a triangle as shown in Fig. 83, in which the length of the side D F will be equal to that of the line A, and the length of the side E F equal to that of the line B; and the angle F which the two lines D F and E F contain 00 10 other words, the angle F formed by the two sides D F and E F shall be equal to the angle U Fig. 83. Draw a line F E whose length is somewhat longer than the given line A ; (no measurement need to be taken for this pur-pose, draw the line F E long enough), at one end of this line, as F for instance, construct the angle D F E equal to the given angle C; thus from the vertex of the angle C and with any radius draw an arc intersecting the sides of the angle in the points g and h ; from the point F as a center and with the same radius as before, draw an indefinite arc k intersect-ing the line FR ha the point k. From the point k as a center and with a radius equal to the distance between the points 0 and g, d, scribe a small arc intersecting the arc k in the point i. Join the points F and i by a straight line F I), make this line of any length longer than that of B. Here then we have made the angle at F equal to the angle C, and so far our construction is the same as that in problem 3 (Art. 111). From the point F as a center and with a radius equal to tbe length of the line B, describe a short arc intersecting the straight line F E in the point E ; also from the point F as a center ancl. with a radius equal to the length of the line A, describe a short arc intersecting the line F D in the point D. Join the points D and E by a straight line ; then will D F E be the required triangles whose side F Ohs equal to B ; F D equal to A; and the angle at F equal to the angle C. Directions.---In the upper part of the space marked Prob. 8, draw two lines A and B of *********************************************************

socket to within 8 inches of the top ; from there they were 1 inch thick, so as to be of the same diameter as common pipe. There were 20 pipes 36 inches diameter, and 40 which were 30 inches. The order was lik most foundry orders—to b filled yesterday. There were some casings in the shop, used to ram up pipe in, but these pipes could not be rammed up in them because the casings were oblong, and on two sides there would not be more than inch space for the rammer. The casings were made, or supposed to be, in half-segment circles 6 feet long. The pipe wanted was 12 feet long, so 4 of these seg-ments would make the length. I made a furnace on the bottom where the pipe was to be loamed up. It was a cheap aEair, but answered the purpose very well indeed. I made two plates 3 by 4 feet, with two square holes in each to hold the bearing bars. The bars were square, with a shoulder about 2 inches from each end to hold the plates against falling in; the bank held them against falling out. A plate for the bottom, and a few grate bars made everything complete. The casing being in six feet sections, a man stand-ing inside could loam up one very comfort-ably. Get the two casings on the floor, one over the furnace, and the other alongside it. Get inside and put on loam, about inch thick. If, after you have the loam on, and are con-gratulating yourself on the nice job you have, it should all slide off, don't get disgusted; that is exactly what happened me, and I can sym-pathize with anyone in the same fix. While you are in the casing, let one of •the boys get a la of sticks and shavings ready; then, as soon as you are ready, hoist one sec-tion on the other, keeping the joints clean, so as not to throw them out of line. Get a fire started as quickly as possible, or you may have a land-slide Have a brisk fire for ten or fifteen minutes ; then slack it down a little by putting on a plate, with a brick or two under it. The steam will soon begin to come out of the holes ; when it ceases, you will know the loam is dry. Now for the centers. There are plates for the bottom of the casings that the pipes are cast on. These are turned up in the lathe, so you can get a cross with three arms for the bottom, and the same for the top, with a hole in the center for the spindle. As soon as the loam is dry rake the fire out and let down the bottom center. The most

The mould can be dried either where it stands, or put in the oven. THOMAS WATHEY.

How to Make Good Blue Prints.
Editor American Machinist:
In reply to the questions concerning blue prints in the issue of December 18, I have obtained very good prints in the following way Solutions,
one part red prussiate pot-ash, in six parts water ;
one part citrate of iron and ammonia, in four parts water.
The proportions are by weight.
Mix equal parts of these solutions before applying; keep the mixture away from sunlight; apply with soft brush, and use as FOon as dry. The sensitized paper will be nearly useless if kept for twenty four hours even in the dark. When freshly prepared, it is yellow, with greenish tinge, but gradually becomes gray, and is then of no use. Best paper to print from is parchment trac-ing paper. Drawings can be made in pencil on white pap'; the parchment tracing paper wet and stretched over the pencil drawing, and the tracing preserved as original. This paper will stand one erasure of ink, but not more. To get a clear white line, the ink used must be very opaque. Time of exposure, from 41 to 6 minutes to clear sunlight ; pore if some-what overcast, and no length of time will give a good print on a very cloudy day. Begin with 41 minutes' exposure. If print is too ,lor, leave exposed longer next time ; — white, the ink u 3d is not opaque .3 not been presse >4avo, tbeir ax e sea hen: yen need l • more blanket rY:..b. bria•Y experience will show the F.:,per co‘1011S,'Print when it has been exposed long enough. Wash prints immediately on removal from printing frame, and wash thoroughly, or else the white lines will not remain white. A porcelain-lined sink is best for washing, but the important thing is to use plenty of water. A, white paper of sufficient weight to stand the washing is good. For small sheets paper such as that which this is printed on will do well. A lighter blue will be produced by anything which partially intercepts the light—a double thickness of tracing paper or a flat tint, for instance. S. T.

The work clone is not inversely as the cosine of the obliquity." For the involute it has nothing whatever to do with the obliquity, and for other forms the obliquity has varying effects. On work, or friction in general, see Reuleaux. "The book" does not reach that level of the science of the teeth a gears., The distance of the point of contact does not "depend on the arcs of approach and recess." The maximum distance does, but not otherwise. The cosine of the obliquity does not " de-pend on the arcs of approach and recess." For the involute, the obliquity is constant and the arcs named may vary. For the epicy-cloid, the distance of the point of contact has its influence on the obliquity, but the arcs of approach and recess can affect only the max-imum values. GEO. B. GRANT. BOSTON, MIMS.

The Hydraulic Ram—A Wooden Elbow. Editor American Machinist:
I received a forcible illustration last sum-mer of the principle upon which the hydraulic ram operates. By a blast in the quarry about seventy-five feet of 5" suction pipe was shaken down, the break taking place at an elbow, the pipe lay at the bottom full of water with the open end about four feet above the foot-valve. WishhIg to empty it as quickly as possible I thrust my hand into the valve and pushed the " clack " open. It opened easily and the water started out with a rush, but the rush shut the valve with a force that neariy left me fingerless. By substitu-ting a stick for my hand I soon had the pipe ready to put in place again. But the elbow was a wreck, and another one was not to be had very soon, so I extemporized one from 4 inch oak plank. Two pieces 12" square were cut off and from two sides at right angles with each Other large semi-circular grooves were cut to the center, knit fitting the outside of the pipe. Then with a f' inch bolt in each corner the two halves of my wooden coupling were squeezed upon the pipe. A crack or seam about inch between the two blocks was calked with hemp and the pump started again. A new iron elbow is patiently waiting now for the"),, god one to give up its grip, but I think it, take more than the frosts of one winter te its usefulness. F. L. Joan! i• Waukesha, Wis.

a center and with a radius equal to tbe length of the line B, describe a short arc intersecting the straight line F E in the point ,. also from the point F as a center and with a radius equal to the length of the line A, describe a short arc intersecting the line FL) in the point D. Join the points 1) and E by a straight line ; then will D F E be the required triangles whose side F E is equal to B; ED equal to A; and the angle at F equal to the angle C. Directions.—In the upper part of the space marked Prob. 8, draw two lines A and B of any convenient length, also the angle C of any magnitude (do not copy the angle C given in the illustration, make the angle on the sheet larger or smaller than 0) assume the lines A and B, also the angle C, thus drawn to be the given lines and angle. In the lower part of the same space draw any straight line, FE not parallel to any of the division lines, and then construct the triangle as explained in this article. .Draftsman's Method.—None. In construct-ing this triangle the geometrical method must be followed. Problem 9. 116. A SIDE AND TWO ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE BEING Ga Ve E Nt wT00 CONSTRUCT tEhT:IpA rN0G,LiEe.. first : Let the line A (Fig. 84) represent the given side; B (Fig. 85) and C (Fig. 86) represent the given angles. It is required to draw a triangle as shown in Fig. 87, in which the length of the side D E shall be equal to that of the line A ; the angle at D equal to the angle B, and the angle at E equal to the angle C. Fig. 85. From the vertex of the angle B as a center, and with any radius, describe an arc intersecting the sides of the angle in the points m and 92. Again, Fig. 86. From the vertex of the angle C a.4 a center and with any radius, de-scribe an arc intersecting the sides of the angle in the points o and p. It should be distinctly understood that the radius used' describing the arc o p need ''be the sam as the radius adopted for the are, n, ; in fact we would advise the student to use -a greater or smaller radius for the arc p than that used for the arc m he may 'awn a clearer conception of 0 won. ing a l bg,BE of any length.
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4. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 11 January-15
4. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 11 January-15
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST Jan-15-1887 page 10 Jan-15-1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST page 10

10 AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 15, 1887

Machinists' Supplies and Iron. NEW YORK, Dec. 30, 1886. It is not to be expected that there will be any new developments in trade during the holiday season. In that respect this year will not differ from its predecessors. Iron—The same firm feeling in the future of American pig prevails. Furnacemen are not in-clined to sell for future delivery without consider-able advance on present prices. Standard brands of No. 1 X Foundry sell at $21 to $21.50 ; No. 2 X, 19 to $20 ; Grey Forge, $17 to $17.75. Scotch pig is held firm, at prices of one week go, with slight advances in some brands. We note Coltness, $22.50 ; Glengarnock, $20.50 ; Sum-erlee, $21 to $21.50 ; Eglinton, $19.75 to $20.25 ; Itikangloan, $21.50 to $22 ; Dalmellington, $20.50. Lead—The market is quiet, with sales at 4.30c. Antimony—Hallett's, 8c. ; Cookson's, 9c. Copper—Lake is quoted at 12c., but has been bought lAc. lower ; Arizona brands have sold at 11c. to 113'c. ; Baltimore, 103 c. Spelter—Refined, 54c. to 6c.

WANTEDif " Situation and Help" Advertisements only inserted under this head. Rate, 30 cents a line for each inser-tion. About seven words make a line. Copy should be sent to reach us not later than Wednesday morning for the ensurng week's issue. A technical graduate desires position as drafts-man ; references. Address F. H., Am. MACHINIST. First-class machinist desires situation as foreman in manufacturing concern or small machine shop ; good reference ; village preferred. G., AM. MACH. Position wanted by a successful designer of special machinery ; excellent references. Address A. M., AM. MACHINIST. Wanted—Situation as foreman in foundry doing engine and machinery castings ; best of reference. Address J. H. T., AM. MACHINIST. A young man of good abilities, skilled designer, at present chief draftsman of a machine concern, desires a position as assistant superintendent. Ad-dress C. A., AM. MACHINIST. Wanted—A young mechanical Engineer, whose tastes incline toward marine work ; must be able to make working drawings, indicate engines, etc. ; the right nian would gain a good position in time. Address Bridge, AM. MACHINIST. Wanted—Foreman for small factory; must under-stand the manufacture of small tools for the hard-ware trade, and be able to get up tools for the quick production of the same. Address, stating age, ex-perience and wages expected,Box 12,AM.MACHINIST. Wanted—Foreman for iron and brass foundry employing about 35 men ; cored work largely ; must be economical, strictly temperate, and able to manage men well ; state wages wanted, and give references. Address " Core," AM. MACHINIST. Wanted—A man as foreman of a foundry on agricultural and job castings : must be perfectly competent to take full charge of same, familiar with the Colliau cupola and melting with coke ; also willing and able to solicit contract work. Address, with references, stating age and salary expected. The Victor Mower Co., Valatie, N. Y.

÷ MISCELLANEOUS WANTS. ÷ Advertisements will be inserted under this head at BRADLEY'S UPRIGHT, CUSHIONED HELVE HAMMER ammauluoi 13.04EN s PltmCYrEy 11111

Combines all the best elements es-sential In a first.. class Hammer. Has more good points, does more and better work and costs less for re-pairs than any other Hammer in the World. BRADLEY& CO. Syracuse, N.Y.

BEAUDRY'S CUSHIONED .•. POWER HAMMER
The success of our machine is the best proof of its value. Is more like a steam-h ammer than any other, yet has all thd , economic advantages of a power hammer, and is far superior to any. Will work a larger bar of steel or iron and turn out more difficult forgings than any other hammer made. Guaranteed as rep-resented, or no sale. BEAUDRY& CUNNINGHAM Boston, Mass.

HE BROWN HAMME STRIKES A BLOW WITH • • _ _ MINA • A • A ••• • A • • • THE DEANE STEAM PUMP CO. HOLYOKE, MASS. BUILD WATERWORKS, ENGINES

for Catalogue .LN o. 113. AND STEAM PUMP'S MACHINERY.‘ A. BARGAIN We offer for sale, a good second-hand Lathe and Morse 24 in. x 24 in. x 6 foot planer. Phe head and crosshead have been thoroughly refitted, shaft and pulleys, driving gear and pinion are entirely new. It is in good working order and is really wort h for anyone to use much more than price asked for it. Price $250, Net. F. 0. B. cars here. Don't lose this chance. THE HENDEY MACHINE CO., TORRINGTON, CON N. Westinghouse Machine Co Sales List for November, 1886. H.P. South Side E. L. Co Pittsburgh, Pa., 150 " t 4 4 2d order, c, " 150 Union Switch and Signal Co 6th order, East End E. L. Co 2d order, 4 4 " 75 l , 46 3d order, " 4 44 75 Brush E. L. Co 2d. order, Buffalo, N. Y., 60 McConway& Torley,2d order, Pittsburgh, Pa., 60 Winona Paper Co... 4t h order, Holyoke, Mass., 60 N. Y. & Manhattan R. E. Co.... New York, 60 Mather Electric Co Hartford, Ct.. 60 " " 2d order, 64 44 60 4 Jefferson City E. L. Co Jefferson City,Mo.60 Wahoo E. L. Co Wahoo. Neb., CO J. C. Livingston & Co ..Little Falls, N.Y., 45 Weidman Silk Dyeing Co., Paterson, N. J., 45 Miller, Broudy & Co Alexandria, La., 45 E. L.M cLainMfg.Co., 2d order, Greenfield, 0., 45 Van Deventer & Horne. Plainfield, N J., 35 "ThePublic Ledger"2d order, Philadelphia, Pa., 35 ,. " lid order, 44 35 44 " 4th order, .4 64 35 4, " 5111 order, 4C " 35 E. Balbach & Son ..14th order, " 66 35 Wolff & Hamaker Chambersburg,Pa.35 Imperial Guano Co Norfolk, Va. 35 Chandler & Price Cleveland, 0., 35 Wabash, St. L. & Pacific R. R 2d order, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 35 Barnes Bros.... Maquoketa, Ia., 35 A. J. Mullen Selma. Ala., 35 Brainard & Shephard Albany. N. Y.. 25 Henry Warden Philadelphia, Pa., 25 Crown Mills .. .... Marcellus, N. Y., 25 S. R. Cain Bristol, Vt., 25 Wabash, St. L. & Pacific R. R 3d order, Ft. Wayne Ind.. 25 Minneapolis G. L.Co IVIinneapolis,Minn.25 AA " 2d order, '6 25 Thos Henshall. Paterson, N. J., 15 E. Balbach & Son... 15th order,Newark, N.*J., 15 Ga. Engine & Power Co New York, 15 Roulleaux, Dugage &

1t Shickle, Harrison & H.P. Howard. 2d order, St. Louis, Mo.., 15 McCord, Ford & Co. Colfax, W. T., 15 Decatur Furnace Co Decatur, Ala., 15 Lawr'ce Mach.Shop,15th order,Lawrence, Mass., 10 4 4 16th order' " " 10 N W Wait, Son & Co Sandy Hill, N. Y., 10 F. S. Cole Grundy City, Ia., 10 Union Pacific R. R.. 2d order, Omaha, Neb., 10 Geo. C. Howard Philadelphia, Pa ., 5 Merritt W. Burwell New Haven, Ct , 5 Westinghouse Elec-tric Co 3d order, Pittsburgh. Pa., 5 Lawr'ce Mach Shop,17th order,Lawrence, Mass., 5 46 44 18th order, " 6, 5 J. A. Diamond Indianapolis, Ind., 5 F. J. Yandle Santa Rosa, Cal., 5 Aberdeen Packing Co Astoria, Or., 5 ******************************************

Wanted—Foreman for small factory; must under-stand the manufacture of small tools for the hard-ware trade, and be able to get up tools for the quick production of the same. Address, stating age, ex-perience and wages expected,Box 12,Am.MAcniNisT. Wanted—Foreman for iron and brass foundry employing about 35 men ; cored work largely ; must be economical, strictly temperate, and able to manage men well ; state wages wanted, and give references. Address " Core," AM. MACHINIsT. Wanted—A man as foreman of a foundry on agricultural and job castings : must be perfectly competent to take full charge of same, familiar with the Colliau cupola and melting with coke ; also willing and able to solicit contract work. Address, with references, stating age and salary expected. The Victor Mower Co., Valatie, N. Y. 4 MISCELLANEOUS WANTS. 4 Advertisements will be inserted under this head at 35 cents per line, each insertion. Crescent steel tube scrapers are unquestionably the best. Crescent Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Crescent boiler tube cutter, for setting new and removing old tubes. Crescent Mfg. Co., Cleveland,O Light mach'y of all kinds built at short notice Edmund Mills, 8 Dey st., Jersey City Heights, N. J. John Lamberty, mfr. telegraph and electrical in-struments, experimental machs, models ; fine gea, cutting a specialty. 35 S. 5th st., Br'kl'n, E.D., N.Y. Special tools and machines for mfg. designed and built to order ; mechanical and Patent Office draw ings. Weston & Smith, Syracuse, N. Y. For Sale—Foundry, machine and boiler shops ; brick buildings, modern tools, and doing good busi-ness ; good reasons for selling. Address Sioux City Foundry and Machine Works, Sioux City, Ia. Experimental and new machinery for special purposes built by contract from specifications and inventors' designs ; ample facilities. Cohoes Iron Foundry and Machine Co.. Cohoes, N. Y. For Sale—One complete set of Pulley Patterns also Patterns for Slide Valve Engines, with adjust-able cut-off and without cut-off, for sale cheap Address North Star Iron Works Co., Minneapolis, Minn. Power.—Parties of moderate means having ar-ticles of merit to manufacture can be furnished with power and steam heat at reasonable rates in one of the best villages in New York State ; good schools and water, low rates of freight and low taxes. Full particulars can be obtained by ad-dressing Power, AM. MACHINIST. A well-known builder of patented mining ma-chinery, whose orders have outgrown the capacity of his works, has decided to have his machines built by contract, and will negotiate with party having large works and improved tools, who will guarantee to build for him not less than one hun-dred thousand dollars' worth of machinery an-nually, in addition to their own orders ; firms of established reputation only. Address, with full particulars, " Machinery Contract," AM. MACHINIST.

THE BROWN HAMMER STRIKES A BLOW WITH Double the Velocity That It Raises the Hammer. A NEW MOVEMENT! SFND FOR DESCRIPTION. Knowlton Mfg. Co., Kil.; St., Rockford, 111.

EPHEN S

50 PER CENT. OF '• time ant labor saved-oy using this Solid. strong, du rable,quick-worki ngV ise. Hae the Improved Taper, Pipe and other attachments. Sold by the trade. Send for circular . MELVIN STEPHENS, Prop'r. Office, 41 Dey Street, Now York 36' C, i=t. SA T—JIM. Valuable Manufacturing Property, centrally lo-cated in one of the largest Western states, with a well established reputation for the goods of its man-ufacture, which consist of engines. boilers, saw and grist-mill machinery. and kind red articles. Property all in fir°t class condition ; tools and machinery in good order. and the works now running. Parties who mean business, and desire to engage in a profit-able and well established business of this character, can get full particulars by writine or applying in person to M. D. WHEELER, Stapleton Staten Island, N:Y.. or, MA N N I NO, MAXWELL & MOORE, 111 & 113 Liberty St . New York. PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING, CENTER, DEPTH ANGLE AND TWIST DRILL GAUGE. J. WYKE & CO. Fine Machinists' Tools, E. BOSTON. MASS. Send for Circular,

.114 1/1 Ur le 1.141 44 l l " 4th order, 46 35 64 " 5th order, 44 46 35 E. Balbach & Son .. 14th order, " 66 35 Wolff & Ilamaker Chambersburg,Pa.35 Imperial Guano Co Norfolk, Va. 35 Chandler & Price Cleveland, 0., 35 Wabash, St. L. & Pacific R. R 2d order, Ft. Wayne, Ind., 35 Barnes Bros 1111 Maquoketa, Ia., 35 A. J. Mullen Selma, Ala., 35 Brainard & Shephard Albany. N. Y.. 25 Henry Warden Philadelphia, Pa., 25 Crown Mills .. .... ....... Marcellus, N. Y., 25 S. R. Cain Bristol, Vt., 25 Wabash, St. L. & Pacific R. R 3d order, Ft. Wayne, Ind., 25 Minneapolis G. L.Co Minneapolis,Minn.25 " " 2d order, 46 25 Thos Henshall. Paterson, N. J., 15 E. Balbach & Son ...15th order,Newark, N. J., 15 Ga,, Engine & Power Co New York, 15 Roulleaux, Dugage & Co, 2d order, Suresnes, Fr., 15 Shickle, Harrison & H.P. Howard. 2d order, St. Louis, Mo, 15 McCord, Ford & Co ... Colfax, W. T., 15 Decatur Furnace Co Decatur, Ala., 15 Lawr'ce Mach.Shop,15t h order,Lawrence, Mass., 10 " " 16th order' " " 10 N.W Wait, Son & Co Sandy Hill, N. Y., 10 F. S. Cole Grundy City, Ia., 10 Union Pacific R. R.. 2d order, Omaha, Neb., 10 Geo. C. Howard Philadelphia, Pa ., 5 Merritt W. Burwell. New haven, Ct , 5 West inghouse Elec-tric Co 3d order, Pittsburgh. Pa., 5 Lawr'ce Mach Shop,l 7th order,Lawrence, Mass., 5 46 64 18th order, " 4, 5 J. A. Diamond Indianapolis, Ind., 5 F. J. Yandle Santa Rosa, Cal., 5 Aberdeen Packing Co Astoria, Or., 5

TOTAL, 56 ENGINES. 1975 SALES DEPARTMENT of the U. S. Conducted by WESTING-I-IOUS-1E, CI3U11,CII, TiF L 1 & CO. 17 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK. I 98 FOURTH AYE., PITTSBURGH. PA. FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO., . . Chicago, Ill. D. A TOMPKINS & CO„ . . Charlotte N. C. FAIRBANKS & CO.,. St. Louis,Mo. ROBERT MIDDLETON . . . Mobile, Ala. PARK- & LACY, . . . San Francisco,Cal. H. DUDLEY COLEMAN, . . New Orleans, La. PARK LACY & CO., Salt Lake, Utah. KEATING IMPLEMENT & MACHINE CO., Dallas, Texas. GUILD 86 GARRISON, BROOKLYN, N. Y. STEAM PUMPS, VACUUM PUMPS, AIR COMPRESSORS, SEND FOR CATALOGUE.

' SPECIAL SALE. 1 18 in. x 6 ft. Engine Lathe. 1 16 in. x 6 ft. Speed Lathe. 1 16 in. x 6 ft. Speed Lathe,with milling attachment. Small Speed and Engine Lathes, Shapers and Drills. 1 Iron Frame Saw Table. 1 6 in. One-'ide Moulder. 1 30 in. Grist Mill. Anvils and Vises. A SPECIAL IMPORTATION. C Co Co KV. 1VI1PA.1\T 22 Cortlitndt St., New York. Agents for Wiley & Russell's Screw Plates, Boitcutters, Etc. gr-fr I N W It !TING MENTION THIS PAPER.aaj

stallalistked. in 1874. 24 and 26 West Street, Cleveland, 0, LEVELAND TWIST DRILL CO. 85 0 144 Chambers. e e ny i et Street,rasL New nydoornk, • C En g BETTS MACHINE CO.,ILMINGTON, DE] LE..., , IMPLEMENTS 4611 for STANDARD MEASUREMENTS. Fl RE PUMP

93 Liberty St. 44 Washington St• NEW YORK. I BOSTON. "ROVEDMACHINERYTlearsy PUMPING s of Work SEND FOR NEW ILLUSTRATgl)

Over 30,000 in Us, CATALOGr Cre3cent Gauge. ti 2z Flat-Bar Gauge.
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4. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1922-page 2 January-5-Vol-56-No 1
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11 th  AMERICAN-MACHINIST-Oct 3 1887 page 11 DECEMBER 31, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST

pg 11 top AMERICAN MACHINIST DECEMBER 31, 1887

HIGH SPEED POWER TRAVELING CRANES. We are now prepared to build HIGH SPED POWER TRAVELING CRANES for any capacity of load, any length of runway and any width of span, with one or with two trolleys on the bridge. These trolleys to work either slow or fast, together or independently, in like or in opposite directions, horizontally or vertically, while the bridge can be traversing slow or fast at the same time in either direction. The speeds of bridge on runway are 100 feet and 200 feet per minute; the speeds of trolleys on bridge are 50 feet and 100 feet per minute; and there are four hoisting speeds of 5, 10, 20 and 40 feet per minute ; all can be varied quickly without the least shock or Jar from zero to maximum or to any intermediate speed. The load is always automatically SUS-twined, thus aviriding absolutely the great danger and anxiety which are inseparable from the use of those Cranes which require the operator to apply the brake. We have had one of these Cranes of 26 tons capacity in constant nse in our foundry for nearly two years, and we offer them with full confidence for the greatest range of service. We invite the correspondence of parties interested in the subject. Sz CO., Inoorporatecl, PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Double, Single, Angle-Bar, Gang, Horizontal, Twin, Boiler, Spacing, Gate, Multiple, Belt and Steam-Driven

Punches and Shears. Over 300 Sizes. ALSO, Power Cushioned Hammer. Send for New Catalogue.

Weitmyer Patent Furnace Manufactured and Sold by FOUNIM AND MACHINE DEPARTMENT HAR.ISBURG- CAR YANFG, CO, HARRISBURG, PA. tl Ide Auto. Engines. Portable and Trac-tion Engines. Steam Road Rollers. Boil. ers of all descriptions.

IN Air C(1., 211 Race Street, PHILADELPHIA, MANUFACTURERS OF PATENT OILERS CYLINDER SIGHT' FEED CUPS, I Government Regu• lation Pop Safety Valves, for Locomotive, Stationary and Marine Boilers. SUPPLIES FROM HYDRANT PRESSURE the cheapest power known_ Invaluable for blowing Church Organs, running Printing Presses, Sewing Machines in Households, Turning Lathe s , Scroll Saws, Grindstones, Coffee Mills, Sausage Machines, Feed Cutters. Electric Lights, Elevators, etc. It needs little room, no firing up, fuel,ashes: repairs, en-gineer, explosion, or delay, no extra insurance, no coal bills. Is noiseless, neat, compact, steady; will work at any pressure of water above 15 lb. ; at 40 lb. pres-sure has 4-horse power, and

BEMENT, MILES 86 CO IPITIT.A_DELOPLITA, BUILDERS OF METAL-WORKING- MACHINE TOOLS

A FEW PRACTICAL OPINIONS OF THE OPEN SIDE PLANERS. No. 2. WEIMER MACHINE WORKS CO., Blowing Engines and Blast Furnace Machinery, Lebanon, Pa., November 23d, 1887. DETRICK SL HARVEY, Baltimore, Md. GENTLEMEN : We are pleased to say that the planer far exceeds our expectations, and we regard it as the coining planer. Were we to equip a new shop we would use nothing but the open side machines under five feet wide. We face off the foot and top of our engine housings from 15 to 18 feet long with the same ease as though they were only 12 in. long. There is not the slightest jar when reversing, nOr any trouble in the tool when cutting at extreme end of cross bar. Our planer is 36 in. wide, but with bent tool we have cut to 48 in. from upright post. Were we to order another we would have the cross bar made 48 in., or 12 in longer, as all other parts of the planer are stiff enough to stand the increased length. We would not hesitate to end off a job of ten tons weight by 30 feet long on our machine. Prior to purchasing your planer we were negotiating for a machine costing $10,000, for doing the work your planer now accomplishes. Kindly yours, WEIMER MACHINE WORKS CO., John A. Weimer, Supt. PROTOTYPES, PRICES, ETC., ON APPLICATION. DETRICK & HARVEY, Manufacturers, Baltimore, Md.

FOR THE BEST SYSTEM OF Arc and Incandescent Lighting, GUARANTEED AS REPRESENTED, BUY THE WATERHOUSE. SEND FOR CATALOGUE. THE WATERHOUSE ELECTRIC & IVITG CO.,

TRAVELING HEAD PLANER AND SHAPER. Only t le head travels, the work remaining stationary. Several sizes, any length of bed. Combines advantages of both planer and shaper, with special advantages for many kinds of work. Durable and convenient. SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. THERE IS MONEY IN ITS USE. TRY"IT. Send for Circular. E. A. WALKER, Manufacturer, 75 Laurel St., Philadelphia, Pa. Section of Copper-Wire-Sewed Light Double Belting, specially adapted to use on cone pulleys and other hard places. Manufactured by.the PACE BELTNC CO., Concord, N. H. Also manufacturers of Staple and Special Grades of Leather Belting and the " HERCUL ES Lacing. Send for Catalogue No. 2. RICE AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF ENGINE. Se/

************************************************************************* SUPPLIES FROM RANT PRESSURE

eapest power known. able for b o wing h Organs, running ng Presses, Sewing es in Households, gLathes Scroll rindstones, Coffee Sausage Machines, Cutters, Electric Elevators, etc. It little room, no firing el,ashes, repairs, en-., explosion, or delay, ,ra insurance, no coal Is noiseless, neat, act, steady ; will work ir pressure of water 15 lb. ; at 40 lb. pres-ELS 4-horse power, and sty up to 10-horse 1 for circular to HYDI the ch Invalu Churn Printi Machin Turnii Saws, Mills, Feed Lights, needs up, fu gineer no ext bills. cutups at an above sure h, pad power. Prices from $15 to $300,caSenc

TEE BURIN WATER MOTOR CO,, Newark, N. J. Iron and Steel DROP FORGING Of Every Description, at Reasonable Prices. THE R. A. BELDEN 00„ DANBURY, CT. MANUFACTURER OF

E. A. WALKER, Manufacturer, 75 Laurel St., Philadelphia, Pa. Nifty E 10.351f ION LOGUESAPPLICATION H EA c) e. Ft 5, POINTEFtj RRIAGEBOLT MACHINERY AT C. NUT 8,WAsHER TAPPERS OF EVERY StIll WIRE NAIL SPECIALISTS FU rU RN I 5 -r,THE u S littifiTIONALlieltaY CO TIFFIN 01110,U5 No more trouble with Loose Pulleys. ORMSBY'S PATENT SELF-LUBRI-CATED PULLEY BEARING settles the business. Can be used on old or new shafts, and in any position. Send for circular and price list. GLOBE LOOSE PU LLEYCO. Covington, Ky. BORING AND TURNING MILLS. LAKE VILLAGE, N. H.

OSGOOD DREDGE CO., Albany, N, Y. RALPH R. OSGOOD, Pres. JAMES H. BLESSING, Vice-Pres. JOHN K. HO WE, Secretary and Treasurer. MANUFACTURERS OF Dredges, Excavators, Ditching Machines, Derricks, Etc, It plate part o shifti install Combined Steam Excavator and Derrick Car. L. 8. STARRETT,

Manufacturer of FINE TOOLS ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL LIST. Planers in Stock. One 36" x 36" x 9'. One 42" x 36" x 12'. Two 48" x 48" x any desired travel. One 42" x 42" x any desired travel. The above are held at very Low Prices. The Newark Machine Too Works, NEWARK, N. J.

**************************************************** Section of Copper-Wire-Sewed Light Double Belting, specially adapted to use on cone pulleys and other hard places. Manufactured by the PACE BELTNC CO., concord, N. H. Also manufacturers of Staple and Special Grades of Leather Belting and the HERCULES Lacing. Send for Catalogue No. 2.

**************************************************** RICE AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF ENGINE Ass OIL ENGINES. For Printers, Steam Yachts, pumping water, sawing wood, making ice-cream,Carpenters, Mechanics. 1 to 5 H. P. Fuel, Kerosene. No duA. Auto-matic in fuel and water sup-ply. Illustrated Catalogue free. Mention AMERICAN MA-CHINIST. SHIPMAN ENGINE CO., 92 Pearl St., Boston, Mass. KORTING GAS ENGINE. 12 Sizes, 1 to 60 EL P.

**************************************************** Satis-faction uaran-teed. Thousands in use in Europe, & 36 engines running in N. Y. City. KortingGas Engine Co., Ld. 60 Barclay St. New York. Self-Contained. Sensitive Governor. Balanced Valve. High Speeds. Stationary Oilers. Best Economy. Gold Medal Cincinnati Exposition, 1884. THE JOHN T. NOME MFG. CO., T-T3E1UP.13.31,C4, IV. Ir. THE Mtn ERIE, PA. ENGINE CO"

**************************************************** PORTABLE AND STATIONARY ENGINES and BOILERS
Send for Catalogue and Prices. PORTER-HAMILTON ENGINE. II FOR HEAVY WORK & LARGE POW-. ERS. EXTRA HEAVY DESIGN.
Send for Catalogue. WILLIAM TOD & CO.04. YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 75 Portable and Stationary Steam End piles and Boilers, both new and second-hand, in a great variety of sizes, from 2 to 75 H. P. Steam Poll er and Drainage Pumps for all kinds of duty. One second-hand Portable steam Saw Mill, one large second-band Punching Press. Shafting, Pulleys, Hangers and Belting. Parties in need of Machinery will do well to correspond with us for prices. S. L. HOLT & CO., 67 Sudbury Street, BOSTON, M C
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 12 DECEMBER 31, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 12

AMERICAN MACHINIST MANUFACTURERS OF STEAM ENGINES
PULL vaati..11' Sizes Varying from 30 to 20:0 Horse Power. Horizontal or Vertical, Direct Acting or Beam, Condensing,Non-Condensing or Compound. Send for Circular. TIANTS SLED. Gravitating.
"OTTO" GAS ENGINE WORKS SCHLEICHER, SCHUMM & CO.,
33d and Walnut Sts.
GINE TUBULAR BOILERS. GEOBARNARD AGENT - Branch Office, 130 Washington St. PHILADELPHIA. CHICAGO. OVER 25,000 ENGINES IN USE. "GUARANTEED Engine\ Eclipse Corliss Engine. Non-Condensing, Condensing, Compound, 40 TO 1,000 H.P. Send for Circulars. E.P, HAMPSON & CO 36 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK, Sole Eastern Agents. M. J. TIERNEY,

FRICK COMPANY, Builders,
WAYNESBORO, PA.
20 NORTH CANAL
A. GENUINE " COIRMISS." STREET, CHICAGO, WESTERN, AGENT. CRANK PLANERS Superior Design & Workmanship, Extra Heavy (1600 lbs.) PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING CEBITER D. EPT4IKAIGalEC 46,_TWIST DRILL GAUGE. Fine Machinists' Tools.—E. Boston, Mass—Send for Oircular obertWhiteht11,4/47,3Gz-FN" Op MANU MPRoVFC X Y.

STATIONARY BOILERS.
40 TO 1,000 H.P. Send for Circulars. E.P.HAMPSCN&CO 36 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK, Sole Eastern Agents, M. J. TIERNEY, 20 NORTH CANAL

A. GENUINE " CORLISS." STREET, CHICAGO, WESTERN, AGENT. CRANK PLANERS
Superior Design Workmanship, Extra Ileavy (1500 ibS.) DOWN, ANGULAR AND CROSS-FEED, TO PLANE 12x16x15. THE R. A. BELDEN CO., DANBURY, CT.

Brain's Piston Ring Packing
7---* Perfectly balanced against un-due pressure in all directions. Preserves both cylinder and rings. Allows no waste by either friction or leakage. Call and see working model, expressly made to demonstrate advantage s claimed. For packing or shop rights, address JAMES BRANDON, 390 Eleventh Ave., New York.

Machine Tools. New and Second-hand, on Hand. t2 in.x6 ft. Engine Lathe, new 13 in.x6 ft. 64 Ames, 14 in.x6 ft. Si Blaisdell, 66 16-20 m..x.6-8-10 4t 12 ft. Bridgeport TV' if 16 in.x6 Blaisdell, 18 in.x8 ft. " Blaisdell, 66 24 in.x10-14 dc 20ft. " Ames, fif 23 in. x,, -12 & 14 1-2 ft." Bridgeport, 66 24 in.x16 ft. New Haven, good order. 30 in.x14 ft. if W. and L. pattern, new. 39 in x 15 ft. Eng. Lathe Lowell, 54 in.x30 ft. Engine Lathe, Niles, good as new 16 in.x42 in. Planer Bridgeport, new. 22 in.x4 ft, 46 Pease, new. 22 in.x6 ft. 46 Powell, 22 in.x5 ft. g 6 Hendey, new. 26 in.x5 ft. ' Biglow, good. 26 in.x7 ft. Brettell, new. 30 in.x7 ft ii New Haven, fair. 30 in.x8 ft. " Hewes & Phillips, new. 30 in.x10 ft. 6 f Powell. 12 in. Shaper, Traveling Head, new. 1.2 in. ' Hewes & Phillips, 13 in. Stroke, 9 ft. Bed, Tray. Head Shaper, Barr, A 1. 24 in. Shaper, Bridgeport, 24 in. " Wolcott, 32 in. Drill, Bickford, A 1. No. 1 Screw Machine, Wire Feed, Pratt & Whitney 16-18-20-23 25-28-34 in. Drills. 30 in. Radial Drill. No. 5 Screw Machine. Jones & Lamson. No. 2 Die Sinker, Pratt & Whitney. new. Center Bolt Cutter, new. 5 in Cutting Off Machine. Star. Merrill Drops, 800 lbs. good order. Bement 2250 lb. Steam Hammer. Milling Machines, Screw Machines, Slate Sensitive Drills. Gang Drills, and full line of all kinds of Machine Tools. Send for list and specify what is wanted. new.

72 Warren Street and 62 .illege Place, New York. PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING CENTER
DEPTHKV1 ANGLEc AND J. TWIST DRILL GAUGE. Fine Machinists' Tools.E. Boston, Mass”Send for Circular



To Buyers of Engine Lathes
We are now making from entirely new designs, extra heavy 17", 19", 21", 24" and 27" Engine Lathes (the most popu-lar sizes), of which we are making a ripecialty, and manufacturing in lots 01 not legs thapt1100 at a time. We make no charge for extras. Every lathe is furnished with hollow spindle ; the 19" with lx" hole, and 21' with 17/6" hole. Every lathe has substantial com-pound rest,heavy tool post (bar steel), rest to turn full swing, following rest with adjustable jaws to take any size from 234' down, with extra tool for shafting. Full set of gears to cut from 2 to 18 threads including 113 pipe thread. Automatic stop on carriage. Separate screw and rod feed, and the most substantial and easily managed taper attachment made. Cones and gears of large diam-eter and wide belt. Studs, screws and small gears are steelor gunmetal. Webbed live heads, heavy tail stocks. No worm or worm gears, no weak reverse plate. Perfect lubrication for all running parts, including carriage. Lead screw inside of shear, double nut (cut from solid), and taking hold of car-riage directly under the line of strain. Friction counter-shaft, the most dura-ble made. Our prices are reasonable for cash, and from which no deviation will be made. Our written guarantee accompanies every lathe.

GUARANTEE.
We guarantee this lathe to be equal in workmanship, truth, accuracy, solidity, Material and finish, to the best made, and hold ourselves legally liable for this guarantee.

LODGE, DAVIS & CO.
MANUFACTURERS
Machine Tools, 169, 161, 163 and 165 EGGLESTON AVE., 06. 138,146, 148, 150.152, 154 E. 6th St, CINCINNATI, OHIO. (See our advertisement on last page.)

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JANUARY 15, 1887 .AMERICAN MACHIN1ST JANUTARY 1, 1887 AMERICAN MACHIN1ST 13 Morse Twist Drill and Machine Company, New Ledford, Mass. Manufacturers of Morse Patent Straight-Lip Increase Twist Drills. SOLID AND SHELL REAMERS, BEACH'S PATENT SELF-CENTERING CHUCK. BIT STOCK DRILLS. DRILL GRINDING MACHINES, MILLING CUTTERS AND SPECIAL TOOLS TO ORDER. Double lotgloyou Shear NIECES & JONES, WILMINGTON, DEL. We claim many advantages in this tool over any other style made : Being double, it will cut either right or left ; Its knives are of a proper height for convenience of working ; It will cut a bar square off or on a bevel ; Being supplied with a clutch, it can be stopped instantly. It is a serviceable tool for bridge building, ship build-ing. or any kind of ..-ailroad work. It is the machine for shop work, as the knives can be changed to cut round, flat and square iron THREE SIZES. Grinds Drills to 15A in. inclusive. ANY ONE CAN USE IT. THE HOUGH TWIST DRILL GRINDER --- The SPECIAL CLAIMS made for this Tool are its Ease of Operation, Low Price. MANUFACTURED BY warner & Hough Machine Co. ST. PAUL, MINN. Manning, Maxwell & Moored Tallman & McFadden, 111 Liberty st., New 'York. 1 1025 Market St., Barnes' Pat, Upright Drills 20-inch Swing, with both Worm and Lever Feed. DROP FORGINGSe OF IRON OR STEEL BEECHER & PECK, NEHAVEN CONN. g PAT, OriopEP,„ RE5vSESN' BEECHER & PECK, CONN. MACHINERY Reducing ancl Pointing Wire. • Especially adapted to pointing wire rods and wire for drawing. For Machines or information, address the manufacturer. S. W. GOODYEAR. Waterbury, Ct , New Haven Manf'g Co. NEW HAVEN, CONN. IRON-WORKING MACHINERY. American Twist Drill Company's PATENT CHUCK JAWS. Three sizes. Price per set of 4 Jaws,$40, $48, $56. Bolted to lathe face plates, they make best and cheapest chuck in the world Address orders, HILL, CLARKE & CO., Boston and St, Louis, MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, N . Y. City, TALLMAN & McFADDEN, Philadelphia, Pa., or WM. BINGHAM & CO., Cleveland, Ohio, L. W. Pond Machine Co. Manufacturers of and Dealers in IRON WORKING MACHINFR V. Iron Planers A Specialty. 140 union St. Worcester, MASS. aAUNpE 111111 D. SAUNDERS' SONS MANUFACTURERS OF THE ORIGINAL TRADE L X. L. MARK; Pipe Cutting 2 Threading Machine. cd BEWARE OF IMITATIONS. None genuine without our Trade-mark and Name. STEAM AND GAS-FITTERS' HAND TOOLS, Pipe Cutting and Threading Machines, for Pipe Mill Use, a Specialty. lend for Circulars. YONKERS, N. Y. Lubricate Your Engine Cylinders FOX,TURRET &SPEED LATHES AND BRASS FINISHERS' TOOLS, CAGE MACHINE WORKS WATERFORD, N. Y. perfectly, gain power and save oil by using our Patent Automatic Sight Feed Lubri-cators, showing oil as it enters, drop by drop. The Seibert Cylinder Oil Cup Co. II. A. ROGERS, Agent for New York. .19 John Street, New York. Lyncie's Pat. POD SafotY Valves Adapted to all Boilers. 3. E. Lonergan & Co., Sole Owners and Manurrs PHILA., PA. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15-inch swing, 6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory they have advantages not found in other machines in this ENglisa,,InadtVisni nigaRIdactint Lathes, Upright well & Moore, 111 Liberty Street, New York. For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. P. BLAISDELL 14 CO. Manufacturers of achiniste Tools. WORCESTER. MASS. arnes' Pat. Upright Drills TT. [11. rat WATERFORD, N. Y. SHAPING MACHINES For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15•inch swing,6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory , they have advantages not found in other machines in this line. It will pay parties desiring to purchase, or know more about this _clam of machines, to seLd for full description and prices. W. F. & JOHN BARNES CO. 1995 MainSt., Rockford, III. NM OUR"IXT" Calg10010 of Tot and Supplies sent free to any address on receipt of Ten Cent, in Stamps (for postage). CHAS. A. STRELINGER & CO , wAz),!! Detroit, Micl, ILL L. S. STARRETT, Manufacturer of FINE TOOLS ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL Lisp. ENGINE rl Drills LnadtRisl,linlial4d Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Agents, Manning, Max. well & Moore, 111 Libgertyagtrienee:, New York. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. TM Almond Coupling AN EW quarter turn motion to replace qii ►rter turn belts and bevel gears. T. H. ALMOND, Mfr., 83 0 80 Wallington Street BROOKLYN, N. Y. AMONO USERS 010 Dixon's American Graphite Artists' Pencils. Who recommend them highly to others, are : Betts Machine Co. (-kreat Western Mfg. Co Lockwood, Greene & Co 11. 1). smith &_Co Levi Houston Cleveland Axle Mtg. Co Wilmington, Del. Leavenworth, Ks. Providence,R. 1. Plantsville, Conn. Montgomery, Pa. Cleveland, 0. Keystone Bridge Co Pittsburgh, Pa. The Watson Machine Co Paterson, N. J. The Pratt & Whitney Co Hartiord, Conn. Nashua Lock Co Nashua, N. H. I: flow les 1,00111 Works ....... ....Worcester, Mass. Yule & Towne Mfg..Co Stamford, Conn. Paneolisi & Mamie Philadelphia, Pa. Bente! & Margedant Co Hamilton, 0. ++. It will pay every reader of this paper to send 16 cents in stamps to the JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE II)., of .lersor City, N. J., for Samples. By mention-ing this paper, they will receive Pencils worth double the money.. MACHINERY, TOOLS and SUPPLIES. Complete Outfits for MACHINISTS, BLACKSMITHS, MODEL MAKERS, JEWELERS, ETC. Lathes, Planers, Shapers, Drill Presses, Emery Grinders, Milling Machines, Bolts, Screws, Washers, Belting, Packing, Waste, Twist Drills, Taps, Reamers, Cold Rolled Shafting, Hangers, Files. SEND FOR ILLUSTRATICI) PR :019 LIST we METAL-WORKERS' TOOLS, ALSO WOOD-WORKERS'. TALLMAN & McFADDEN, 1025 MARKET STREET, PHILADELPHIA. THE EAT014-01E—STBURNHANI CU. 82 & 84 FULTON STREET, MANUFACTURERS OF pipe Outting and Threading Machine OPERATED BY HAND OR POWER. FITTINGS NEW YORK. Factory: BRID GEPORT, Conn. PHILA., PA. P. BLAISDELL & CO. Manufacturers of ach ists' Tools, ATI WORCESTER, MASS. NEW AND IMPROVED ENGINE LATHES, THE MULLER MACHINE TOOL CO. 179 West Pearl St., CINCINNATI, OHIO. Send for Cuts and Prices. FRICTION CLUTCH PULLEYS AND CUT - OFF COUPLINGS. JAS. HUNTER & SON, North Adams, Mass. EVEL GEARS, Cut Theoretically Correct. For particulars and estimates apply to 2311E1IMER BROS. Machinists, 140 N. 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. W. C. YOUNG & COWorcester, Mass. Manufacturer. of Engine Lathes, Hand Lathes, FOOT POWER LATHES, gLIDICE7STS, Etc. ADJUSTABLE DIE STOCK. Cuts pipe W' to 2". Also mace In Ratchet form, and with cutting-off attachment. VALVES, PIPE, PIPE TOOLS. ALL STYLES OP Iron & Brass foods FOR Steam, Water and Gas, BOILER FEED PUMP M. R. IVIUCKLE, Jr. & CO. P1111422E2, SIZES TO SUIT STEAM PLANTS, UP TO 300 H. P. Send For Circulc S WHITNEY'S NEW RATCHET Has greater range than any other two ratchets made, and at the price of one. Send for circulars. VARIETY MACHINE CO., Warsaw, N. Y. 110111•INIIMM 1 U111._ It3Eli)v-crrI0N of Steam or Water Pressure is best accomplished by the MASON REDUCING VALVE. It does not pound or clatter and will reduce as low as one pound. MASON REGULATOR CO., 22 Central St.,Boston,Mass
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 Page 14 DECEMBER 31, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 14


AMERICAN MACHINIST ************************** 14 AMERICAN- MACHINIST JANUARY 1, 1887

WILLIAM SELLERS & CO. 19CO9PO99TED, Engineers and Manufacturers of IMPROVED MACHINE TOOLS FOR WORKING IRON AND STEEL STEAM HAMMERS, PUNCHES and SHEARS, LATHES, PLANERS, BENDING BOLLS, BORING and TURNING MILLS, DRILL and TOOL GRINDERS, Etc., Etc. SHAFTING, PULLEYS, 11A\GERS, COUP11.\GS, Improved Injectors for Feeding Boilers. PAMPHLETS, PHOTOTYPICS AND PRICES FURNISHED ON APPLICATION TO OFFICE AND WORKS, PHILADELPHIA PENN. TELDTHALIZATTECI"'011Hitoon, Double, Single, Angle-Bar, Gang, Horizontal, Twin, Boiler, Spacing, Gate, Multiple, Belt and Steam-Driven Punches and Shun. Over 300 Sizes. ALSO, Power Cushioned Hammes.. Send for new Catalogue. JANUARY 1, 1887 SOUTHWARK FOUNDRY & MACHINE CO. P3ILADELPHIA, PA. General Machinists, Founders and Boiler Makers. Heavy Machinery of all kinds a Specialty. THE DUPLEX INJECTOR THE BEST BOILER FEEDER KNOWN. 48,50,52 54 Randolph St. Cosgrove's Patent Universal Vice Chuck. For Milling Machines, Planers, Shapers, Drill Presses, Etc. Com-plete in every particular. Trunnion and base graduated, admitting of great range of positions and for registering same. Steel jaws 8 in. x 2 in. Will stand hard usage. CIRCULARS ON APPLICATION. PEDRICK & AYER, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 111 October 30, 1886. SAVAGE, SON & CO. Office of EMPIRE FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. J. RICHARDS, Esq.—We have had in constant use for past 5 years one of your PATENT PLANING MACHINES. It is the first one manufac-tured for sale by you, and we can say that a greater variety and weight of work has been planed on this machine than by any other standard planer, taking into consideration the size of machines and weight. Its chief merits are its adaptability and handiness for all general classes of work. We have thoroughly tried the machine and can recommend it as an indispensable tool for machine works. Manufactured by E. A. WALKER, 75 Laurel St., Philadelphia, Pa. ligdrOggie MaChillerig PRESSES, PUMPS, PUNCHES, ACCUMULATORS, JACKS, VALVES, FITTINCS, Vault Elevators, &c., Soo. WATSON & STIMAN, Not liable to get out of order. Will lift water 25 feet. Always delivers water hot to the boiler. Will start when it is hot. Will feed water through a heater. Manufactured and for sale by JAMES JENKS & CO, Detroit, Mica. J. 'WENDELL COLE, M. E. Manager of Pennsylvania Southern Lake regions and the Northwest for DETROIT EMERY WHEEL CO. Address, Box 84, Columbus, 0., or P. 0. Box 152 Chicago. Hart's Corundum-Emery Wheels. 2—by-the Hewes & Phillips Iron Works, NEWARK, X. J. ND HAND WHINEM 7011 One 12x30 Automatic rut-Off E..gine. One 60-inch x 60-inchx20tt Planer. Two Heads on Cross Rail. Two 9-in. stroke Shapers UNIVERSAL RADIAL4,, RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE dr,: 7— THREE DESIGNS. SIX SIZES 111 ,:,..4E—MBODY All DESIRABLE FEATURES PRICES$450.g&UPWARD ssUNIVERSAL RADIAL DRILL CO o CINCINNATI 0 U .S A . S1intM(YU1t,'S PIPE-WRENCH ATTACHMENT. FOR MONKEY WRENCHES. GRIPS 1-4 inch to 1 1-4 inch. SEND FOR CIRCULAR. ARMSTRONG MFG. CO„ Bridgeport, Conn, TwutirieSe Bodley Co. MANUFACTURERS OF • utomatic Out Of Engiges, from heavy patterns and of unexcelled workmanship. STEEL BOILERS, FEED WATER HEATERS, SHAFTING, PULLEYS & GEARING. THE LANE & BODLEY CO. East side John, cor-Water, Cincinnati, 0. VII! li ARE BUILDING- A NEW ERASE FOUNDRY. OLD ONE ENTIRELY TOO SMALL. Slate Sensitive Ell Q *************************************************************** Ilgthiootatie Machigog PRESSES, PUMPS, PUNCHES, ACCUMULATORS, JACKS, VALVES, FITTINCS, Vault Elevators, acc., Sco. 'WATSON & STIMAN, 204-210 E. 43d St., New York. rAriSr7 ro 100011044*y , APPSS: THE LINK BEL REI'MACtillIErVG3 miNNEpPOLIS C)f IOC° Nevi Yo 13 TO i7 So.drffErSolta Of any power and Style. SINGLE AND DOUBLE CYLINDER, with improved pat-ent friction drums, especially a dap t e d for bridge building, dock building, pile driving.coal hoisting. quarries, mines, etc. J. S. MUNDY, Newark, N. J. This patent has been sustained in IJ S. Courts in New York and N. J. WOOD—WORKING MACHINERY For Planing Mills, Furni-ture, Chair and Cabinet Factories, Cabinet Works and Cieneral Wood-Work-ing. Send Stamp for Il-lustrated Catalogue to Rolls one Machine Co. 45 WATER ST., FITCHBURG, MASS. rill TRAUTWINE'S CIVIL ENGINEER'S POCKET-BOOK. Imimm" Beyond all question THE BEST practical manual for the engineer that has ever imini appeared."--GEORGE L. VOSE, C. E., in "Manual for Railroad Engineers." --......1 JOHN WILEY SL SONS, NEW YORK. RAILROAD CURVES. EARTHWORK, Measurement and cost of. E. A F. F. SPON, LONDON. 1,*. OSGOOD DREDGE CO , - ALBANY, N. Y. RALPH R. OSLO ID, Pros. JAMES H BLESSING, Vice-Pres. JOHN K. HOWE, Secretary and Treasurer. Manufacturers of DREDGES, DITCHING Excavators, 1../ MACHINES, DERRICKS, Etc., Etc. THE GARDNER GOVERNOR Over 15,000 in Use. ADAPTED TO EVERY STYLE OF STATIONARY AND PORTABLE STEAM ENGINE. Warranted to give satisfac• tion or no sale. FOR CIRCULARS AND PRICES, ADDRESS, The Gardner Governor Co, QUINCY, ILL. Cincinnati, 0. ? VII! ARE BUILDING- A NEW BRASS FOUNDRY. OLD ONE ENTIRELY TOO SMALL. I I :1:11 511:1111111 Drill A dapted to rapid work with small drills. Its extreme sensitiveness prevents clogging and breakage of drills. Has a switching table with attachment f _r center drilling. In-stantly adjustable to different lengths of work. Over 200 already in use. Send for circular. DWIGHT SLATE, Hartford, Conn. FAY & SCOTT, MANUFACTURERS OF DEXTER, ME. WOOD LATHES, Drill Lathes, Shaping Machines, Milling Machines, Planer Centers, Etc. SEND FOR CATALOCUE. 5 4 IRON to STEEL SECOND—HAND MACHINERY. 1 No. 5 Diamond Emery Grinder. 1 20 in. Prentice Drill Press. 1 '20 in. Bickford Drill Press. 1 15 in. x 6 ft. bed Engine Lathe. 1 15 in. x S ft. bed Engine Lathe. 1 13 in. x 5 ft. bed Engine Lathe. ALL THE ABOVE ARE IN GOOD ORDER AND ARE BARGAINS. Also New 8, 12 and 14 in. SWing Foot or Power Lathes, our own make. Send for our New Catalogue. SEBASTIAN, MAY & Co, No. 167 West 2nd Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1111 .111111 Hi --. CME MACHINERY CO., ,CLEVELANWOHIO. Manufacturers of " .Zk. WI ] E 77 %not et Alltomltic Bol'cutters, cutting from 3.8 in. to 6 in. diameter, Also SEPARATE HEADS AND DIES, Send for Catalogue and Discounts. 1-...--.-7-7, Agents, Manning, Maxwell B Moore, NewYork. -- PAT. DEC. 5, 1882. PAT. DEC. 4, 1883. PAT. AUG, 25, 1885. THE NEW YORK SUPPLY CO. MORSE ELEVATOR WORKS LIMITED. MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS AND MILL ElnitOr; SUPPLIES. MORSE, WILLIAMS /lb CO., T. Successors to CLEM B MORSE, Builders of all Simla of PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ASHTON "POP" SAFETY VALVE. EXCLUSIVE AGENTS, 50-52 John Street, - New York. Automatic Hatch Doors A SPECIALTY. Send for Illustrated Circular. Office, 411 CHERRY ST. Works, Frankford Av.,Wildey and Shackamaxon Sts., PHILADELPHIA. N.Y. Office, 108 Liberty Street.
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15  AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 15

15 JANUARY 1, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 15

NICHOLSON FILE COMPANY, Sole Mfrs. of
FILES and RASPS Having the Increment Cut, also, FILERS' TOOLS and SPECIALTIES.
The above illustration represents a device in which files may be held for service in surface filing, and while in this condition READILY SPRUNG, in order to give at the will of the operator, more or less convexity to the working face of the file. It does away with unnsna I care to obtain a true convexity or "belly" to file sides, and in fact renders great service by enabling the operator to utilize the file to its full capacity. SURFACE FILE HOLDER No. 4, Adapted to Hold Files 12, 13 14 in. Long. 14,15,16 " Si 5, Ci 46 it
MANUFACTORY AND OFFICE - PROVIDENCE, R. I., U. S. A.

THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR. THE STANDARD BOILER FEEDER FOR ALL CLASSES OF BOILERS. OVER 85 000 IN USE. Send for Circulars and Price Lists. THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR CO. OFFICE, 33 INDIA WHARF, BOSTON, MASS. HE NEW "GRESHAM" PATENT AUTOMATIC INJECTOR RE-STARTING

" Invaluable for use in Traction, Farm, Portable Marine and Stationary Boilers of all kinds. No handles required. Water supply very difficult to break. Capability of restarting automatically, immediately after interruption to feed from any cause." SEND FOR CATALOCUE. RELIABLE AND CHEAP. Sole Manufacturers in the United States & Canada,

NATHAN MANUFACTURING CO, 92 & 94 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. ROOTS' NEW ACME HAND — BLOWER, For Blacksmiths, etc. Slow Speed, Positive Blast. Is Durable Compact and Cheap, also Portable Forges, Tuyere Irons and Foundry Blowers.

STEAM ENGINE, ETC. DUBOIS' Weisbach's Steam Engine, 8vo cloth, $5 00 DUBOIS' Rontgen's Hot Air Gas and Steam Engines, 8vo cloth • • • • 5 00 CLERK'S Gas Engine, 12mo, cloth ........... 2 50 GRIMSHAW'S Steam Engine Catechism, 18mo, cloth 1 00 MAW'S Chief Types Modern Marine Engines. folio, one half morocco 18 00 SINCLAIR'S Locomotive Engine, 12mo,cloth, 2 01) "THURSTON'S Stationary Engines for. Elec-SEBASTIAN , MAY & COMPANY'S Improved Screw Cutting root or Power Lathes

C. W. LE COUNT," South. Norwalk, Conn. REDUCED PRICE OF LE COUNT'S • HEAVY STEEL DOG a No. Inch. Price. 1171Z '4=2 2 1-2.." ,O) e g", cD., 2 F.,. 3 5-8 .60 . c(?; 4 3-4 60 cn co ,73 5 7-8 .70 b 0 6....1 70 cr3 1-1,„ c-o-, S 7-...1 M.__ 80 Ss'o 8....1 1-4 ,80 o m . . If ; tg. - 13....2 1-4 1.35 go ?o" 'ne4 14....2 1-2 15. U .. 1.454 g...0 Cn ....3 1.60 .4 16....3 1-2 1 .80 Er 0 CD ti+-4 17....4 2 10 0 g 18....4 1-2 2.75 A 4. 19.___5 3.25 coo Full set of 19,1323.60 r, cro. 20 (ext.) 5 1-2 4.00 o E. 21 (ext.) 6 5.00 One Small Set of 8-by 1-4 inches to 20 inch . 5 6.15 One bet of 12-by 1-4 in. to 2 in „continued by 1-2 in. to 4 in. 13.20 Catalogue of Lathes, Drill Presses and Machinists' Tools and Supplies mailed on appli-cation. Lathes on Trial. 167 W. Second St.,Cincinnati, 0. E. P. B. SOUTHWORTH, 94 Exchange street, Rochester, New York. Indicating Engineer and Mechanical Draftsman. Correspondence solicited.

ON HAND FOR IMMEDIATE li DELIVERY ONE 60" PLANER

FOR WOOD AND IRON CEARS—SPUR OR BEVEL. WILLIAM GLEASON, Manufacturer of Machinists' Tools, ROCHESTER, N. Y.
CONE PULLEY BEET SHIFTER.
With this device, Belts on Cone Pulleys can be shifted as easily as from tight to loose pulleys. Saves time, annoyance and wear on belts. Dispenses with Belt " Stick." SENT ON THIRTY DAYS' TRIAL. Satisfaction guaranteed. Send for Circulars and prices to the man-ufacturers or their agents. MANUFACTURED BY POST St, COMPANY, CINCINNATI, 0. DEALERS IN MACHINERY AND RAILWAY SUPPLIES. AGENTS:—Geo. Place Mach'y Co.. New York. Palmer, Cunning-ham & Co. (Limited), Philadelphia. 1.1. Baird Machinery Company, Pittsburgh. C. H Besly & Co., Chicago. EgONOMICAIL STFAM Rnii rRst ••• American-Machinist-Jan-1-1887-pg-16-top-Universal-milling machine-Brown-and-Sharp-mfg-co-Niles-tool-works-verticle-Slotter-CarWheel-axle-railroad-locomotive-shop-Pillar-Cranes-Warner-and-Swasey-machine-pratt
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 16 16 Jan 1, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 15

AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 1, 1887

-AMERICAN MACHINIST 15

NEW TANGYE. BUCKEYE AUTOMATIC CUT—OFF ENGINES

. In Use, Over 1,000. 25 to 1,000 H. P. These Engines are the combined result of long ex-perience with automatic cut-off regulation, and most careful revision of all details. They are designed and constructed for heavy and continuous duty at medium or high rotative speeds Highest attainable Economy in Steam Consumption and superior regulation guar-anteed. Self-contained Automatic Cut-off Engines 12 to 100 H P. for driving Dynamo Machines a specialty. Illustrated Circulars, with various data as to practical Steam Engine construction and performance, free by mail. Address, BUCKEYE ENGINE CO., Salem, Ohio. ( N W. ROBINSON, cor. Clinton & Jackson Sts.,Chicago, T11. SALES AGENTS : W. L. SIIIPSON, 70 Astor House, N. Y. PRAY MFG. CO., Minneapolis, Minn.

KENSINCTON ENCINE WORKS, LIMITED, PHILADELPHIA, r.1, i-rsces and Manufacturers for New Jersey (South of Trenton), Eastern PonsTlvania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia.

TftE BECENT & Man; MFG, CO., STEAM ENGINES, HOISTS, PUMPS, AND GENERAL MINING MACHINERY. 120 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. gar SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOCUE. "OTTO" GAS ENGINE WORKS SCHLEICHER, SCHUIVIS1 86 CO.,

83d and Walnut Sta. Branch Office, 180 Washington St. PHILADELPHIA. CHICAGO. OVER 18,000 ENGINES IN USE. GUARANTEED To Consume 25 5ANy 2theLiasEngiper r Cent. Less Gas than Mcli!IpC inlay Patent Air Ellgl110. _1r The Best and Cheapest on the Market. No Steam. No Water. Absolute Safety. No En-gineer. No Pumps Nu Gauges. No liability to freeze up No Regula-tion required.

STEARNS MFG. COMPANY PA.

Engines from 15 to 400 Horse Power. Boilers of Steel and Iron supplied to the trade or the user. Send for Catalogues. SAW ISIS and GENERAL

FORBES & CURTIS,
BRIDGEPORT, CONN.
Manufacturers of NO EXTRA INSURANCE. Can be used for any purpose where power is required. Cheap Fuel. Cheap First Cost. McKinley Engine Co. 17 Broadway, CINCINNATI, 0.

THE NATIONAL FEED

WATER HEATER. A brass coil heater supplying feed water at 210° to 212° Fahr-

MANUFACTURERS OF COICLISS - STEAM ENGINES

PULL VAR kE:r Sizes Varying From 30 to 2000 Horse Power. Horizontal or Vertical, Direct Acting or Beam, Condensing, Non-Condensing or Compound. Send for Circular. liERS & Palm Iron Works. 4, IMPROVED Corliss Engine, High Pressure, —Condensing –.And Compound Jend for Circular. AGENT" Geo. A. Barnard (175 Temple Court) 7 Beekman Street, NEW YORK.

THE ALBANY STEAM TRAP CO.'S

BUCKET AND GRAVITATING TRAPS_ ******************************************************************* STEARNS MFG. COMPANY

ERIE, Engines from 16 to 400 Horse Power. Boilers of Steel and Iron supplied to the trade or the user. Send for Catalogues. SAW IF i

FORBES & CURTIS3 BRIDGEPORT, CONN.
Manufacturers of The Forbes Pat, Die Stocks,
Power Pipe Cutting and Thread ing Machines, Cutting-off Ma-chines, Ratchet Drills, Special Machinery, etc., etc. WRITE FOR CATALOGUE. Mention Paper.

SECOND-HIND TOOLS FOR SALE b POOLE & HUNT,
Baltimore, Md. 1 Planing Machine. Will plane 35in. wide, 27 in high, and 16 ft. 6 in. long. 1 Planing Machine. Will plane 30 in. wide, 26 in high, and 5 ft. 6 in long. 1 Planing Machine. Will plane 24 in. wide, 22 in high, and 5 feet long. I Double Geared Chasing Lathe. Will swing 24 in. dia., 8 ft. 6 in. long. 1 Drill Grinding Machine. 1 Small Punching and Shearing Machine, with fly wheel and clutch starting arrangement. MACHINERY, NEW AND SECONI3-HAND.
12 in. S., 5 ft. Bed Engine Lathe, New 13 in. x 6 ft. Bed Engine Lathe, Ames, new. 14 " 5 and 7 ft. Bed Engine Lathe, Bogert new 14 5 ft." `• " Harris, cheap 16 " 6 ft. " " Ames. 15 " 6 ft. " " Pratt & Whitney. 17 " 6 it. Putnam, not screw cutting. 17 " 6', 7' " Hewes & Phillips. 19 " 10,12,14" " " Pond, nearly new. 20 in. x 6 ft. Engine Lathe Putnam, good order. •4 " 20 ft. " " Ames, new. 29 " 12 ft. " " Harrisburg. 34 " 12 ft. " Harrisburg, good. 16x6 ft. Turret Fox Lathe with chasing bar. 14 in.-20 in. and 33 in. Turret Head Chucking. or Screw Machines, Bridgeport. 23 in., 25 in. and 28 in. Drills. Blaisdell, new. 20 in. Drill, Prentice. 20 " Davis. No. 1 and 2 Slate's Sensitive Drill. Elliott Drill. Gang Drill. SHAPERS. 6 in. Gould. 16 in. Hewes and Phillips 15 & 24 in. Wolcott. 20 in. Bridgeport PLANERS. 16x42 in. Bridgeport. 22 x 4 ft. Powell. 24 in x 6 ft., Powell. 24 in x 8 ft. Ames. 26 in x ()&8 ft.. " 22 in.x4 ft.,5 ft.and 6 ft.Powell. 32 in.x 10 ft., Pond 36 in. Squaring Shear, power, nearly new. No. 3%and 5 Press, Stiles 40 lb. Bradley Cushioned Hammer. Lot of miscellaneous Machinery If you do not see what you want, write and state what is re-quired. E. P. BULLARD,14 Dey St., New York. 12 in Sellers.

Can be used for any purpose where power is required. Cheap Fuel. Cheap First Cost. McKinley Engine Co. 17 Broadway, CINCINNATI, 0. THE NATIONAL FEED WATER
A brass coil heater supplying feed water at 210° to 212° Fahr-enheit by use of exhaust steam Our prices are low and rea-sonable, and we aim to supply I the ch eapest ,best and most Tect ive Heater in the market. Six-. teen sizes. 10 H.P.,$20; 100 H. P., $150; 500 H P., $600. Iron, -Press end Copper Coils and 7-711l, 1 . - - Thuds made to order. „_=--_-- ,r;" Dim!' Circulars and price lists Lent on application. National ripe Sending Co, Exttausr Mk NEW HAVEN,CODR. IRON & STEEL DROP FORGINGS cl a Order. LOW PRICES AND GOOD WORKMANSHIP ADDRESS: BRADLEY & PIERSON MFG. CO.. Foot of Clay Street, Newark, N. J.

ME ALBANY STEAM TRAP Co:S BUCKET AND GRAVITATING 11111..A__12°S.

Automatically drain the water of condensation from HEATING COILS and return it to the boilers whether the coils are above or below the water level in boiler. doing away with pumps and other mechanical devices for such purposes. We also manufacture Blessing's Patent Renewable-Seat Stop and Check Valves.—Send for Circular. Albany Steam Trap Co. AZar, Gravitating.

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE DEPARTMENT

. LONGIACl2C-CO. CAR MFG. CO. HARRISBURG, PA.

king Anil d Silver Medal AND Diploma

AT FRANKLIN INSTITUTE NOVELTY EXHIBI-TION, PHILADELPHIA. We are operating the finest and most successful Electric Light Stations in the world. A change of speed not exceeding one per cent guaranteed, run ning light and loaded Send for catalogue. THE SIMMER 68 'ANN' NEWY—orat-

ERIE, PA. eNGINE CO.

A 24-INCH LATHE, . . WITH BED ANY LENGTH DESIRED. THIS LATHE IS DESIGNED HEAVY FOR SEVERE SER-VICE ; IT IS THE HEAVIEST OF ITS SIZE EVER PRO DUCED, AND THE WORKMANSHIP AS GOOL AS SKILL CAIS MAKE IT. LATHE SEND FOR CIRCULAR_ "Glenwood Station,' . 19 Yonkers, N. Y.

PORTABLE AND STATIONARY ENGINES and BOILERS Send for Catalogue and Prices. SEND FOR SPECIAL LIST. New and Second-hand Machinery.

COLD-ROLLED SHAFTING, HANGERS, PULLEY, ETC., ETC. GEORGE PLACE MACHINERY CO. 121 Chambers St., New York.
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2nd scan AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1889-page 6

Buying-A M E R I C A N M A C H I N I S T-Section Vol. 56, No. 1
Cut Production Costs-With Modern Equipment.

LET'S START RIGHT NOW
to do those things necessary to bring conditions back to normal. We've faced business stag- nation long enough
now to know what it means; so /et's go- let's get started on the right track again. This business de- pression will last
just as long as the people of this co\untry sit back and wait for something to happen-we've got to make things
happen.
We can accomplish nothing by waiting for the other fellow to start something-the chances are he is sitting back
waiting for us. We've simply got to realize that it is up to everyone to do his share, and there never was a better
time than right now to start the "ball a'rolling."
Then there is another and probably a much more threaten- ing angle to the situation. The period of prosperity just
passed has witnessed a tremendous over-expansion in practically every industry, not only in this country, but
throughout the entire civilized world. `As a consequence, today, and likely for many years to come, the facilities for
production will be greater than the powers of absorption-which means the keenest kind of competition and the
weeding out of the less stable and less progressive concerns in each industry. Business houses today are fighting
for their very existence, and those who survive will be the ones that start now to reduce their costs and better
their methods, in order to meet the keenest competition on a fair basis. ~
How should we begin? Where should we start?


If every manufacturer in the metal working industry would start by putting his own house in order, by replacing his
old worn'-out tools with new and better machines, by weeding out bis obsolete equipment, and installing more
modern, more prohtable equipment in its place, the first thing you know, we would have better business, things
would begin to move again, and industry once more would "hit the trail" of progress. We, The American Tool Works
Company, have already started. Since Jan. 1921, we have weeded out of our own plant, eighty-three machines of
different kinds, and are now replacing them with the latest and most modern tools. By this we have provided
business for the foundries, orders for the steel mills, and work for a number of men-in other words, we have "gone
into action" in our own plant.
If you will do the same in yours, the other fellow the same in his, and so on, ad infinitum, this country would soon
forget that there was a business depression, a readjustment period or a deflation spasm. It is up to every one of us
to put our shoulder to the wheel, so let's go-a slang expression -yes-but chuck full of meaning and good advice.

The American Tool Works Co.
Cincinatti, Ohio, U. S. A.
LATHES PLANERS--SHAPERS RADIALS

This is the 6rst of a series of cost reducing advertisements. The president of every metal Fabricatz.ng plant in t
country should hz.mselF read each and every one oF th advertisements, and then refer them to hz.s manager c
superintendent.