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William Woodcock It is a singular coincidence that the notice of the death of Mr Garey who for so many years was the President of the Master Car Builders Association and that of William Woodcock the President of the Master Mechanics Association should appear simultaneously in so many papers William Woodcock died at his home in Elizabeth NJ at noon on Nov 27 He had been ill about three weeks He was a native of England and came to this country when a child

Jan 22 1887



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William Woodcock

It is a singular coincidence that the notice of the death of Mr Garey who for so many years was the President of the Master Car Builders Association and that of William Woodcock the President of the Master Mechanics Association should appear simultaneously in so many papers William Woodcock died at his home in Elizabeth NJ at noon on Nov 27 He had been ill about three weeks He was a native of England and came to this country when a child He learned the machinists trade in a railroad shop at Parksburg Chester County Pa

and soon after became foreman of a shop in Harrisburgh Afterwards he was made foreman of the repair shops of the Delaware Lackawanna & Western Railroad in Scranton From there he went to Philadelphia as Superintendent of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad shops at Ninth and Green streets In 1870 he was offered the position of Master Mechanic of the Central Railroad of New Jersey which position he held under Mr Peeples who was Superintendent of Machinery On the resignation of the latter gentleman his duties were delegated to Mr Woodcock and he occupied this position until his death He had charge of the machinery of the Central Railroad of New Jersey the Long Branch and New Jersey Southern Branches Mr Woodcock was one of the class of mechanics which is so large in this country who have come up from the ranks and been promoted to more responsible positions He took a very great interest in everything relating to his occupation and especially in the affairs of the associa tion of which he was President Although not a highly educated man he was a diligent student of all that related to his calling and took a keen interest in all improve in the machinery of railroads He was chosen Second Vice President of the Master Mechanics Associa tion in 1884 First Vice President in 1885 and last June was elected President In one of the local papers of Elizabeth was said that Mr Woodcock was a man of quiet unassuming man ners and yet public spirited taking an active interest in the welfare of the city He was a man of great benevo lence doing much for charity that escaped publicity and was never heard of except through the beneficiaries He was also connected with benevolent institutions He was one of the Board of Directors of the Elizabeth General Hospital and Dispensary and a Trustee of Evergreen Cemetery In politics he was a Democrat and as the candidate of that party was elected a member of the Board of Educa tion from the First ward when that ward had a pro Republican majority Mr Woodcock served well his constituency and brought an experience in educational and mechanical affairs into the management of the schools that will be of a permanent benefit

He was at the time of his death and had been for several years member of the Board of Health where too his mechani cal skill was of great practical use in matters of this de partment Mr Woodcock was an active church worker and in none of his public relations will his loss be more severely felt than in the Marshall street Presbyterian Church of which he was one of the elders He was a member of the Knights Templar Command in Lancaster Pa

Mr Woodcock leaves no immediate family His wife a few years ago A sister and brother survive him His death falls with much severity upon a niece who had home at Mr Woodcock's since a child and was as a to him The railroad company recognize the loss of a valua ble and faithful employé whose place cannot be easily filled The hundreds of men who for years have been under his direction will regard his death with feelings of 6 partment

Mr Woodcock was an active church worker and in none of his public relations will his loss be more severely felt than in the Marshall street Presbyterian Church of which he was one of the elders He was a member of the Knights Templar Command in Lancaster Pa

Mr Woodcock leaves no immediate family His wife a few years ago A sister and brother survive him His death falls with much severity upon a niece who had home at Mr Woodcock's since a child and was as a to him The railroad company recognize the loss of a valua ble and faithful employé whose place cannot be easily filled The hundreds of men who for years have been under his direction will regard his death with feelings of great sorrow He was a kind and helpful master and esteemed by all who had dealings with him Mr Wood cock was 52 years of age 6

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A JOURNAL FOR MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS, FOUNDERS, BOILER MAKERS, PATTERN MAKERS, AND BLACKSMITHS,

VOL. 10, No. 4 WEEKLY. NEW YORK, JANUARY 8, 1887.
COPYRIGHT 1887, BY AMERICAN MACHINIST PUBLISHING COMPANY. For Sale Everywhere by Newsdealers. 5 82.50 per Annum. SINGLE COPIES, a CENTS. ENTERED AT POST OFFICE, NEW YORK, AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER.

A JOURNAL FOR MACHINISTS, 'BLACKSMITHS, VOL. 10, No: 2 WEEKLIES. NEW YORK, JANUARY 8, 1887. 5 82.50 per Annum. SINGLE COPIES, a CENTS. COPYRIGHT 1887, BY AMERICAN MACHINIST PUBLISHING C ANY.

Sketch of the Life of William Woodcock.
The decease of William Woodcock at his residence in Elizabethport, N. J., Nov. 27th, has already been referred to in the AMERICAN MACHINIST. We present this week a portrait engraved from a recent photograph. Mr. Woodcock was a native of England, and came to this country in his boyhood. His youth and the greater part of his life was spent in Pennsylvania. He entered the railroad shop at Parksburg, Chester County, Pa. , and there learned the trade of a machinist. Through constant study, perseverance and hard work he soon established for himself an excellent reputation as a remarkable, skillful and practical mechanic in everything connected with locomo-tive construction. His ability and integrity were recognized by the officers of the works ; and when these shops were removed to Har-risburgh Mr. Woodcock became the foreman. Afterwards he was ap-pointed foreman of the loco.motive repair shops at Scranton, Pa. This position he resigned to accept the superintendency of the machine shops at Ninth and Greene streets, Philadelphia. In 1870 Mr. Woodcock accepted the position of master mechanic of the railroad works situated at Eliza-bethport, and belonging to the Cen-nf Now JA•PIA V_ Tn For Sale Everywhere by Newsdealerts.

ENTERED AT POST OFFICE, NEW YORK, AS SECOND CLASS MATTER.

Resolved, That the heartfelt condolnce of the employes is hereby tendered to the relatives of deceased, and that we bow with them in submission to the will of Him who doeth all things well. _Resolved, that a copy of the foregoing resolutions be transmitted to the relatives of de-ceased and published in the daily papers. Mr. Woodcock was also a prominent mem-ber of the America i Railway Master Me-chanics' Association, and at its last session was elected president of that body. He was a mechanical affairs into the management of the schools that will be of permanent benefit. e was a man of great benevolence, doing much for charity that escaped publicity, but was frequently heard of through his beneiciaries. He was connected with several benevolent institutions and was an active church worker. In none of his public relations will his loss be more severely felt than in the church in which he was one of the elders.

1,600,000 miles on piston-rods per engine. Putting the average mileage of all engines at 50,000 miles per year, this would make the life of piston, so far as packing is concerned, 32 years, or more than the average life of an engine. As a matter of fact, in the past five years that this packing has been used by the C., B. & Q., in no single instance has there been a piston-rod removed on account of wear. There is no case where tin engine has been laid in to turn either the piston rod, or valve stem, on account of leaking. The wear of the valve stem is greater than the piston-rod, and not as true, the valve stem wearing more on the top and bottom, leaving the stem somewhat oblong. We find the average mileage of valve stems to be about 25,000 miles without turn-ing, when they require from -g-34- to of an inch to true up. Of the engines equipped with this packing in 1882 there has yet been no case of a valve stem being removed. This packing costs, complete, ready to put on an engine, for piston and valve stems, $23.05. The cost of maintaining this packing is ex-tremely light. Three passenger en-gines, making 250 miles daily, with our heaviest through trains, being handled by separate crews— were being six crews to run the three engines—each following the other around, have, from May 1st, to De-cember 1st, 1886, only used 36 cents

tnese snops were removeu to _liar-risburgh Mr. Woodcock became the foreman. Afterwards he was ap-pointed foreman of the locoinotive repair shops at Scranton, Pa. This position he resigned to accept the superintendency of the machine shops at Ninth and Greene streets, Philadelphia. . In 1870 Mr. Woodcock accepted the position of master mechanic of the railroad works situated at Eliza-bethport, and belonging to the Cen-tral Railroad of New Jersey. In that capacity he had charge of all the shops of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad on the Central Long Branch and New Jersey Southern branches. This position he held until the time of his death. Here he proved himself to be a thorough practical locomotive and car builder. Through his kind and courteous conduct he made many warm and lasting friends ; and through his just and fair dealings with all his workmen gained their highest esteem. This was sincerely shown in a meeting of the workmen held in the round house, the day before his funeral. At this meeting it was decided that all should attend the funeral in a body. Resolutions were adopted showing their high esteem and respect of the friend whom they had known so long. A representative of the AMERICAN MACHINIST who was present at this meeting heard it said by the workmen that language, however strong in praising the life and conduct of their leader, could not reach beyond the truth. The resolutions adopted were as follows : Whereas, The employes at these shops have heard with profound regret and sorrow the announcement of ths. death of Master Mechanic William Woodcock, which occurred on the morning of the 27th day of November, 1886; and Whereas, It is fit and proper that the em-ployes should give expression of their high appreciation of his character, and unite with sympathizing friends in deploring the demise of one of our fellow citizens, Resolved, That in the death of William Woodcock we have lost a valuable citizen and cherished friend, and we sincerely mourn his loss ; and, Resolved, That the employes of the Eliza-bethport shops attend the funeral in a body ; and

WILLIAM WOODCOCK.
recognized authority on all matters appertain-ing to locomotive, car building, and general railroad construction, and was also an able writer on those subjects. Mr. Woodcock was only 51 years of age at the time of his death. He was a man of quiet and unassuming manners, but was very active and full of energy. Not only did he attend faithfully to his duties and responsi-bilities placed upon him by the railroad company, but he was also greatly interested in the welfare of the city in which be lived. He was a member of the Board of Directors of the Elizabeth General Hospital and Dispen-sary, and a trustee of the Evergreen Ceme-tery. At the time of his death, he was, and had been for several years, a member of the Board of Health, in which his mechanical skill was of great practical use in matters of this department. I le was once a candidate for member of the Board of Education, and was elected in a ward in which the opposition party element was very great. Mr. Wood-cock served well his constituency, and brought an experience in educational and

He was a member of the Knights Templar Commandery in Lancaster, Pa. Mr. Woodcock leaves no immediate family. His wife died a few years ago. A sister and brother survive him.

Western Railway Club, of Chicago.
At the Dec. 15th meeting, o 3 club, one of the questions wVtab. -'"*What is the best form of paA =piston heads and for stuffing boxes ?"Johnson (C. B. & Q. R. H.) opened the discussion as follows : I am not prepared, Mr. President, on the subject, as I have been very busy, and I would not like to take up the subject of cylinder packing, but as to stuffing-box pack-ing I will say a few words. We are using metallic packing exclusively. It has been in use on the C., B. & Q. Road since the fall of 1881. We find that piston-rods average a mile-age of 50,000 miles without turning. We then turn off an average of -dg4 of an inch. We reduce our piston rods from 3" to 2-i" or before throwing out, this giving us a wear of

of a valve stem being removed. This packing costs, complete, ready to put on an engine, for piston and valve stems, $23.05. The cost of maintaining this packing is ex-tremely light. Three passenger en-gines, making 250 miles daily, with our heaviest through trains, being handled by separate crews— there being six crews to run the three engines—each following the other around, have, from May 1st, to De-cember 1st, 1886, only used 36 cents worth of material each. This repre-sents the six lbs. metallic packing rings. Freight engines require a set of packing rings on an average of once in three months. Switch en-gines an average of once each month. I find that the records of the amount of hemp used have been destroyed. Piston and valve stem wear, how-ever, with hemp, was very remark-able. The average life of a steel piston-rod with hemp was four years. The average of a valve stem with hemp did not exceed two years At one shop where there were 110 engines, it took one lathe constantly turning valve stems, and two lathes on piston and piston-rod work. At the present time in the same shop with 120 engines, one lathe does all the piston and pis-ton-rod work, and a considerable portion of the valve stem work. This includes all new work and repairs. A Member—What is the name of that pack-ing that you use ? Mr. Johnson--It is the Jerome„ packing, somewhat modified. We have mOle some slight improvements—or what wq' consider improvements—on the original d us, but it is practically the Jero Those engines that I spoke of,

7,000 miles a month. They are operated by new crews ; there is no regular engineer on them. Our practice is to have one man in the shop do all the lathe work, and the work in the round-house of replacing the packing rings is all done by one man. Secretary Sinclair—Mr. President, I have had some experience with that packing Mr. Johnson has been speaking of, and I found it very efficient and very economical. I had charge of two engines that had it, which were working continually on switch work


AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page2 .

JANUARY 8, 1887

UNIVERSAL CENTER GRINDER.
The center grinder shown herewith is ap-plicable to any turning lathe, and can be used for grinding a variety of small hardened work, as well as centers. The grinder can be quickly attached, being held in place on the blank end of any tool that fits the tool post. But one length of belt is required for different lathes, as the swing-ing arm can be moved to suit variations. The belting being from the lathe cone,
Universal Center Grinder.
The center grinder shown herewith is ap-plicable to any turning lathe, and can be used for grinding a variety of small hardened work, as well as centers. The grinder can be quickly attached, being held in place on the blank end of any tool that fits the tool post. But one length of belt is required for different lathes, as the swing-ing arm can be moved to suit variations. The belting being from the lathe cone, makes it possible to run the work with the lathe in back gear, at the same time keeping up the speed of the emery wheel. The uni-versal head that carries the wheel can be set at any desired angle, or reversed, if necessary to accommodate odd-shaped work. A button on the wheel drum provides for moving the wheel backward and for ward over the work. The attachment shown in the small engrav-ing is for use on hand lathes having no car-riage. The manufacturers are the E. E. Josef Manufacturing Company, Buffalo, N. Y. Beane's Ratchet Pipe Stock.

Practical Drawing. BY J. G. A. MEYER. TWELFTH PAPER.
124. To the drawing board fasten another sheet of drawing paper, and divide it into the same number spaces as was done on the first sheet ; mark the spaces in their upper left-hand corners, Probs. 13 and 14, etc. The student will find by experience that the edges of the sheet will soil very quickly and that when finally the sheet is to be cleaned it will be very difficult and annoying to clean its edges. We therefore recommend the selection of a sheet whose size is 20'' x 25" instead of 19'' X24". On this sheet draw two sets of border lines, as shown in Fig. 96. The first set of border lines should be drawn one-half of an inch from each edge of the sheet, and the second set of border lines should be drawn 1„-; inch from the same edges, leaving a space of one inch between the two sets of border lines, as indicated by figures in Fig. 96. When all the problems on this sheet have been drawn and inked, the sheet must be cleaned throughout and as near to its edges as possible ; then cut off along the outer border lines, leaving a clean finished sheet 19" x 24", which will be the same size as that of the first sheet. Often draftsmen use the space between the edges of the sheet and the first set of border lines for trial lines and gauging their pens to the proper breadth of lines. This is well enough for experienced draftsmen to do, but we cannot advise the inexperienced student to do likewise, as he will soon have the edges of the sheet so black, which will have a dis-couraging instead of an encouraging effect. Always use a separate piece of drawing paper (article 123) on which trial lines can be made and the pen gauged to the proper breadth of line.

AMERICAN.MACHINIST
day and night, and engines that were doing the same kind of service, but were using hemp packing generally needed to be packed twice or three times a week, the best they could do with them, while that metallic pack-ing lasted the two engines a whole year with very little change, only a few additional rings being put in. I do not believe the expense for each of the engines exceeded a dollar during the whole year ; and, in addition to the smaller expense for packing, we found it very great convenience in preventing delay m putting the hemp packing in. When an ine is running in a yard where they are ry much pressed for work, and doing work 'th double crews, it is often of great im-rtance to have no delay in putting in pack-ing, and where you are using hemp packing it often happens that it blows out just at a most inconvenient time, and if you cannot put a new lot in you must lose a good deal of steam before it is possible to repack the engine. In running engines myself I have had experience with most kinds of packing that have been used. I have used flax and hemp and other kinds of piston packing, and I think that hemp is the most expensive pack-ing that was ever put into an engine for any purpose. Some of the metallic packing does not suit well because it is not mechanically a good arrangement. Unless a packing is made so that there will be some means of com-pensating for the rise and fall of the piston rod it is not going to wear well, especially a metallic packing. A fibrous packing, like hemp, may have enough elasticity to it to fill up an opening when a hole is made by the rise and fall of the cross-head, but metallic packing has not that, and unless there are means taken to let the ring rise and fall with caliper of rods up and down you can hardly feel the difference, it is just barely perceptible. On the under part of the rod it is perhaps worn in the neighborhood of a hundredth part of an inch. We have six Mogul engines fitted up with the same kind of packing, and it seems to be doing very well, but they have not been in ' the service long enough to de-termine it ; the wear is hardly perceptible. We have not had to replace any of the rings except in two cases, and that was due to the fact that something was put in wrong end to and didn't adjust itself, and for that reason we were obliged to replace the ring. I think that metallic packing is the only thing we can afford to use. I do not think we can afford to use hemp packing, as I think it is much more expensive. I think the packing ought to be automatic in its action, and the metallic rings as well, otherwise if it is put in the hands of an engineer who can control the packing he is liable to screw it up a little too tight, and the result is that your packing is gone in about a half a minute. Secretary Sinclair—There is just one point I would like to make on that me-tallic packing matter. I have been watching it somewhat. It seems so curious thEit a packing will do well on one road and not on another, and I made some inquiries about it a short time ago on a road where it hadn't done well, and I found that they put the packing on just as the engines hap-pened to come in, without truing up the piston rods or valve stems, and they had no success with it at all. Now, I think that you cannot apply that pack-ing successfully without having the rods per-

Secretary Sinclair—
My experience is that a swab is a better thing to lubricate a piston with than a gland. I have always found if you used a hollow gland it would choke up with sedimant in the bottom and would very often fail to feed at a most important time, and the "swab is always wet if you give it a little oil now and then. Mr. Johnson—I do not agree with that at all. This cup that I speak of is a perfect working cup. With a swab cinders and dust work in, and you are cutting your piston-rod. Secretary Sinclair—With a cup when a drop of oil goes down about half of it goes to the ground, while what you put on to the swab remains there, is always wet, and is giving and taking. If you use a cup you had better use a swab too, because that holds the oil from running off.

Mr. Johnson—You want to get the right the piston, the rod sq,ieezes a hole in the top or bottom of the ring, makes it elliptical, and the steam blows out there. That has been the cause of difficulty with so many kinds of metallic packing, that they did not make provision for that rise and fall. It would be all right so long as the guides were perfectly fitted to the cross head, or the cross-head to the guides, but as soon as there was some lost motion so that the cross-head would jerk at the ends of the stroke the action would destroy the packing so that it would leak badly, and in that way it would never be kept tight ; and whenever we screw up on it and try to prevent the leaks it squeezes the sides of the fectly true, and if they are true in the first instance they are liable to continue true, but if you apply the packing when they are worn in the middle it is impossible to get it to keep tight, and the packing will be destroyed in screwing it up and trying to make it tight when it is really not the blame of the packing but of the rods not being trued. Mr. Rhodes (0. B. & Q.)—From the state-ment made by Mr. Johnson the members might think that the packing he refers to has always done well. Such is not the case. There was considerable trouble with it on our road, and when I first went there several of our master mechanics urged me to abandon it on switch cniaimas_ kind of cup that will regulate a very fine supply of oil. Problem 12. 125. TO FIND THE CENTER OF A GIVEN 'CIRCLE. Let A B D, Fig. 97, be a given circle ; it is required to find the center of the same. Fig. 97. Take any three points as A B and D in the circumference, these points need not be equal distances arart. Join the points A and B by a straight line or chord ; also join B and D by a chord. From the point A as a center and with a radius greater than half the distance from the -point A to B describe an

elliptical, IT or on or cotton or tne ring, 'mixes it elliptical, aim the steam blows out there. That has been the cause of difficulty with so many kinds of metallic packing, that they did not make provision for that rise and fall. It would be all right so long as the guides were perfectly fitted to the cross head, or the cross-head to the guides, but as soon as there was some lost motion so that the cross-head would jerk at the ends of the stroke the action would destroy the packing so that it would leak badly, and in that way it would never be kept tight ; and whenever we screw up on it and try to prevent the leaks it squeezes the sides of the piston rod. Metallic packing of a bad form is much harder on the rod than fibrous packing is, but metallic packing, if well made, is certainly the most economical that can be used. That is my experience. Mr. Johnson--Last spring I fitted up a set of Corliss double engines with metallic packing, and there has not been a penny's worth of labor put on to that packing up to this day, and piston rods are as true as can possibly be under the circumstances. Of course they are not absolutely true, but there is not a particle of blow there, and they are as nice as they can be. The remarks that Mr. Sinclair has just made are very correct so far as that wear is concerned. If there is not that allowance made for that motion metallic packing is not at all economical, but with that allowance this packing, as con-structed by ourselves, gives no trouble what-ever, and I do not see how any railroad company can afford to run any other kind but metallic packing. Mr. Casanave—I know of some metallic packing that has cost nearly 19 cents per thousand miles to keep in repair, and we have had experience with some that has proved equally as expensive as hemp. I rather think that the parties who handled it did not understand how to take care of it. Mr. Smart—Was the packing that you re-fer to automatic in its adjustment to the wearing of the rod ?

Mr. Casanave—Yes, sir, it was. Mr. Smart (Michigan Central Railroad)
—We are using hemp on nearly all of our engines. We have eight that have metallic packing, but I have not used it long enough to determine the cost of maintenance nor the actual wear, but we have one passenger en-gine in service that has run 41,000 miles during about seven months, and it has shown hardly any wear on the rods. Taking the Instance they are flame to continue true, uut, if you apply the packing when they are worn in the middle it is impossible to get it to keep tight, and the packing will be destroyed in screwing it up and trying to make it tight when it is really not the blame of the packing but of the rods not being trued. Mr. Rhodes (C. B. & Q.)—From the state-ment made by Mr. Johnson the members might think that the packing he refers to has always done well. Such is not the case. There was considerable trouble with it on our road, and when I first went there several of our master mechanics urged me to abandon it on switch engines. Mr. Johnson—It is very true that no rail-road company can jump into the use of this metallic packing. There must be a great deal of painstaking work ; it must be carried. along patiently and cautiously. I well re-member the trouble and annoyance that we had on the C., B. & Q., referred to by Mr. Rhodes, but it is now a complete success. Mr. Reynolds—(Chicago, St. Louis and Pittsburgh). We are using metallic pack-ing. We have one engine, that I re-member now in particular, that made about 60,000 miles with no expense whatever. We are using it on all of our engines. The

BakNE'S RATCHET PIPE STOCK
packing costs aVout $45, but its manufacture costs only about $13. It is only a question of patent. Mr. Johnson—As to the lubrication, after considerable experiment we finally settled upon an automatic feeding cup, to attach to the top of the glands—identically the same cup we use on the guide-rod, only a little smaller. Mr. Rhode,—Up in Iowa the engines are kept lubricated with swabs. It may be that the master mechanics on those divisions could not show the results Mr. Johnson has, but they did good results by keeping these swabs well lubricated. This stock is shown with one of the handles removed. In this shape it can be used for threading pipes in the corner of a building, or in other close places where but a small part of one revolution can be continuously made, the operation being the same • as that of a ratchet drill. Moving the pawl reverses the motion for running off. With both handles in place the ratchet can be used if desired, or by turning a set screw it can be used as an ordinary stock. _ _ The ratchet is so boxed in as to prevent dirt or chips getting to it. The manufacturer is B. C. Beane, Newark, N. J. Owing to the crowded state of our columns this week, we are obliged to omit part of the proceedings of the Western Railway Club ; also a number of letters from machinery establishments, noting the condition of busi-ness and prospects for the year 1887. Both will appear in our next issue. ". (article 123) on which trial lines can be made and the pen gauged to the proper breadth of line. Problem 12.

125. TO FIND THE CENTER OF A GIVEN CIRCLE. Let A B D, Fig. 97, be a given circle
; it is required to find the center of the same. Fig. 97. Take any three points as A B and D in the circumference, these points need not be equal distances apart. Join the points A and B by a straight line or chord ; also join B and D by a chord. From the point A as a center and with a radius greater than half the distance from the point A to B describe an arc i; from the point B as a center, and with the same radius, describe an arc j, intersect-ing the former arc in the points e and f; through the points e and f draw a straight line. From the point B as a center and with a radius greater than half the distance B D describe an arc 1, and from the point D as a center, and with the same radius describe an arc k intersecting the arc tin the points g and Ii ; through the points p and h draw a straight line, cutting the line previously drawn through the points e and f, in the point C; this point C will be the center of the given circle. The line e f will bisect the chord A B, and the line g h will bisect the chord B D, and the manner adopted for bisecting these lines is the same as that explained in problem 4. It must also be rememb‘ red that, bisecting the chord A B may be regarded as a distinct construction ; and bisecting the chord B D as another construction of the same kind ; there-fore the radii used for the arcs k and 1 need not be the same as the radii used for the arcs j and 1; although for the sake of convenience draftsmen generally use the same radius for drawing all these four arcs. But it must be distinctly understood that, although it is cor-rect to use a certain radius for drawing the arcs i and j and a different radius for drawing the arcs le and 1, it would be totally incorrect to use one radius for drawing the arc 1, and a different radius for the arc j ; and it would be equally incorrect to use a certain radius for drawing the arc k, and a different radius for the arc 1. The radii used for drawing the arcs j and i must be alike ; and the radii used for the arcs lo and 1 must also be alike ; although the radii of the former two arcs can be greater or less than the radii of the latter two arcs. In geometry it is proved that a line drawn through the center of a circle and perpendicii-
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 3
pg 4 AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 8, 1887

lar to a chord will bisect the chord, and there-fore, conversely, if a line is drawn perpen-dicular to a chord through its middle point, this perpendicular line will pass through the center of the circle. Consequently if we draw perpendiculars through the centers of two chords, these perpendiculars must inter-sect each other in the center of the circle. Again it must readily be seen, that the same construction as illustrated in Fig. 97 will enable us to draw a circumference through any three given points not contained in one straight line. Directions.—In the space marked Problem 13 draw any circle, and assume that its center is to be found ; then find the center in a man-ner as explained in this article. Draftsman's .Method.—The draftsman has no special method for finding the center of a circle, and for this purpose must adopt the geometrical method just explained. 126. The center square illustrated in Fig. 98, which the machinist uses for finding the center of a circular hole is constructed on the principles set forth in the foregoing article. It will be noticed that the edge a b of the blade is set square with the edge c d of the head, and also that the edge a b passes through the center of c d, so that when the head of the center square is placed against the inner sur-face of the hole, the edge c d represents a Ito divide one of the other two sides, A L, into equal parts, A 8, H I, etc. , the third side, A F, is also divided into equal parts. Consequently we conclude that since the parts A H, H I, etc., on the line A M are all equal by construction, lines drawn through the points of division II, I, etc. , parallel to FL, must also divide the line A F into equal parts. Dividing a straight line in this manner, slight inaccuracies will occur in drawing the lines through the points H, I, J, etc. There-fore, after a construction of this kind has been completed, it is always best to test the divisions on the line A F with the aid of the plain dividers, and make such corrections as will be found necessary, although, when care is exercised in making these construc-tions, few, if any, corrections will be neces-sary. Directions.—In the lower part of the space marked Prob. 14, draw any straight line ; as-sume this line to be the given straight line. Divide this line into any number of equal parts (say, seven, eight or nine) in a manner as explained in this article. Draftsman's Method.—Some draftsmen will adopt this geometrical method for dividing a straight line into equal parts ; others again, will use the plain dividers, and by trial ac-complish similar results. Prob. 13 Prob. 14 Prob. 15 Prob. 16 Prob. 17 Prob. 18 Prob. 19 Prob. 20 1 Prob. 21 Prob. 22 Prob. 23 Prob. 24 . , ^ . _ Fig. 96 chord, and a b a perpendicular passing through the center of the chord. Now, plac- a B _Fig. 101 A to the length of the line B; and again on the same line lay off from the point H a distance H Iequal to the length of the line C. Join the points E and I by a straight line. Through the point H draw a straight line H L parallel to E I; through the G draw G K also parallel to E 1; then will the parts D K, K L, and L E of the line D E be proportional to the lines A, B and C; that is if the length of the line B is equal to one-quarter the length of the line A, then will K L also be equal to one guar er of D K; and if the line C is equal to one-half of the line A, then will L E also be equal to one-half of D K. If the given line D E is less than the sum of the three given lines A, B and C, then of course the parts D K, K L and L E will be propor-tionally shorter than the lines A, B and C; and if on the other hand the given line D is greater than the sum of the lines A, B and C, then its parts will also be pro-portionally greater than the lines A, B and C. In geometry it is proved that if a line, as H L (Fig. 100) is drawn through two sides of a triangle as D I E, parallel to the third side I ; it divides the two sides D I and D F proportionally. DirectionR. —In the upper part of the space marked Problem 15, draw any three lines of unequal length similar to A, B and C shown in Fig. 101, and mark these lines in the same It is to the regular polygons to which we shall call particular attention. 134. A diagonal of a polygon is a straight line joining the vertices of two angles not adjacent. 135. A base of a polygon is any of its sides on which it is supposed to stand, for instance in Fig. 102, the side F E is considered to be the base. 136. An angle of a polygon is any one of the angles formed by the sides ; thus, in Fig. 102, the angle A B C formed by the sides A B and B C is an angle of the polygon, so also the angles at C, D, etc., are angles of the polygon. 137. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is in the circumference of a circle, and whose sides are chords. Thus the angle A B C, Fig. 103, is said to be inscribed, because its vertex is in the circumference and the sides A B and B C are chords. 138. An inscribed polygon is a polygon whose vertices are all in the circumference, and the sides are chords. Thus the triangle A B C, Fig. 104, is said to be inscribed, be-cause the vertices of the angles at A B and C are in the circumference, and the sides A B, A C and B C are chords. In this case the circle is said to be circumscribed about the triangle or polygon. 1 38. A secant is a straight line as A B, in Fig. 9S **************************************************************************************************

rob. 21 Prob. gg Prob. 23 Prob. 24
Fig. 96
chord, and a b a perpendicular passing through the center of the chord. Now, plac-ing the square in position 1, and drawing a line along the edge a b on a piece of wood previously forced in the hole, and then plac-ing the same square in any other position as 2, and again drawing a line along the edge a b, the point of intersection of these two lines on the wood will be the center required. Problem 13. 127. TO DIVIDE A GIVEN STRAIGHT LINE INTO ANY NUMBER OF EQUAL PARTS. Fig. 99. Let A F be the given straight line; it is required to divide this line into five equal parts. From one extremity as A of the given line draw a straight line A At of any convenient length, it may be longer or shorter than the given line A B. The line A M may also incline more or less towards the line A F; or in other words the angle formed by the lines A M and A F may be of any magnitude. But, practically, for obtaining accurate re-sults, and for the sake of convenience it is always best to draw the line A M in such a position in which it will form with the line A F, an angle less than a right angle an angle of about 30 degrees will give good results. On the line A M lay off any convenient length, as A II, and from the point II lay off on the line A M four equal parts, H I J, J K and K L, each equal to A H. Join the points L and F by a straight line, L F. Through the points H, I, J and K draw straight lines parallel to the line L F; these lines will intersect the line A F in the points B, C, D and E, and divide the given line A F into five equal parts. It will be noticed that the lines A F, A L and F L (Fig. 99) form a triangle. Now, in geometry it is proved that if in a tri-angle as A L F, lines K E, J D, etc., are drawn parallel to one of its sides, F L, so as A
Fig. 97 Fig. 9S Fig. 101 C

) Fig. 107
Problem 14. 128. To DIVIDE A GIVEN LINE INTO PARTS WHICH SHALL BE PROPORTIONAL TO ANY GIVEN LINES.
Let D in Fig, 100 be the given line, it is required to divide the line D E into parts which shall be proportional to the lines A, B and C shown in Fig. 101. From the extremity D of the given line D E, (Fig. 100), draw a straight line D F, whose length is greater than the sum of the three lines A, B and C. The angle formed by the lines D F and D E may be of any magnitude ; but in order to obtain conveniently accurate results, draw the line D F in a position in which it will form, with the lineD Eau angle less than a right angle. From the point D on the line D F, Jay off a distance D G equal to the length of the line A ; from the point lay off on the same line a distance G H equal

Fig. 102 IC A Fig. 104
manner. In the lower part of the same space draw a line D E as shown in Fig. 100, the length of this line should be either greater or less than the sum of the three lines A, B and C previously drawn in this space. Then di-vide the line D E into parts which will be proportional to A, B and C as explained in this article. Draftsman's Method.—For dividing a line proportionally to other given lines, draftsmen either adopt this geometrical method, or obtain the same result by calculation. Definitions. It is now necessary to give the following definitions. The student should not pass over these hastily, but should commit them to memory. 129. In the definition given in article 28 we see that a plane figure is a plane bounded or terminated on all sides by lines. Now, if the boundary lines are straight, the space which they contain is called a rectilineal figure, or polygon, and the sumof the bound-ing lines is the perimeter of the polygon. 130. A polygon of three sides is called a triangle ; a polygon of four sides is called a quadrilateral ; that of five sides is called a pentagon ; and that of six, a hexagon, etc. 131. An equilateral polygon is one whose sides are all equal in length. See Fig. 102. 132. An equiangular polygon is one whose angles at A, B and C formed by the sides are all equal. See Fig. 102. 133. A regular polygon is a polygon which is both equilateral and equiangular, as shown in Fig 102,
C Fig. 105, which cuts the circumference of a circle in two points. 140. A tangent is a straight line as A B, Fig. 106, which touches the circumference in one point only. This point is called the point of tangency, or the point of contact. 140. Two circles are said fo be tangent to ( ach other when they touch each other in one point as shown in Fig. 107. This point is called the point of tangency or the point of contact. 142. A polygon is said to be circumscribed about a circle when all of its sides are tangent to the circumference. Thus in Fig. 108 the triangle A B C is said to be circumscribed about the circle, because each of its sides, A B, B C and A C touch the circle in one point. 143. A circle is said to be inscribed in a polygon when its circumference touches all the sides of the polygon as showOlyn Fig. 108.

The latest rumor of the un rsal possi-bilities of the South are in the irection of the " Cranberry " mine in North Carolina. It is claimed that this mine is practically inex-haustible, and that the ore is exactly suited to the manufacture of Bessemer steel. Large coal fields are said to be near at hand. This makes a combination that beats a gold or silver mine by odds. We hope that half that is said of coal and iron in North Carolina and adjacent parts of Tennessee is true. The drawback to a complete belief is that this somewhat astonishing news comes out in connection with the building of a railroad.
AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 3 January-22-Vol-10-No 4
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST Jan-22-1887, page 4
Jan 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 4
AMERICAN- MACHINIST
JANUARY 8, 1887 pg

MACIIINIST Fastening Locomotive Boilers to Frames. In locomotives of the ordinary American type and designed to burn bituminous coal, the fire-box is generally placed between the driving axles and the frames, and fastened to the latter by frame clamps or pads A, as shown in Fig. 1. These pads are made of plate iron from a to 4 of an inch in thickness. They are planed to fit around the three sides of each frame, then heated and fitted to the boiler. Liners are placed between the inner sides of the frames and the outer sides of the fire-box, after which the pads are bolted to the boiler. This manner of fastening the boiler to the frames will allow the fire-box to move lengthways along the frames when the boiler A , In late years the tendency has been to make the locomotives heavier and more powerful than formerly, and consequently the grate area also had to be increased proportionally. But in some cases the length of fire-b x is also limited, so that a sufficient grate area cannot always be obtained without increasing the width of the fire-box. Therefoie boilers have been made whose fire-boxes are as wide as the space between the driving wheels will admit. In this class of boilers the fire-boxes rest on top of the frames, and are held in position by the links C C, as shown in Fig. 3. This manner of fastening the fire-box to frames is considered to be defective and insecure, and indeed a number of master mechanics believe it to be the cause of breaking frames. A Fig. 1 _Fig. 2 34% inside , 42M-outside Fig.5 JANUARY 8, 1887 to which the pads are bolt-ed ; at the front end of fire-box pads are fastened in the usual way. Cast-iron blocks are inserted between the bottom of fire-box and top frames, shaped and fastened in a manner which will allow the rear end of the boiler to slide lengthways, as it expands or contracts, but is prevented by the pads from moving out of line sideways, and thus greatly reducing the strains in the front end of each frame. We cannot conceive any reason why a boiler having a wide tire box, and fast-ened in this manner, should not give entire sat-isfaction. This design is liot patent-ed, and may be adopted by any one who may choose to do so. The Roger Ll-comotive Works are now building two locomotives, with boilers of this kind, and more are soon to fol-low. *********************************************************

13 ft. inside length— - 16500_lbs.-per-wheel expands or contracts, and at the same time will not allow it to move side ways. This manner of fastening the fire-box to frame has always given good satisfaction and is the favorite among master mechanics. For burning anthracite coal the grate area must necessarily be made greater than that required for burning bituminous coal; and since the frames will not admit a wider grate area, the fire-box is lengthened, as shown in Fig. 2, and supported by pads B B B, which are clamped to the frame. 150 lbs. boiler pressure 234 2 in. flues flues 10 ft.-11 in.-long--- 16500 lbs.-per wheel 16X 24 ,k letive foiLee on r 15000 lbs. 22-ft.9 11 ft.2- FASTENING A LOCOMOTIVE BOILER TO ITS FRAME. Mr. John Headden, a practical, able and experienced locomotive builder and designer, who is at present the superintendent of the Roger Locomotive Works, has recognized for some time past the defects of the links em-ployed for the purpose of holding the fire-box in position, as illustrated in Fig. 3, and has endeavored to devise a better, safer and more secure method of holding the rear end of boiler in position, and yet retain the wide fire-box. The result of his study and labor is shown SOCJIbs. in Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 represents a side view, and Fig. 5 a sectional end view of a locomotive having as wide a fire-box as can be placed between the driving wheels and securely fastened to the frames. In this design, as will be seen by referring to Figs. 4 and 5, the fire-box is held in posi-tion by frame clamps, or pads, D D, con-structed and fastened similar to those shown in Fig. 1. In order that the pads can be firmly secured to the back end of the boiler, the fire-box ring has lugs, e, forged on to it, In locomotives of the ordinary American type, the springs are generally placed over the top of the driving boxes; but when the fire-box rests on the top of the frames, all the room required for the springs is the a taken up, and the springs must be placed below the driving boxes. The manner of attaching springs in this position is shown in Fig. 4, and the illustration of the same may be use-ful to those who may be compelled to place springs in a similar position. The principal dimensions are given in Figs, 4 and 5.
4. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 11 January-15
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Jan-22-1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST page 5

AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 5, 1887

AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 22, 1887
The best way to wash the paper is as follows: Let the paper soak for 15 or 20 minutes in a tank of clear water. This water must be changed frequently, as the water soon be-comes so saturated with the chemicals that it will not fully take the lines out, which will then become blue on exposure. The question was asked : How long after the paper is prepared should it be used to get the best results ? Use as soon as perfectly dry. If a drawing be made on transparent but with coal contai- ing 30 per cent., or more of gases, the matter was quite different. Anthracite could be burned in a shallow furnace, but to get anything like satisfactory results from bituminous coal the fire-box must be deep, or a large per cent. of the gases would pass off unconsumed. Anthra-cite could be very satisfactorily burned in a furnace proper for bituminous coal, but bituminous coal could very seldom be used in a furnace made for burning anthracite with- paper, parchment paper is best. This is out serious loss. Again there were so many cheaper than tracing cloth, but if time is varieties of bituminous coal that in order to money the cloth is the cheapest. Average get the best results the requirements for each exposure is 3 minutes for cloth and 25 min- must be determined from actual practice. utes for the paper. He spoke in favor of rather more than Another question asked was : If a tracing moderately rapid combustion, resulting in is made, is tracing cloth or some kind of what is called a " bright " fire. transparent paper best ? In regard to height of chimney, he quoted Cloth by all means; you can make your the advice a well-known firm of engineers pencil work on cheap paper, and trace at gave their patrons, viz., to build their chim-once, using the tracing cloth for a reference neys at least 80 feet high, and as much higher drawing while the blue prints can go in the as they are inclined to. shop. He advised engineers not to trust their eye-This is how to know the color when a print sight for a guide as to the completeness of has been sufficiently exposed : With a trac- combustion ; nothing was more likely to ing cloth negative, an edge uncovered by deceive. Every engineer should have means the cloth should be of a greenish gray with for determining how much water he was metallic scintillations. evaporating per pound of coal. The matter It can be done with dull back tracing cloth, was simple; some kind of a measuring tank by rubbing the spaces on the d ull side with a soft lead pencil.

J. J. BINGLEY.

Length of Diagranm from Pantograph Motion. Editor American Machinist: Doubtless many of your readers have been bothered when using the pantograph as an indicator reduction motion, for want of a method for determin-ing the location of the hitch pin in order to adapt the panto-graph to the stroke of the en-gine in hand, so as to produce a card of .the desired length. It is to be hoped that some day the pantograph makers will stamp a figure alongside of each hitch pin hole, showing at a glance the ratio of reduc-thm for that hole, but until that good time comes the fol-lowing plan is better than guess work or trial. Stretch out the

upon which are 1"xl" chipping pieces put on mainly for the purpose of keeping the staves apart at their joints, to leave a longitudinal opening for vent and freedom in getting them out of the casting. The stand trunnion P being then screwed into the cap K, the core barrel is ready to be swept up, which is done by setting it horizontally on horses, the trunnions P R being bearings upon which it will revolve, as well as abuttment for the sweep in gauging the diameter of the core. The core having been swept up the crane is hitched to the trunnion P, and that end of core lowered until the flange S rests on a block or plank sufficiently high to keep the body of core clear of the floor. The crane is then taken to the other end of the core and hitched to the screw hook T, seen in Fig. 3, (it having previously been screw, d to the nut K, which is to be understood as having an external as well as an internal thread upon it) and the whole core up-ended in the position seen in Fig. 3. The mould or outside part being made, the cope is then set on the core, as seen in Fig. 3. The outside and bars of this cope are cast in one piece, which has for its center a ring V turned to fit the recess seen in the core barrel shaft B. These two being true and clean it will be evident that

above incident is a good example of what trouble and anxiety a thoughtless moulder can put a foundry foreman to. From the cut of the cope it will be evident to the founder and moulder how the rest of the flask was constructed when he is here in-formed that another joint was at the line Z, and the castings were poured by two under-neath gates, one of which is seen at Fig. 1. The main runner to these gates did not pass through the body of the "cope" and "cheek," but had an independent pipe flask outside of the main flask which connected with a branch leading from the nowel -that contained the gates shown. It will be seen there was no room for a runner inside of the main flask when the moulder is told that the diameter of the flask was such as would only leave room for about 3/' thickness of sand all around the pattern. It might be well to state that in order to insure the pattern being central in the flask when it was being -‘ rammed up," that there was a seat in the pattern which fitted the cope's round bar V, and was bolted to same upon the principle the core is shown at-tached to the cope. The moulder will, of course, realize by the above that the cope was made to answer the purpose of a " follow " or " mould board," and that when the " cheek "

—Z and " Dowel" were returned up, the whole was turned over and the " false cope " removed, a joint made and the cope being replaced, it was then rammed up. In closing the mould, the " cheek " and nowel being to-gether, the core as now seen would be lowered into tilt m, and the whole would be s«mred against " head pressure " by clamping or bolting the flanges together. After the pouring, and as soon as the metal has solidified, the cope is hoisted off and the shaft .13 pulled out by means of replacing the nuts M T and unscrewing the bolt.. rod N out of the cap K, and letting the collar W come up against the shaft's end. This will permit freedom for con-traction and leave a hole where-by the staves can by hand be readily taken out of the cast- ******************************************

pin in order to adapt the panto-graph to the stroke of the en-gine in hand, so as to produce a card of .the desired length. It is to be hoped that some day the pantograph makers will stamp a figure alongside of each hitch pin hole, showing at a glance the ratio of reduc-tion for that hole, but until that good time comes the fol-lowing plan is better than guess work or trial. Stretch out the pantograph until the distance between the fulcrum pin and the pin for crosshead connec-tion is equal to the length of stroke of the engine to be indi-cated, then the distance from the fulcrum pin to the hitch pin is equal to the length of card that the pantograph, with the hitch pin in that location, will take from that engine. If this length of card is not satisfactory it is easy to adjust the hitch pin until it is satisfactory. In setting up the fulcrum post it is not necessary to pay any attention to what has just been outlined as the same length of card will be taken regardless of the location of the post. Locate the hitch pin as described, and then set the post to suit your convenience. Of course the distances given are center to center. FREDC. A. HALSEY. Tarrytown, N. Y.

Removing Borax from Steel. Editor American Machinist :

One of your correspondents asks how to remove borax from steel axles without filing. Let him try immersing in a solution of sul-phuric acid and water for a few minutes, afterwards dipping in clean hot water. He can then dry with a piece of cloth ; we use this process for work in our establishment, and can recommend it. Philadelphia. RIEHL & CLARK. •411111.. Combustion of Coal. Mr. William Kent gave an interesting talk on combustion before the Newark Association of Stationary Engineers at one of their recent meetings. After briefly outlining the theory of combustion, Mr. Kent spoke of the differ-ent requirements for burning bituminous coal as compared with anthracite. The burning of anthracite was generally a simple matter,

A NOVEL GREEN SAND CORE BARREL.
to feed from, and scales for weighing the coal. In this way an engineer could detect what might be wrong in the quality of coal or the way it was burned. By adhering to one plan of firing and management for, say a week, then trying another plan, the best one would be found. There was no way except by actual trial that these things could be determined, and the best results obtained.

Practical Drawing. Fig. 1

BY J. G. A. MEYER. FOURTEENTH PAPER. Problem 17. 149. TO DRAW A STRAIGHT LINE WHICH SHALL BE TANGENT TO TWO GIVEN CIRCLES, WITH THE POINTS OF TANGENCY LYI S G UPON THE SAME SIDE OF THE LINE JOINING THE CENTERS OF THE GIVEN CIRCLE. Fig. 113. Let A B D and F F G be the two given circles ; it is required to draw a tangent to these circles, whose points of con-tact will lie upon the same side of the line C H. Under these conditions two tangents can be drawn to the given circle, namely, one above, and one below the line C II. We will first draw a tangent above the line C Through the centers C and H draw a straight line, and produce it to meet the cir-cumference A B D in the point D ; then will D (1 be a radius of the circle A B D. From D as a center, and with a radius equal to that of the circle E G, namely NJ II, describe a small arc, cutting the line D in the point K; then K U will be the difference of the two .

EPHEN S


4. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-
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JANUARY 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACIIINIST
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radii D C and E H. From the center C, and with a radius C K describe the circle K I L; from the center H, and with C Has a radius, describe an arc, M C N ; from the center C, and with a radius equal to the diameter K L of the circle K I L describe a short arc cut-ting the arc M C AT in the point M. Through the center C and the point M draw a straight line cutting the circumference K I L in the point I, and also the circumference A B D in the point B. Join the points /and H by a straight line, and draw the radius E H perpen-dicular to I H; then the points B and E are the points of tangency. Through the points B and E draw a straight line ; then this line B E will be the tangent required. By construction the line from B to I is equal in length to the radius E H, and the line. I is perpendicular to B C (Art. 125). The lines B I and E Hare, by construction, per-pendicular to the same line I H; they are also equal in length. Consequently the line B E, drawn through the points B and E, must be parallel to I H. The line B E must also be perpendicular to the lines B land F H, be-cause all the angles formed by these lines are right angles. Therefore the line B E is the tangent required. In a similar manner the tangent A G can be drawn. Directions.—In the space marked Prob. 18 draw any two circles whose diameters are not equal; assume these circles to be the given circles. Then draw a tangent to the same, according to the instructions given in this article. Draftsman's Method.—In order to draw on paper a line tangent to two circles, the drafts-man will simply place the T or set square in a position in which the edge of one or the other will -touch each circle in one point, and then draw a line along the edge. If it is nec-essary to locate the points of tangency, the draftsman will, with the aid of his T and set square, as explained in Art. 107, draw lines through the centers C and II, perpendicular to the tangent line ; the points in which these lines cut the tangent are the points of tan-gency. If the tangent is to be drawn on the floor, and the points of tangency are to be exactly located, it will generally be best to follow the construction shown in Fig. 113. 150. If the circles in Fig. 113 represent two pulleys, and it. is required to find the ex-ant lan►th of bolt to cto around these pulleys.
the points E and F draw a straight line ; then the line E F will be the tangent required, and the points E and F will be the points of contact. In a similar manner the tangent C H can be drawn. The line I B is tangent to the circle NM 0, Art. 108, and the same line is also perpendicu-lar to the line A I, Arts. 145 and 108. Since the line F B is perpendicular to the line I B, and the line F B has been drawn through the point of contact F, it follows that the line E F drawn perpendicular to F B is tangent to the circle F G H and is also parallel to the line I B. But the line I E is equal to the line F B, and these two lines are also parallel because they are perpendicular to the same line I B therefore the line E F must also be tangent to the circle CD E. Directions.—In the-space marked Problem 13
Fig. 115. Let the lines C D and 1I. F be the given lines ; it is requ red to draw a line K L which shall bisect the inclination of the lines CD and E F. If it were possible to produce the lines C D and E F so that they would meet, we would simply bisect the angle formed by these lines as explained in Art. 112, But according to the conditions given in this prob-lem the lines C D and E F cannot be pro-duced, hence the following construction : On the line E D take any point A, and through this point draw A M parallel to the line F F, according to the instructions given in Art. 113. From point A, as a center and with any radius, describe an arc cutting the line C D in the point g and the line A Al in the point h from the point g, as a center and with a radius greater than half the distance between
,
Fig. 114 on the floor, then the draftsman will adopt the method here given, or by some other similar method. When the given lines are drawn on paper the draftsman will find by trial the center of a circle which will be tangent to the given lines near their ends C and E, also in the same manner he will find the center of a circle tangent to the same lines near their ends D and F. Through these centers he will draw a straight line, and this line will bisect the inclination of the given lines. Endowment for Technical Schools
. President Walker, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in his yearly report forcibly refers to the lack of sufficient endow-ment to meet the growing demands incident to the greatly increased number of students, and the necessity for adding to the scope of the institute. This brings up the question of why it is apparently so much easier to find benevolently inclined people willing to endow a college pure and simple, than to find those willing to help technical institutions. Our institutions of learning are almost invariably far from being self-supporting, except as they are helped to that position by benefactions, and when the utilitarian character of techni-cal schools is considered, it would seem that help would be more likely to flow to them than in any similar direction. Cestaialy the time has passed when objection to utilizing education found adherents. There is a noticeable instance' of neglect to help along the matter of useful education in the case of the Cooper Institute, in New York. Peter Cooper, while alive, devoted his time and money to building up and maintaining this school, and we doubt if money and time were ever spent to better purpose. But much as he did there is room to almost any extent in which to expand and enlarge upon his work. It has time and again been set forth that with more means this school could double and treble the good work it is doing, but no one seems inclined to furnish the means. In such schools as the Massachusetts Insti-tute of Technology it is not to be expected that the tuition of students will pay the ex-penses of keeping up the school upon such a plan as is desirable. The salaries paid in-structors is almost invariably small ; nothing can or should be saved in this direction. On
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The had of engine on stea
essary to locate the points of tangency, the draftsman will, with the aid of his T and set square, as explained in Art. 107, draw lines through the centers C and H, perpendicular to the tangent line; the points in which these lines cut the tangent are the points of tan-gency. If the tangent is to be drawn on the floor, and the points of tangency are to be exactly located, it will generally be best to follow the construction shown in Fig. 113. 150. If the circles in Fig. 113 represent two pulleys, and it. is required to find the ex-act length of belt to go around these pulleys, it will be necessary to find the points of tangency B, E,A and G; the distance between the points B and E, and also that between the points A and G will represent the amount of straight belt ; and the arcs B D A, and the arc /V /1' 0, will represent the amount of curved belt ; and these lengths can easily be obtained, either by measurement, or by cal-culation.
Problem 18. 151. To DRAW A STRAIGHT LINE WHICH SHALL BE TANGENT TO TWO GIVEN CIRCLES, WITH THE POINTS OF TANGENCY LYING UPON OPPOSITE SIDES OF '1 HE LINE JOINING THE CENTERS OF THE GIVEN CIRCLES. Fig. 114. Let C D E and F 0 H be the two given circles ; it is required to draw a tangent whose points of contact shall lie upon the opposite sides of the line A B. Under these conditions, two tangents to same circles can be drawn. Let us first draw the tangent E F. Join the center A and /I of the given gir-dles, by a straight line; produce the Hanle to-wards M, and intersecting the given circle in the point D. From D as a center, and with a radius equal to the radius of the circle 11 G F', describe a short arc, cutting the line B Min the point M; then will A M be equal to the sum of the two radii B (1 and A D. From the center A, and with the radius A M, describe the circle Al N 0. Bisect the line A B at the point K; from the point IC as a center and with If A as a radius describe the circle A I, 13 intersecting the circle M N 0 in the joint I. Through the points 1 and B draw a straight line, idso join the center A and the point / by a straight line intersecting the circle (1 /) /f: in the point IC. Through the center /1 draw a straight line perpendicu-lar to the line / 1; andu intersecting the cir-cumference /1' (; // in the point F. Through
Fig. 114
rig. 115 I 9 d raw any two circles, One larger than the other, and draw a line tangent to these circles as explained in this article. Draftsman's Method.—The draftsman will simply place the T-square in a position in which the edge of the T-square will touch each of the given circles in one point, and then draw the tangent line along the edge of the square. If it is necessary to find the exact position of the points of contact, the draftsman will, with the aid of his T and set squares, as explained in Art. 107 draw straight lines through the centers A and B of the given circles perpendicular to the tangent line, the points in which these lines cut the tangent will be the points of contact. Problem 19. 152.
TO DRAW A STRAIGHT LINE WHICH SHALL BISECT THE INCLINATION OF TWO GIVEN LINES WHEN THE POINT OF INTERSECTION OF THESE TWO LINES IS INACCESSIBLE.
.F the points g and h, describe an arc o; and from the point h, as a center and with the same radius, describe the arc n cutting the are o in the point B; through the points A and B draw the straight line A B; this line will bisect the angle g A h. Compare this construction with Art. 112. Through the point A draw a straight line perpendicular to A B, and cutting the line E Fin the point i. Bisect the line A i at the point K by the method given in Art. 110. Through the point K draw a straight line K L parallel to A B, then the line K L will bisect the in-clination of the lines C D and E F. Directions.—In the space marked Problem 20 draw any two straight lines, not parallel, then bisect their inclination as explained in this article. Draftsman's Mefhod.—When the inclina-tion of two lines is to be bisected, and these lines are drawn a considerable_distance apart
A L as he did there is room to almost any extent in which to expand and enlarge upon his work. It has time and again been set forth that with more means this school could double and treble the good work it is doing, but no one seems inclined to furnish the means. In such schools as the Massachusetts Insti-tute of Technology it is not to be expected that the tuition of students will pay the ex-penses of keeping up the school upon such a plan as is desirable. The salaries paid in-structors is almost invariably small ; nothing can or should be saved in this direction. On the contrary there is always urgent need for increasing expenses in the way of salaries. There are but few schools of this kind”in the country. If they are to do the work they ought to do they must have help. We trust President Walker's plain .presenta-tion will have the effect to call fruitful atten-tion to the ,,,ubject.
One of the subjects for discussion at the next meeting of the Western Railway Club, 175 Dearborn street, Chicago, is the weight of driving wheels and tires. It is to be introduced by Mr. C. E. Smart who believes that a large "proportion of the rapid wear of driving wheel tires and rails, is due to abra-sion caused by the ponderous rigid weight of driving wheels and tires. He favors reduc-ing the. weight of driving wheels and tires and transferring it, if necessary, to the boiler or frames v, here springs would inter-vene to soften its shock. Facts bearing on this subject are scarce. Any one having information about it, who cannot attend the meeting, January 19, would confer a favor on the club by communicating the same in writ-ing to the Secretary, Angus Sinclair, at the above address. most practicable knowledge that was the value of compounding the steam came through the use of that system mships. Now it looks as if the advan-tages of triple expansion engines would come in the same way. Years after compounding had been tried in land engines it was taken up for steam navigation, and it has proved its entire success there. But it looks now as if the triple expansion engine is to be the motor of the future for ocean steamships. There are even now prominent engineers who believe that large factory engines will soon be quite extensively triple expansion.
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. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 8-Jan 22
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 8 January 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 8


 AMERICAN-MACHINIST ----Jan-15-1887 page 8
Jan-22-1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST page 8

AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 22, 1887

AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 22, 1887
The best way to wash the paper is as follows: Let the paper soak for 15 or 20 minutes in a tank of clear water. This water must be changed frequently, as the water soon be-comes so saturated with the chemicals that it will not fully take the lines out, which will then become blue on exposure. The question was asked : How long after the paper is prepared should it be used to get the best results ? Use as soon as perfectly dry. If a drawing be made on transparent but with coal contai- ing 30 per cent., or more of gases, the matter was quite different. Anthracite could be burned in a shallow furnace, but to get anything like satisfactory results from bituminous coal the fire-box must be deep, or a large per cent. of the gases would pass off unconsumed. Anthra-cite could be very satisfactorily burned in a furnace proper for bituminous coal, but bituminous coal could very seldom be used in a furnace made for burning anthracite with- paper, parchment paper is best. This is out serious loss. Again there were so many cheaper than tracing cloth, but if time is varieties of bituminous coal that in order to money the cloth is the cheapest. Average get the best results the requirements for each exposure is 3 minutes for cloth and 25 min- must be determined from actual practice. utes for the paper. He spoke in favor of rather more than Another question asked was : If a tracing moderately rapid combustion, resulting in is made, is tracing cloth or some kind of what is called a " bright " fire. transparent paper best ? In regard to height of chimney, he quoted Cloth by all means; you can make your the advice a well-known firm of engineers pencil work on cheap paper, and trace at gave their patrons, viz., to build their chim-once, using the tracing cloth for a reference neys at least 80 feet high, and as much higher drawing while the blue prints can go in the as they are inclined to. shop. He advised engineers not to trust their eye-This is how to know the color when a print sight for a guide as to the completeness of has been sufficiently exposed : With a trac- combustion ; nothing was more likely to ing cloth negative, an edge uncovered by deceive. Every engineer should have means the cloth should be of a greenish gray with for determining how much water he was metallic scintillations. evaporating per pound of coal. The matter It can be done with dull back tracing cloth, was simple; some kind of a measuring tank by rubbing the spaces on the d ull side with a soft lead pencil.

J. J. BINGLEY.

Length of Diagranm from Pantograph Motion. Editor American Machinist: Doubtless many of your readers have been bothered when using the pantograph as an indicator reduction motion, for want of a method for determin-ing the location of the hitch pin in order to adapt the panto-graph to the stroke of the en-gine in hand, so as to produce a card of .the desired length. It is to be hoped that some day the pantograph makers will stamp a figure alongside of each hitch pin hole, showing at a glance the ratio of reduc-thm for that hole, but until that good time comes the fol-lowing plan is better than guess work or trial. Stretch out the

upon which are 1"xl" chipping pieces put on mainly for the purpose of keeping the staves apart at their joints, to leave a longitudinal opening for vent and freedom in getting them out of the casting. The stand trunnion P being then screwed into the cap K, the core barrel is ready to be swept up, which is done by setting it horizontally on horses, the trunnions P R being bearings upon which it will revolve, as well as abuttment for the sweep in gauging the diameter of the core. The core having been swept up the crane is hitched to the trunnion P, and that end of core lowered until the flange S rests on a block or plank sufficiently high to keep the body of core clear of the floor. The crane is then taken to the other end of the core and hitched to the screw hook T, seen in Fig. 3, (it having previously been screw, d to the nut K, which is to be understood as having an external as well as an internal thread upon it) and the whole core up-ended in the position seen in Fig. 3. The mould or outside part being made, the cope is then set on the core, as seen in Fig. 3. The outside and bars of this cope are cast in one piece, which has for its center a ring V turned to fit the recess seen in the core barrel shaft B. These two being true and clean it will be evident that

above incident is a good example of what trouble and anxiety a thoughtless moulder can put a foundry foreman to. From the cut of the cope it will be evident to the founder and moulder how the rest of the flask was constructed when he is here in-formed that another joint was at the line Z, and the castings were poured by two under-neath gates, one of which is seen at Fig. 1. The main runner to these gates did not pass through the body of the "cope" and "cheek," but had an independent pipe flask outside of the main flask which connected with a branch leading from the nowel -that contained the gates shown. It will be seen there was no room for a runner inside of the main flask when the moulder is told that the diameter of the flask was such as would only leave room for about 3/' thickness of sand all around the pattern. It might be well to state that in order to insure the pattern being central in the flask when it was being -‘ rammed up," that there was a seat in the pattern which fitted the cope's round bar V, and was bolted to same upon the principle the core is shown at-tached to the cope. The moulder will, of course, realize by the above that the cope was made to answer the purpose of a " follow " or " mould board," and that when the " cheek "

—Z and " Dowel" were returned up, the whole was turned over and the " false cope " removed, a joint made and the cope being replaced, it was then rammed up. In closing the mould, the " cheek " and nowel being to-gether, the core as now seen would be lowered into tilt m, and the whole would be s«mred against " head pressure " by clamping or bolting the flanges together. After the pouring, and as soon as the metal has solidified, the cope is hoisted off and the shaft .13 pulled out by means of replacing the nuts M T and unscrewing the bolt.. rod N out of the cap K, and letting the collar W come up against the shaft's end. This will permit freedom for con-traction and leave a hole where-by the staves can by hand be readily taken out of the cast- ******************************************

pin in order to adapt the panto-graph to the stroke of the en-gine in hand, so as to produce a card of .the desired length. It is to be hoped that some day the pantograph makers will stamp a figure alongside of each hitch pin hole, showing at a glance the ratio of reduc-tion for that hole, but until that good time comes the fol-lowing plan is better than guess work or trial. Stretch out the pantograph until the distance between the fulcrum pin and the pin for crosshead connec-tion is equal to the length of stroke of the engine to be indi-cated, then the distance from the fulcrum pin to the hitch pin is equal to the length of card that the pantograph, with the hitch pin in that location, will take from that engine. If this length of card is not satisfactory it is easy to adjust the hitch pin until it is satisfactory. In setting up the fulcrum post it is not necessary to pay any attention to what has just been outlined as the same length of card will be taken regardless of the location of the post. Locate the hitch pin as described, and then set the post to suit your convenience. Of course the distances given are center to center. FREDC. A. HALSEY. Tarrytown, N. Y.

Removing Borax from Steel. Editor American Machinist :

One of your correspondents asks how to remove borax from steel axles without filing. Let him try immersing in a solution of sul-phuric acid and water for a few minutes, afterwards dipping in clean hot water. He can then dry with a piece of cloth ; we use this process for work in our establishment, and can recommend it. Philadelphia. RIEHL & CLARK. •411111.. Combustion of Coal. Mr. William Kent gave an interesting talk on combustion before the Newark Association of Stationary Engineers at one of their recent meetings. After briefly outlining the theory of combustion, Mr. Kent spoke of the differ-ent requirements for burning bituminous coal as compared with anthracite. The burning of anthracite was generally a simple matter,

A NOVEL GREEN SAND CORE BARREL.
to feed from, and scales for weighing the coal. In this way an engineer could detect what might be wrong in the quality of coal or the way it was burned. By adhering to one plan of firing and management for, say a week, then trying another plan, the best one would be found. There was no way except by actual trial that these things could be determined, and the best results obtained.

Practical Drawing. Fig. 1

BY J. G. A. MEYER. FOURTEENTH PAPER. Problem 17. 149. TO DRAW A STRAIGHT LINE WHICH SHALL BE TANGENT TO TWO GIVEN CIRCLES, WITH THE POINTS OF TANGENCY LYI S G UPON THE SAME SIDE OF THE LINE JOINING THE CENTERS OF THE GIVEN CIRCLE. Fig. 113. Let A B D and F F G be the two given circles ; it is required to draw a tangent to these circles, whose points of con-tact will lie upon the same side of the line C H. Under these conditions two tangents can be drawn to the given circle, namely, one above, and one below the line C II. We will first draw a tangent above the line C Through the centers C and H draw a straight line, and produce it to meet the cir-cumference A B D in the point D ; then will D (1 be a radius of the circle A B D. From D as a center, and with a radius equal to that of the circle E G, namely NJ II, describe a small arc, cutting the line D in the point K; then K U will be the difference of the two .

EPHEN S


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. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 9-Jan 22
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 9 DECEMBER 31, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 9

AMERICAN MACHINIST
JANUARY 22, 1887 _AMERICAN MACHINIST The National Labor Tribune, of Pitts-burgh, comes out with its January 1 issue in a new dress of type and a new design of heading, which greatly improves its appear-ance. The Labor Tribune is in its fifteenth year, and is the best representative of organ-ized labor interests of any newspaper in this country. Published weekly at $2.00 per year. i5frio_ps nsiDERs. Under this head we propose to answer questions sent us, pertaining to our specialty, correctly, and according to common-sense methods. Every question, to insure any attention, must invari-ably be accompanied by the writer's name and address. If so requested, neither name, correct initials no loco:, tion will be published. (16) F. H. K., Cleveland, Ohio, will find description of the black process of copying draw-ings in the AMERICAN MACHINIST of April 19, 1884, and July 19, 1881. We do not recommend any book as the " best." (17) S. D., Passaic, N. J., will find an article on the subject of pressure on slide valves in the AMERICAN MACHINIST Of June 2, 1883. From this it will be seen that much more data than he furnishes are required. (18) J. M., New York, asks : 1. Are the working tools of a young man already in this coun-try subject to duty if sent for, they having been used? A .—Duty will undoubtedly be charged, but an explanation of what they are will probably relieve you from payment. 2. What is the duty on finished machinery ? A.-45 per cent. (19) C. C. G. asks : 1. Can a blue print of an ordinary letter be made plain enough so that it can be read easily ? A.—Yes, providing the letter paper is not too thick and the ink black. 2. What is the cost of an outfit to make the usual size of blue prints ? A .—An outfit for making blue prints twice the size of the AMERICAN MACHINIST page will cost about $4. (20) A. A. K., Bethany, Mo., writes : It is claimed that a well-proportioned hollow column, 6-inch diameter, will bear a greater crushing strain than a solid column of the same diameter. Is this right ? A.—On general principles, the solid column is the strongest. It might be possible in some eases to improve the solidity of the iron by casting on a small core, so that the hollow column would be the strongest. If you take the solid column and drill out the center, it will certainly be weaker. . (21) C. H., Jackson, Mich., asks : How (41.11 I mark a warns on stool by 1.111if acid ? A of wheel. You can calculate the weight cf rim by calculating the number of cubic inches in it, then multiplying by .26. 2. Which makes the best set-ting for an automatic engine, stone well cemented, or hard-burned brick ? A.—There is nothing quite equal to large, smooth stone ; hard-burned brick, however, makes a good foundation. 3. In return tubular boilers about what per cent. of saving is made by returning the products of combustion over the top of the boiler ? A.—Nothing. 4. Is it advisable to set an engine foundation on plank when there is water on the bottom of pit ? A.—No. Use large stone at the bottom, laid in hydraulic cement. (26) J. 0. writes : Scientific authorities tell us that if we have two surfaces in contact, one of them moving upon the other (as for instance, the surfaces of the locomotive driving wheel and the rail), the coefficient of friction cannot be increased by increasing the velocity of the surfaces. If this is the case, why is it that runners always put on steam when they find that their driving wheels are slip-ping ? A.—Competent locomotive engineers will never put on steam when the driving wheels are slipping. If you will watch them carefully, you will find that in starting the engineer opens the throttle valve very cautiously, and, as the speed of train increases, the throttle is slowly opened wider. Sometimes the engineer opens the throttle too fast, and thus will cause the driving wheels to slip, but will not allow them to do so for any length of time. (27) J. M. C. writes : I have an engine, cylinder 26"x42" ; piston travel, 560 feet per min-ute; steam pressure, 70 lbs. It is a Corliss cylin-der. I want to bore it out so as to put in a different piston. What thickness of iron in cylinder would be the limit of safety ? It is now 1%" at counter bore and 1%" piston bore. How can I find the length of one side of a triangle (acute) when the length of the others are given, and the three angles known, without referring to a table of sines and cosines? Mention some reliable works on trigonometry. A.-1. In the AMERICAN MACHINIST of August 22d, 1885, page 2, you will find an article on the thick-ness of metal in cylinders. Adopting the rule there given, namely : (Dlianini.nocfaecsyl. spteera square upressureare x 0001 ) -I-.15, /Diam. of cyl. V in inches. = thickness of metal in cylinder. Hence (26 X 70 X .0001) + .15 v26=.947 of an inch ; say, 1 inch for the thickness of cylinder. We believe that % of an inch will be the limit of safety for the thickness of metal. 2. You will find the rules for calculating the sides of an acute-angled triangle in Davies' Legendre, or Loomis's Geometry. USII1ESS PECKS Transient Advertisements 50 cents a line for each St. John Improved Self-adjusting Cylinder Pack-ing, for marine and stationary engines and locomo-tives ; applicable to water, air, oil and ammonia pumps. For durability and minimum of friction, it is unexcelled. Send for pamphlet. Address, Bal-ance Valve and Piston Packing Co., room 58, 280 Broadway, New York. Patent Binders for the AMERICAN MACHINIST, holding a complete volume (52 issues), simple, neat, durable. Price, $1, prepaid, to any part of the United States by mail. To Canada or foreign coun-tries the price will be 75c. ; purchasers pay express charges and customs duties. AM. MACHINIST PUB'G CO., 96 Fulton st., N. Y. " Indicator Practice and Steam Engine Economy." By F. F. Hemenway. Contains plain directions for using the indicator, and making all required calcu-lations from the diagram ; also the principles of economy in operating steam engines, and current practice in testing engines and boilers. Price, $2 post-paid. Published by John Wiley & Sons, 15 Astor Place, New York. The St. Paul and Duluth Railroad will build new shops at St. Paul in the spring. The Remington Machine Company, Wilmington, Del., will erect a brass foundry. J. J. & J. Leonard, Dalton, 0., are erecting an addition to their stove foundry. Blossoms & Merrill, St. Paul, Minn., will erect a $25,000 sash, door and blind factory. V. H. Beerman will erect a $30,000 store and fac-tory at Frankfort and Pearl streets, New York. A new cotton factory will be erected in Athens, Ala. John L. Tanner, of that place, is interested. Knebel & Co., of Pierron, Ill., contemplate estab-lishing a new factory for extracting oil from cotton `seed. Edwin A. Merritt, Jr., of Potsdam, N. Y., con-templates the erection of a paper mill at Hannawa Falls. The Universal Radial Drill Company, of Cincin-nati, has lately sent a No. 3 drill to the Brooklyn Navy Yard. The Ansonia Brass and Copper Company, An-sonia, Conn., is building a brick shop, 80x200, for rolling copper. It is reported that parties from. Minneapolis, Minn., have secured ore lands at Isbell, Ala., and will erect' a blast furnace. It is probable that a company with a large capital will be formed at Nashville, Tenn., to start a manufacturing town near that city. It is reported that the machine shops of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad, at Little Rock, Ark., are to be enlarged. George W. Dudley, Moses Bros. and others are forming a company to build stove works at Mont-gomery, Ala. The capital stock will be $50,000. William C. Harris, of Mercer, Pa„ has been awarded the contract of erecting the buildings for A company is being organized at Beaufort, S C., to construct water-works and artesian wells to sup-ply the town with water. The incorporators are C. Townsend, W. T. Seward, Geo. Holmes and others. The new Bessemer steel works at Wareham, Mass., will consist of a building 120x60 feet. In the steel works will be placed two three-ton Clapp-Griffiths converters, each capable of turning out nine to twelve tons an hour. T. New Manufacturing Company has been incor-porated, to make paving and roofing materials, on a capital of $200,000 ; shares, 2,000. Trustees are T. New, of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Edwin E. Dickinson, and Lewis W. Harrington, of New York. igeport Forge Company, Bridgeport, e recently made an addition, 100x60 eir hammer shop. This is the fourth aich has been made in this department start in business but a few years since. geport Copper Company, Bridgeport, adding to their plant a new building 60 feet ; they are also increasing their the refining department by two more. any will also probably build a new roll- The Bric Conn., hays feet, to th addition wi since their The Bric Conn., are about 100x furnaces it This compi ing mill. The Balt Southwest€ last week others, hal, machine F stock is $20 The Sib Falls, N. apparatus has been 800 in servi any other i There is at Newport party is sa A meeting meeting wi ness from e Can ntly is th t more Manufacturers' Record says : " The rn Iron Works, Louisville, Ky., reported as incorporated by Alfred Bell and e erected a foundry, 60x100 feet, and a hop, 40x80 feet. The paid-up capital 000. " by Manufacturing Company, Seneca Y., issue an illustrated catalogue of fire made by them. Their rotary fire engine a use for thirty years, and there are over ce, which is claimed to be more than of make in the world a prospect of a new cotton manufactory , N. II., to employ 100 hands. A Boston id to be at the head of the enterprise. of capitalists has been held, and a town 11 probably be held to exempt the busi-axation for a term of years. Th Cam Iron Company is reported to have rece sued a notice to its employes, telling them in future they will allow the employes to take stock in the company's store, and that they will issue coupons to the buyers of their stock in order to enable them to have a share in can. Manufacturer. E. II. Brownell & Co., Dayton, have recently taken orders for six 60" by 16 feet boilers for par-ties in Sandusky, 0., and one of same size for a company in Milwaukee. They are building a smoke-stack, on order, 72" by 60 feet, an oil tank, and several Brownell heaters. Business is good and the outlook bright. The New Howe Manufacturing Company, of Bridgeport, Conn., will occupy a portion of the now idle works of the Howe Sewing Machine Com-pany. The company is composed of prominent capitalists, and will start up about January 15th, employing 200 men. They will make sewing ma-chines and other machinery.
. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 10-Jan 22
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 10 January 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 10

AMERICAN MACHINIST MANUFACTURERS OF STEAM ENGINES
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GINE TUBULAR BOILERS. GEOBARNARD AGENT - Branch Office, 130 Washington St. PHILADELPHIA. CHICAGO. OVER 25,000 ENGINES IN USE. "GUARANTEED Engine\ Eclipse Corliss Engine. Non-Condensing, Condensing, Compound, 40 TO 1,000 H.P. Send for Circulars. E.P, HAMPSON & CO 36 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK, Sole Eastern Agents. M. J. TIERNEY,

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Superior Design Workmanship, Extra Ileavy (1500 ibS.) DOWN, ANGULAR AND CROSS-FEED, TO PLANE 12x16x15. THE R. A. BELDEN CO., DANBURY, CT.

Brain's Piston Ring Packing
7---* Perfectly balanced against un-due pressure in all directions. Preserves both cylinder and rings. Allows no waste by either friction or leakage. Call and see working model, expressly made to demonstrate advantage s claimed. For packing or shop rights, address JAMES BRANDON, 390 Eleventh Ave., New York.

Machine Tools. New and Second-hand, on Hand. t2 in.x6 ft. Engine Lathe, new 13 in.x6 ft. 64 Ames, 14 in.x6 ft. Si Blaisdell, 66 16-20 m..x.6-8-10 4t 12 ft. Bridgeport TV' if 16 in.x6 Blaisdell, 18 in.x8 ft. " Blaisdell, 66 24 in.x10-14 dc 20ft. " Ames, fif 23 in. x,, -12 & 14 1-2 ft." Bridgeport, 66 24 in.x16 ft. New Haven, good order. 30 in.x14 ft. if W. and L. pattern, new. 39 in x 15 ft. Eng. Lathe Lowell, 54 in.x30 ft. Engine Lathe, Niles, good as new 16 in.x42 in. Planer Bridgeport, new. 22 in.x4 ft, 46 Pease, new. 22 in.x6 ft. 46 Powell, 22 in.x5 ft. g 6 Hendey, new. 26 in.x5 ft. ' Biglow, good. 26 in.x7 ft. Brettell, new. 30 in.x7 ft ii New Haven, fair. 30 in.x8 ft. " Hewes & Phillips, new. 30 in.x10 ft. 6 f Powell. 12 in. Shaper, Traveling Head, new. 1.2 in. ' Hewes & Phillips, 13 in. Stroke, 9 ft. Bed, Tray. Head Shaper, Barr, A 1. 24 in. Shaper, Bridgeport, 24 in. " Wolcott, 32 in. Drill, Bickford, A 1. No. 1 Screw Machine, Wire Feed, Pratt & Whitney 16-18-20-23 25-28-34 in. Drills. 30 in. Radial Drill. No. 5 Screw Machine. Jones & Lamson. No. 2 Die Sinker, Pratt & Whitney. new. Center Bolt Cutter, new. 5 in Cutting Off Machine. Star. Merrill Drops, 800 lbs. good order. Bement 2250 lb. Steam Hammer. Milling Machines, Screw Machines, Slate Sensitive Drills. Gang Drills, and full line of all kinds of Machine Tools. Send for list and specify what is wanted. new.

72 Warren Street and 62 .illege Place, New York. PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING CENTER
DEPTHKV1 ANGLEc AND J. TWIST DRILL GAUGE. Fine Machinists' Tools.E. Boston, Mass”Send for Circular



To Buyers of Engine Lathes
We are now making from entirely new designs, extra heavy 17", 19", 21", 24" and 27" Engine Lathes (the most popu-lar sizes), of which we are making a ripecialty, and manufacturing in lots 01 not legs thapt1100 at a time. We make no charge for extras. Every lathe is furnished with hollow spindle ; the 19" with lx" hole, and 21' with 17/6" hole. Every lathe has substantial com-pound rest,heavy tool post (bar steel), rest to turn full swing, following rest with adjustable jaws to take any size from 234' down, with extra tool for shafting. Full set of gears to cut from 2 to 18 threads including 113 pipe thread. Automatic stop on carriage. Separate screw and rod feed, and the most substantial and easily managed taper attachment made. Cones and gears of large diam-eter and wide belt. Studs, screws and small gears are steelor gunmetal. Webbed live heads, heavy tail stocks. No worm or worm gears, no weak reverse plate. Perfect lubrication for all running parts, including carriage. Lead screw inside of shear, double nut (cut from solid), and taking hold of car-riage directly under the line of strain. Friction counter-shaft, the most dura-ble made. Our prices are reasonable for cash, and from which no deviation will be made. Our written guarantee accompanies every lathe.

GUARANTEE.
We guarantee this lathe to be equal in workmanship, truth, accuracy, solidity, Material and finish, to the best made, and hold ourselves legally liable for this guarantee.

LODGE, DAVIS & CO.
MANUFACTURERS
Machine Tools, 169, 161, 163 and 165 EGGLESTON AVE., 06. 138,146, 148, 150.152, 154 E. 6th St, CINCINNATI, OHIO. (See our advertisement on last page.)

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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-Jan-22-1887 page 11

JANUTARY 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST page 11--- 26330
JANUARY 22, 1887 NICHOLSON FILE CO. Files mi Rasp FILE CARD. SOLE MFRS. OF FILE BRUSH. Having the Increment Cut. The illustrations herewith presented, exhibit more convenient and durable forms of File Cleaners than are usually found, the majority of those in use being rudely devised and troublesome, and we believe for this reason, those of our manufacture will find a ready sale . Machinists and others who have not already given them a trial, will find it to their advantage to order the File Card and File Brush at once. Manufactory and Office, MID ID I OILY/ CVSBELOW THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR, THE STANDARD BOILER FEEDER FOR ALL CLASSES OF BOILERS. OVER 85,000 IN USE. Send for Circulars and Price Lists. THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR CO. OFFICE, 33 INDIA WHARF, BOSTON, MASS. HE NEW "CRESHAIIII" PATENT AUTOMATIC INJECTOR RE—STARTING " Invaluable for use in Traction, Farm, Portable Marine and. Stationary Boilers of all kinds. No handles required. Water supply very difficult to break. Capability of restarting automatically, immediately after interruption to feed from any cause." SEND FOR CATALOCUE. RELIABLE AND CHEAP. Sole Manufacturers in the United States & Canada, NATHAN MANUFACTURING CO, 92 & 94 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. "CUSHMAN" CHUCKS Th. Tshno—Chemical Receipt lock, Now Ready. The Techno-Chemical Receipt Book. Containing Several Thousand Receipts, covering the Latest, most Important, and most Useful Discoveries in their Prat:tie:n.1 Annlication in Endless Pol-ishing Belt Ma-chine for Re-moving Scale anti Polishing irregular pieces of Work. Send for Price _List. LeCount's Light Steel Dog No. 1 23 4. 5 6 7 INCH. ..% • 1 ..... 1% 1, WI PRICE. $ .35 .35 50 .60 75 . .85 1.00 No. INCH. PRICE. 8 2 $1.10 Small Set of 8-5.509. .2% 1.40 10 3 . ... 1.50 11. 3 1.70 12 .4 1.90 Full Set of 12-12.00 C. W. LE COTJN 9r, SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. UNION STONE CO., 33 0 S T 0 N, MASS. SIZES : 13i in. wide, 2 cc 3 4 cc cc cc Endless Belts of Any Length and Width, to Order. H. W. JOHNS' E i< CORDED SHEATHING. A Fire-Proof Non-Conducting Covering for HEATER AND STEAM PIPES IN CELLARS, ETC. H. W. JOHNS' TAR S" STOVE & FURNACE CEMENT. A fire and acid proof material for cementing and repairing j oints in Heaters, Fur-naces, Stoves, Ranges, etc. PREPARED READY FOR USE. H. W. JOHNS MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 87 MAIDEN LANE, NEW YORK. -CHICAGO.-o-PHILADELPHIA.-0-LONDON.---- SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF H. W. JOHNS' ASBESTOS LIQUID PAINTS, ASBESTOS ROOFING. STEAM PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS, STEAM PACKING, FIRE St WATER PROOF SHEATHING, PLASTIC STOVE-LINING, ETC. w PAMPHLET ON " STEAM-SA VING AND FIRE-PROOF MATERIALS," FREE BY MAIL. Our new REDUCING VALVE will reduce and maintain an even pres-sure in steam-heating coils, etc., as low as one pound, regard-less of the initial pressure. Sent on 30 days tri al to respon-Ri hl r- For FIRE
AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 15-Dec-31
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 12 pg 12

JANUARY 15, 1887 JANUTARY 1, 1887 AMERICAN MACHIN1ST 12 Morse Twist Drill and Machine Company, New Ledford, Mass. Manufacturers of Morse Patent Straight-Lip Increase Twist Drills. SOLID AND SHELL REAMERS, BEACH'S PATENT SELF-CENTERING CHUCK. BIT STOCK DRILLS. DRILL GRINDING MACHINES, MILLING CUTTERS AND SPECIAL TOOLS TO ORDER. Double lotgloyou Shear NIECES & JONES, WILMINGTON, DEL. We claim many advantages in this tool over any other style made : Being double, it will cut either right or left ; Its knives are of a proper height for convenience of working ; It will cut a bar square off or on a bevel ; Being supplied with a clutch, it can be stopped instantly. It is a serviceable tool for bridge building, ship build-ing. or any kind of ..-ailroad work. It is the machine for shop work, as the knives can be changed to cut round, flat and square iron THREE SIZES. Grinds Drills to 15A in. inclusive. ANY ONE CAN USE IT. THE HOUGH TWIST DRILL GRINDER MACHINERY Reducing ancl Pointing Wire. • Especially adapted to pointing wire rods and wire for drawing. For Machines or information, address the manufacturer. S. W. GOODYEAR. Waterbury, Ct , New Haven Manf'g Co. NEW HAVEN, CONN. IRON-WORKING MACHINERY. American Twist Drill Company's PATENT CHUCK JAWS. Three sizes. Price per set of 4 Jaws,$40, $48, $56. Bolted to lathe face plates, they make best and cheapest chuck in the world Address orders, HILL, CLARKE & CO., Boston and St, Louis, MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, N . Y. City, TALLMAN & McFADDEN, Philadelphia, Pa., or WM. BINGHAM & CO., Cleveland, Ohio, L. W. Pond Machine Co. Manufacturers of and Dealers in IRON WORKING MACHINFR V. Iron Planers A Specialty. 140 union St. Worcester, MASS. D. SAUNDERS' SONS MANUFACTURERS OF THE ORIGINAL TRADE L X. L. MARK; Pipe Cutting 2 Threading Machine. cd BEWARE OF IMITATIONS. None genuine without our Trade-mark and Name. STEAM AND GAS-FITTERS' HAND TOOLS, Pipe Cutting and Threading Machines, for Pipe Mill Use, a Specialty. lend for Circulars. YONKERS, N. Y. Lubricate Your Engine Cylinders FOX,TURRET &SPEED LATHES AND BRASS FINISHERS' TOOLS, CAGE MACHINE WORKS WATERFORD, N. Y. perfectly, gain power and save oil by using our Patent Automatic Sight Feed Lubri-cators, showing oil as it enters, drop by drop. The Seibert Cylinder Oil Cup Co. II. A. ROGERS, Agent for New York. .19 John Street, New York. Lyncie's Pat. POD SafotY Valves Adapted to all Boilers. 3. E. Lonergan & Co., Sole Owners and Manurrs PHILA., PA. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15-inch swing, 6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory they have advantages not found in other machines in this ENglisa,,InadtVisni nigaRIdactint Lathes, Upright well & Moore, 111 Liberty Street, New York. For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. P. BLAISDELL 14 CO. Manufacturers of achiniste Tools. WORCESTER. MASS. arnes' Pat. Upright Drills TT. [11. rat WATERFORD, N. Y. SHAPING MACHINES For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15•inch swing,6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory , they have advantages not found in other machines in this line. It will pay parties desiring to purchase, or know more about this _clam of machines, to seLd for full description and prices. W. F. & JOHN BARNES CO. 1995 MainSt., Rockford, III. NM OUR"IXT" Calg10010 of Tot and Supplies sent free to any address on receipt of Ten Cent, in Stamps (for postage). CHAS. A. STRELINGER & CO , wAz),!! Detroit, Micl, ILL L. S. STARRETT, Manufacturer of FINE TOOLS ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL Lisp. ENGINE rl Drills LnadtRisl,linlial4d Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Agents, Manning, Max. well & Moore, 111 Libgertyagtrienee:, New York. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. TM Almond Coupling AN EW quarter turn motion to replace qii ►rter turn belts and bevel gears. T. H. ALMOND, Mfr., 83 0 80 Wallington Street BROOKLYN, N. Y. AMONO
AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 15-Dec-31
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 13
pg 13

JANUARY 22, 1887 Page 13---- JANUTARY 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACHIN1ST 13 Morse Twist Drill and Machine Company, New Ledford, Mass. Manufacturers of Morse Patent Straight-Lip Increase Twist Drills. SOLID AND SHELL REAMERS, BEACH'S PATENT SELF-CENTERING CHUCK. BIT STOCK DRILLS. DRILL GRINDING MACHINES, MILLING CUTTERS AND SPECIAL TOOLS TO ORDER. Double lotgloyou Shear NIECES & JONES, WILMINGTON, DEL. We claim many advantages in this tool over any other style made : Being double, it will cut either right or left ; Its knives are of a proper height for convenience of working ; It will cut a bar square off or on a bevel ; Being supplied with a clutch, it can be stopped instantly. It is a serviceable tool for bridge building, ship build-ing. or any kind of ..-ailroad work. It is the machine for shop work, as the knives can be changed to cut round, flat and square iron THREE SIZES. Grinds Drills to 15A in. inclusive. ANY ONE CAN USE IT. THE HOUGH TWIST DRILL GRINDER MACHINERY Reducing ancl Pointing Wire. • Especially adapted to pointing wire rods and wire for drawing. For Machines or information, address the manufacturer. S. W. GOODYEAR. Waterbury, Ct , New Haven Manf'g Co. NEW HAVEN, CONN. IRON-WORKING MACHINERY. American Twist Drill Company's PATENT CHUCK JAWS. Three sizes. Price per set of 4 Jaws,$40, $48, $56. Bolted to lathe face plates, they make best and cheapest chuck in the world Address orders, HILL, CLARKE & CO., Boston and St, Louis, MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, N . Y. City, TALLMAN & McFADDEN, Philadelphia, Pa., or WM. BINGHAM & CO., Cleveland, Ohio, L. W. Pond Machine Co. Manufacturers of and Dealers in IRON WORKING MACHINFR V. Iron Planers A Specialty. 140 union St. Worcester, MASS. D. SAUNDERS' SONS MANUFACTURERS OF THE ORIGINAL TRADE L X. L. MARK; Pipe Cutting 2 Threading Machine. cd BEWARE OF IMITATIONS. None genuine without our Trade-mark and Name. STEAM AND GAS-FITTERS' HAND TOOLS, Pipe Cutting and Threading Machines, for Pipe Mill Use, a Specialty. lend for Circulars. YONKERS, N. Y. Lubricate Your Engine Cylinders FOX,TURRET &SPEED LATHES AND BRASS FINISHERS' TOOLS, CAGE MACHINE WORKS WATERFORD, N. Y. perfectly, gain power and save oil by using our Patent Automatic Sight Feed Lubri-cators, showing oil as it enters, drop by drop. The Seibert Cylinder Oil Cup Co. II. A. ROGERS, Agent for New York. .19 John Street, New York. Lyncie's Pat. POD SafotY Valves Adapted to all Boilers. 3. E. Lonergan & Co., Sole Owners and Manurrs PHILA., PA. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15-inch swing, 6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory they have advantages not found in other machines in this ENglisa,,InadtVisni nigaRIdactint Lathes, Upright well & Moore, 111 Liberty Street, New York. For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. P. BLAISDELL 14 CO. Manufacturers of achiniste Tools. WORCESTER. MASS. arnes' Pat. Upright Drills TT. [11. rat WATERFORD, N. Y. SHAPING MACHINES For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15•inch swing,6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory , they have advantages not found in other machines in this line. It will pay parties desiring to purchase, or know more about this _clam of machines, to seLd for full description and prices. W. F. & JOHN BARNES CO. 1995 MainSt., Rockford, III. NM OUR"IXT" Calg10010 of Tot and Supplies sent free to any address on receipt of Ten Cent, in Stamps (for postage). CHAS. A. STRELINGER & CO , wAz),!! Detroit, Micl, ILL L. S. STARRETT, Manufacturer of FINE TOOLS ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL Lisp. ENGINE rl Drills LnadtRisl,linlial4d Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Agents, Manning, Max. well & Moore, 111 Libgertyagtrienee:, New York. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. TM Almond Coupling AN EW quarter turn motion to replace qii ►rter turn belts and bevel gears. T. H. ALMOND, Mfr., 83 0 80 Wallington Street BROOKLYN, N. Y. AMONO

AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887-page 15-Dec-31
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 AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 14 pg 14

JANUARY 22, 1887 JANUTARY 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST page 14
Morse Twist Drill and Machine Company, New Ledford, Mass. Manufacturers of Morse Patent Straight-Lip Increase Twist Drills. SOLID AND SHELL REAMERS, BEACH'S PATENT SELF-CENTERING CHUCK. BIT STOCK DRILLS. DRILL GRINDING MACHINES, MILLING CUTTERS AND SPECIAL TOOLS TO ORDER. Double lotgloyou Shear NIECES & JONES, WILMINGTON, DEL. We claim many advantages in this tool over any other style made : Being double, it will cut either right or left ; Its knives are of a proper height for convenience of working ; It will cut a bar square off or on a bevel ; Being supplied with a clutch, it can be stopped instantly. It is a serviceable tool for bridge building, ship build-ing. or any kind of ..-ailroad work. It is the machine for shop work, as the knives can be changed to cut round, flat and square iron THREE SIZES. Grinds Drills to 15A in. inclusive. ANY ONE CAN USE IT. THE HOUGH TWIST DRILL GRINDER MACHINERY Reducing ancl Pointing Wire. • Especially adapted to pointing wire rods and wire for drawing. For Machines or information, address the manufacturer. S. W. GOODYEAR. Waterbury, Ct , New Haven Manf'g Co. NEW HAVEN, CONN. IRON-WORKING MACHINERY. American Twist Drill Company's PATENT CHUCK JAWS. Three sizes. Price per set of 4 Jaws,$40, $48, $56. Bolted to lathe face plates, they make best and cheapest chuck in the world Address orders, HILL, CLARKE & CO., Boston and St, Louis, MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, N . Y. City, TALLMAN & McFADDEN, Philadelphia, Pa., or WM. BINGHAM & CO., Cleveland, Ohio, L. W. Pond Machine Co. Manufacturers of and Dealers in IRON WORKING MACHINFR V. Iron Planers A Specialty. 140 union St. Worcester, MASS. D. SAUNDERS' SONS MANUFACTURERS OF THE ORIGINAL TRADE L X. L. MARK; Pipe Cutting 2 Threading Machine. cd BEWARE OF IMITATIONS. None genuine without our Trade-mark and Name. STEAM AND GAS-FITTERS' HAND TOOLS, Pipe Cutting and Threading Machines, for Pipe Mill Use, a Specialty. lend for Circulars. YONKERS, N. Y. Lubricate Your Engine Cylinders FOX,TURRET &SPEED LATHES AND BRASS FINISHERS' TOOLS, CAGE MACHINE WORKS WATERFORD, N. Y. perfectly, gain power and save oil by using our Patent Automatic Sight Feed Lubri-cators, showing oil as it enters, drop by drop. The Seibert Cylinder Oil Cup Co. II. A. ROGERS, Agent for New York. .19 John Street, New York. Lyncie's Pat. POD SafotY Valves Adapted to all Boilers. 3. E. Lonergan & Co., Sole Owners and Manurrs PHILA., PA. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15-inch swing, 6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory they have advantages not found in other machines in this ENglisa,,InadtVisni nigaRIdactint Lathes, Upright well & Moore, 111 Liberty Street, New York. For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. P. BLAISDELL 14 CO. Manufacturers of achiniste Tools. WORCESTER. MASS. arnes' Pat. Upright Drills TT. [11. rat WATERFORD, N. Y. SHAPING MACHINES For Hand and Power, 6", 8 ' and 10" Stroke. Adapted to all Classes of Work to their capacity. Barnes' Pat Engine Lathe 15•inch swing,6-foot or 8-foot Bed. These machines are made a specialty in our factory , they have advantages not found in other machines in this line. It will pay parties desiring to purchase, or know more about this _clam of machines, to seLd for full description and prices. W. F. & JOHN BARNES CO. 1995 MainSt., Rockford, III. NM OUR"IXT" Calg10010 of Tot and Supplies sent free to any address on receipt of Ten Cent, in Stamps (for postage). CHAS. A. STRELINGER & CO , wAz),!! Detroit, Micl, ILL L. S. STARRETT, Manufacturer of FINE TOOLS ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL Lisp. ENGINE rl Drills LnadtRisl,linlial4d Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Agents, Manning, Max. well & Moore, 111 Libgertyagtrienee:, New York. CIRCULARS FURNISHED. BOYNTON & PLUMMER, Worcester, Mass. TM Almond Coupling AN EW quarter turn motion to replace qii ►rter turn belts and bevel gears. T. H. ALMOND, Mfr., 83 0 80 Wallington Street BROOKLYN, N. Y. AMONO
1500 1500 3000
15. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-11887-page 15-Dec-31
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15  AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 15

15 JANUARY 1, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 15

NICHOLSON FILE COMPANY, Sole Mfrs. of
FILES and RASPS Having the Increment Cut, also, FILERS' TOOLS and SPECIALTIES.
The above illustration represents a device in which files may be held for service in surface filing, and while in this condition READILY SPRUNG, in order to give at the will of the operator, more or less convexity to the working face of the file. It does away with unnsna I care to obtain a true convexity or "belly" to file sides, and in fact renders great service by enabling the operator to utilize the file to its full capacity. SURFACE FILE HOLDER No. 4, Adapted to Hold Files 12, 13 14 in. Long. 14,15,16 " Si 5, Ci 46 it
MANUFACTORY AND OFFICE - PROVIDENCE, R. I., U. S. A.

THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR. THE STANDARD BOILER FEEDER FOR ALL CLASSES OF BOILERS. OVER 85 000 IN USE. Send for Circulars and Price Lists. THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR CO. OFFICE, 33 INDIA WHARF, BOSTON, MASS. HE NEW "GRESHAM" PATENT AUTOMATIC INJECTOR RE-STARTING

" Invaluable for use in Traction, Farm, Portable Marine and Stationary Boilers of all kinds. No handles required. Water supply very difficult to break. Capability of restarting automatically, immediately after interruption to feed from any cause." SEND FOR CATALOCUE. RELIABLE AND CHEAP. Sole Manufacturers in the United States & Canada,

NATHAN MANUFACTURING CO, 92 & 94 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. ROOTS' NEW ACME HAND — BLOWER, For Blacksmiths, etc. Slow Speed, Positive Blast. Is Durable Compact and Cheap, also Portable Forges, Tuyere Irons and Foundry Blowers.

STEAM ENGINE, ETC. DUBOIS' Weisbach's Steam Engine, 8vo cloth, $5 00 DUBOIS' Rontgen's Hot Air Gas and Steam Engines, 8vo cloth • • • • 5 00 CLERK'S Gas Engine, 12mo, cloth ........... 2 50 GRIMSHAW'S Steam Engine Catechism, 18mo, cloth 1 00 MAW'S Chief Types Modern Marine Engines. folio, one half morocco 18 00 SINCLAIR'S Locomotive Engine, 12mo,cloth, 2 01) "THURSTON'S Stationary Engines for. Elec-SEBASTIAN , MAY & COMPANY'S Improved Screw Cutting root or Power Lathes

C. W. LE COUNT," South. Norwalk, Conn. REDUCED PRICE OF LE COUNT'S • HEAVY STEEL DOG a No. Inch. Price. 1171Z '4=2 2 1-2.." ,O) e g", cD., 2 F.,. 3 5-8 .60 . c(?; 4 3-4 60 cn co ,73 5 7-8 .70 b 0 6....1 70 cr3 1-1,„ c-o-, S 7-...1 M.__ 80 Ss'o 8....1 1-4 ,80 o m . . If ; tg. - 13....2 1-4 1.35 go ?o" 'ne4 14....2 1-2 15. U .. 1.454 g...0 Cn ....3 1.60 .4 16....3 1-2 1 .80 Er 0 CD ti+-4 17....4 2 10 0 g 18....4 1-2 2.75 A 4. 19.___5 3.25 coo Full set of 19,1323.60 r, cro. 20 (ext.) 5 1-2 4.00 o E. 21 (ext.) 6 5.00 One Small Set of 8-by 1-4 inches to 20 inch . 5 6.15 One bet of 12-by 1-4 in. to 2 in „continued by 1-2 in. to 4 in. 13.20 Catalogue of Lathes, Drill Presses and Machinists' Tools and Supplies mailed on appli-cation. Lathes on Trial. 167 W. Second St.,Cincinnati, 0. E. P. B. SOUTHWORTH, 94 Exchange street, Rochester, New York. Indicating Engineer and Mechanical Draftsman. Correspondence solicited.

ON HAND FOR IMMEDIATE li DELIVERY ONE 60" PLANER

FOR WOOD AND IRON CEARS—SPUR OR BEVEL. WILLIAM GLEASON, Manufacturer of Machinists' Tools, ROCHESTER, N. Y.
CONE PULLEY BEET SHIFTER.
With
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15. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-11887-page 15-Dec-31
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AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1887 page 16 16 Jan 22, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST pg 15

AMERICAN MACHINIST JANUARY 22, 1887

16 AMEICAN MACHINIST

JANUARY 22, 1887 IMO-1W & S I-I A. RIP 111 . CCI., Manufacturer of MACHINERY & TOOLS, Description of No. PROVIDENCE, R. I. 3 Plain Milling Machine. We have in our works and in constant use, about one hundred Milling Machines, and our experience with them has demonstrated that for manufacturing purposes where many duplicate pieces are required, that the best work is produced and the most econ-omical results obtained from machines that are con.- 1 pact and solid, so arranged that t he pieces operated upon can he quickly placed in position and quickly removed after the cut is taken. We have designed a line of Milling Machin es for manufacturing purposes, combining the above de-sirable qualities, of which the No. 3 Plain Milling Machine is a type, and by their use we have sound it practicable to produce from10 to 20 per cent. more work in a given time than we could possibly obtains from any other type of a milling machine on the same work. The Spindle is driven by a gear and pinion from a three-step cone with 3" belt. It has a vertical adjustment of 6". The Table is 9" wide, 27" long, and has-12" longi-tudinal and 4" transverse movement and is moved longitudinally 2" by one turn of the hand-wheel. Tlae Feed is automatic with three changes, stopping automatically at any required point. The Vise has jaws 6Y8" long, 1 7-16" deep, and will open 33/8", Counter-shaft has pulleys 10" diam. for 3" belt, and should run about 375 turns per minute • The Price includes vise, counter-shaft, wrenches, &c , delivered f. o. b. at Providence, It. I, Weight, 25501bs

Car Wheel and RAILROAD, LOCOMOTIVE AND CAR SHOP EQUIPMENTS Photographs and Prices on Application. NILES TOOL WORKS, Hamilton, Ohio. NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, CHICAGO, I•1•011=•111=111, 96 Liberty St. 713 Chestnut St. 96 Lake St. Axle Machinery.

OVERHEAD TRAMRAILS, WITH-Weston's Differential Pulley Blocks, ANY CAPACITY. The Weston Pulley Block is suspended from a traveler or trolley which runs freely on the lower flange of the track. The tracks, by means of curves and switches, can reach any desired points. Plans and estimates furnished on application. SOLE MAKERS, THE YALE & TOWNE MFG. CO., Stamford, Connecticut. THE PRATT I WHITNEY CO.

HARTFORD, CONN. Have reduced the Selling Prices Machine Screw Taps & Combination Lathe Chucks. Now discounting 35 per cent on each. The Billings & Spencer Co., Hartford, Ct, DROP FORGINGS INCOPPER, IRON OR STEEL. Pure Copper Commutator Bars for Electric Motors or Generators. Steel Commutator Rings and Nuts, Steel Wrenches and Eye Bolts. DR OMEORGIN=W-FROM-i-EU RESOPPER.

CLEVELAND, OHIO, Machine Tools FOR Ell IRA: ERZ.Various sizes to cut and punch %" to X" plate iron. - Shears. For Immediate Delivery. PROUTY PATENT PLANER CHUCKS. Round swivel base. 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30 in. jaw. Square base. 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30 in. jaw. Taft's Rolling Lever Hand Punches and 6 to 48 IN. SWING. Prices furnished Send for circulars. Send for Large line of general Metal Working Machine Illustrated Tools. Catalogue. POND MACHINE TOOL CO. MANUFA CTURERS OF STEEL and IRON WORKING MACHINE TOOLS. *******************************************************************

1 MANUFACTURERS OF STEEL and IRON WORKING MACHINE TOOLS. O W) 0 GEARWHEELS & GEAR CUTTING. 'Send for Catalogue D. GI-IC OR Gr. 14:1 13. GRANT, 868 Beverly Street, Boston. E. COULD & EBERHARDT, 0 mom Sm. rac Odd Ip O NEWARK, N. J E. E. GARVIN 86 CO., 139 & 141 Centre St., New York, MANUFACTURERS OF Machinists' Tools INCLUDING MILLING MACHINES, Drill Presses, Eland Lathes, &c. Send for Catalogue. KEY SEATING MACHINES AND 20 in. Drills a specialty. Our 20 in. Drill is a heavy sub-stantial tool, made for service, has steel shafts and spindle. Gears and racks cut from the solid and have all modern improvements, are made by special machinery, and sold very low. Our Key Seating Machine willsave enough in 60 days' use to pay first cost ; no shop can afford to do without one. We have now ready for II chines and 20 in. Drills. Send for prompt shipment,both Key Seat Ma I Photo. and Catalogue. P DAVIS, North Bloomflolt, le J. M. ALLEN, PRESIDENT. W. B. FRANKLIN, VICE-PRESIDENT . J. B. PIERCE, SECRETARY. hes, L70111',.. _Planers 230'''xx23401' For Now, Iteduced PRICE LIZ, Write THE G A. GRAY CO. .-Sycamore & Webster Sts, Cincinnati3O. THE BUFFALO STEEL FOUNDRYI'un_e, ORDERS AND CORRESPONDENCE I PRATT & Eru'rcww-oirri--1 SOLICITED. Proprietors. Wood Planer. PUNCHING PRESSES 7 DIES, And other Tools for the Manufacture of all kinds of SHEET METAL GOODS, DROP Igt.GINt*, DROP HAMMERS. STILES & PARKER PRESS CO. MIDDLETOWN, CONN. BRANCH OFFICE & FACTORY, 59 Duane St., New York. J.M.CRPENTER - PAWTUCKET.R.I. IManufacturer_ —of— JUDIE
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2nd scan AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1889-page 6

Buying-A M E R I C A N M A C H I N I S T-Section Vol. 56, No. 1
Cut Production Costs-With Modern Equipment.

LET'S START RIGHT NOW
to do those things necessary to bring conditions back to normal. We've faced business stag- nation long enough
now to know what it means; so /et's go- let's get started on the right track again. This business de- pression will last
just as long as the people of this co\untry sit back and wait for something to happen-we've got to make things
happen.
We can accomplish nothing by waiting for the other fellow to start something-the chances are he is sitting back
waiting for us. We've simply got to realize that it is up to everyone to do his share, and there never was a better
time than right now to start the "ball a'rolling."
Then there is another and probably a much more threaten- ing angle to the situation. The period of prosperity just
passed has witnessed a tremendous over-expansion in practically every industry, not only in this country, but
throughout the entire civilized world. `As a consequence, today, and likely for many years to come, the facilities for
production will be greater than the powers of absorption-which means the keenest kind of competition and the
weeding out of the less stable and less progressive concerns in each industry. Business houses today are fighting
for their very existence, and those who survive will be the ones that start now to reduce their costs and better
their methods, in order to meet the keenest competition on a fair basis. ~
How should we begin? Where should we start?


If every manufacturer in the metal working industry would start by putting his own house in order, by replacing his
old worn'-out tools with new and better machines, by weeding out bis obsolete equipment, and installing more
modern, more prohtable equipment in its place, the first thing you know, we would have better business, things
would begin to move again, and industry once more would "hit the trail" of progress. We, The American Tool Works
Company, have already started. Since Jan. 1921, we have weeded out of our own plant, eighty-three machines of
different kinds, and are now replacing them with the latest and most modern tools. By this we have provided
business for the foundries, orders for the steel mills, and work for a number of men-in other words, we have "gone
into action" in our own plant.
If you will do the same in yours, the other fellow the same in his, and so on, ad infinitum, this country would soon
forget that there was a business depression, a readjustment period or a deflation spasm. It is up to every one of us
to put our shoulder to the wheel, so let's go-a slang expression -yes-but chuck full of meaning and good advice.

The American Tool Works Co.
Cincinatti, Ohio, U. S. A.
LATHES PLANERS--SHAPERS RADIALS

This is the 6rst of a series of cost reducing advertisements. The president of every metal Fabricatz.ng plant in t
country should hz.mselF read each and every one oF th advertisements, and then refer them to hz.s manager c
superintendent.