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    AMERICAN MACHINIST     Dec 31 1887 white
The New York Giants defeated the Brooklyn Bridegrooms (later known as the Dodgers). in the 1889 World Series, 6 games to 3.
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OCTOBER 3, 1889 Surface Grinding Machine or Grinding Planer.

Phelps' Water-Level Indicator and Auto-matic Gauge Cleaner.
We illustrate herewith a device which is so simple, and at the same time so obviously useful, that the wonder is that it was not thought of sooner. All engineers are familiar with the difficulties attending the use of the ordinary water glass gauge. If the water is very clean and clear there is not sufficient difference in color and appearance between that part of the glass which is filled with water and the part above the water line to make the line easily and quickly discernible, especially if the light is insufficient, or if it falls upon the glass from an unfavorable direction. If, on the other hand, the water is dirty, every time the water line remains for some time at the same point the scum, which is upon the surface, deposits rings in the glass which are easily mistaken for the water line. These rings are deposited one after the other until the glass is coated to such an extent as to make it impossible to see the water. Then it must be taken out and cleaned, when, for some as yet unexplained reason, it usually breaks. The float seen inside the glass in the engraving consists of a tube of oxydized sil-ver, closed at each end, and its weight so made as that it will, when floating in water, project above the surface about of aninch. It is about 22 inches in length, and, be-

No. 1 Horizontal Boring and Driliing Machine.
This machine has been designed to meet the wants of the trade for a tool of medium size, but still of ample power and strength to do good work rapidly. The boring spindle is of steel 21" diameter and has 17 inches traverse. This, together with the traverse of the table, enables the machine to bore a hole 36 inches long. The spindle has rapid hand movement by rack and pinion. Tile driving cone has four speeds for 21 inch belt, and is back geared. Rates in back gear seven to one. The feeds are operated by belt with four changes. gThe main table is three feet nine inches long, and supports a saddle and cross-table, the latter 19 inches by 40 inches. The logitudinal traverse of cross-table is 20 inches ; transverse traverse of cross-table 26 inches. The outer end of the boring bar is sup-ported by an adjustable yoke, which also affords additional support for the table. It can be removed when desired. All sliding surfaces are accurately fitted by scraping. The countershaft pulleys are 16" diameter ; 31" face. Speed 96 revolutions. The machine will bore to the center of a 48 inch circle. It is built by the Niles Tool Works, Hamilton, Ohio.

**************************************************** There is a notable falling off in the number of patents issued for car couplers, but car-heating devices seem likely to fully sup-ply the deficiency.

**************************************************** There seems to be no limit beyond which the bridging of large navigable rivers will not yet be carried. The latest plan, which, however, has not yet taken practicable shape, is to bridge the Hudson river at New York.

**************************************************** Admiral Porter advocates the building of merchant vessels that could be used in the navy in case occasion made it advisable. But he fails to show what inducements any-one has to build such vessels, which is rath-er an important omission. .41111.• An English inventor has brought out a lock for theater doors which is so constructed as to offer no resistance to egress, but to effectu-ally prevent ingress except by using the key. This is for service in case the doors are locked for any reason, but exactly why they should be locked when the house is filled, is not clear. But as some thters in London have been fitted with these locks, it is probable that they do things differently there from what we are accustomed to in this country.

**************************************************** According to our foreign ex-changes
the experiments that have been made on Prussian railways with axle boxes in which parch-*lent is used instead of brass, have been successful. The parchment, as it is called, appears to be highly compressed paper, and this, it is said, becomes impregnated with the lubricant so as to run a long time without attention.
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Practical Drawing. By J. G. A. MEYER. FORTIETH PAPER.

375. Remarks relating to Problem 51 : It may often appear difficult to find the projections of straight lines, and more so to find the projections of curved lines ; but if we remember that, when we have the projections of two points of a given straight line, its projection is known ; and when we have the projections of several points of a given curve, the projection of the curve is also known ; consequently, we see that many problems can be reduced to very simple ones, in which all difficulties will disappear. Therefore we should be very particular to understand thoroughly the method of find-ing the projections of points in whatever position these may be given, or in whatever curve they may lie. It is the great import-ance of this subject which leads us to make the following remarks, thereby trusting to enable the student to become as familiar as possible with this subject. In Fig. 268 it will be seen that in order to obtain the horizontal projection of the bases we first established a number of points, as f, h, etc., all equal distances apart in the vertical projection of the upper base of the cylinder. In relation to these points, it must be said that it is not necessary to make the distances between these points equal to each other; we did so simply to make the figure appear symmetrically ; neither is it necessary that two points, for instance, such as e2 and f2, should lie in one straight line, drawn perpendicular to the upper base m n of the cylinder; we simply adopted this method to save labor. We will obtain the same curve in the horizontal projection by taking any number of points (the more the better) in any position whatever in the circum-ference of the circle m2 n2 e,d2; thus: Fig. 269, let A B be the ground line, and let m n repre-sent the vertical projection of the upper base of a cylinder having the same diameter, and the same inclination to the hori-zontal plane of projection as that represented by m n in Fig. 268, and let the circle m2 ne c2 d2 in

straight line drawn perpendicular to the ground line A B; we therefore draw a ver-tical line through the point e, and this line will contain the horizontal projection e3 of the given point. It now only remains to find the distance between the point e3 and the ground line A B. Since e2 represents the given point when its projecting plane coin-cides with the vertical plane of projection, and since the projecting plane is turned around its trace, it follows that when the projecting plane stands perpendicular to the vertical plane of projection, then the distance between the vertical plane of pro-jection and the point will be equal to that ings the ground line A B is not drawn, and therefore, instead of laying off the point e3 from A B, or in other words, measuring its distance from the ground line, we first draw the diameter ma n3, which is the horizontal projection of a diameter parallel to the ver-tical plane of projection, and from the point f, in which the vertical e f5 cuts m3 n., we lay off on the line e f5 the point e3; the dis-tance between these points must, of cour.e, be equal to that between the points e2 and f4; the point f4 being the point in which the line e e2 produced, cuts the diameter m2 n2 drawn parallel to m n. The result will be the same as before. 376. When a right cylinder with a circu-lar base is standing in an oblique position, as shown in Fig. 268, the horizontal pro-jection of each base will be an ellipse. The center line c3 d3 (Fig. 268), which is the longest straight line that can be drawn in the ellipse, is called the major axis ; and the center line m3 na (Fig. 268), which is the shortest line that can be drawn in the ellipse, is called the minor axis. A more precise definition of these axes will be given when we consider the properties of an ellipse.

Problem 52. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PROBLEM 51. 377. To FIND THE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL PROJECTION OF A FLANGED CYLINDER, THE DIMENSIONS AND POSITION OF THE SAME BEING GIVEN. In this problem it is required to make an elevation and a plan of a flanged cylinder whose diMensions are given in the illustra-tion ; the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the vertical plane of projection, and oblique to the horizontal plane of projection. In order to refresh the student's memory, we will remark that by the term " vertical DECEMBER 31, 1887

- - Draw any horizontal line A B (Fig. 270).. Since the pointf of the upper flange is to'be 52 inches above the line A B, draw another line f s at a distance of 52 inches above and parallel to A B. The total length of the cylinder (including the flanges) is to be 1.1 inches, therefore from any point h on the line A B as a center, and with a radius of 14 inches, describe a short arc cutting the line f s in the point f, join the points h and f by a straight line; this line will give the correct inclination of the cylinder. From the point on the line h f lay off a point m ; the dis-tance between these points must be equal to the thickness of the flange, namely 11 inches; also on the line h, f lay off, 11 inches from f, a point k. Through the points h, m, k, f; draw lines perpendicular to h f • to do this use the T and set squares in a manner as illustrated in Figs. 71 and 80. Draw the center line a o parallel to, and at a distance of 58 inches from h f ; again at a distance of 58 inches from a o draw the lines i n and l g, which will complete the vertical projection of the flanges. On each side of the center line a o, and parallel to it, draw a straight line ; the distance between the axis and each one of the lines must be 4 inches, making the total distance between these lines equal to the diameter of the cylinder, namely 8 inches. Also indicate the thickness of the metal in the cylinder by drawing two dotted lines, parallel to a o, and each line 3 inches away from a o ; these lines will complete the elevation of the flanged cylinder. In order to find the horizontal projection consider this flanged cylinder to be com-posed of three separate right cylinders (Art. 299) whose axes lie in one straight line and their bases in contact. Two of these separate cylinders will be represented by the flanges, and therefore each one of these two cylinders will be 11 inches long and 111 inches in diameter ; the remaining cylinder will be 8 inches in diameter and 112 inch-es long. We have now only to find the horizontal projection of each one of these cylinders by the method, given in Problem 51, and thus obtain the out-line of the flanged cylinder in the horizontal projection. In Article 18 it is stated that ; the science of geometry treats


taking any number of points (the more the better) in any position whatever in the circum-ference of the circle m2 n2 c2 d2; thus: Fig. 269, let A B be the ground line, and let m n repre-sent the vertical projection of the upper base of a cylinder having the same diameter, and the same inclination to the hori-zontal plane of projection as that represented by m n in Fig. 268, and let the circle m2 n, c2 d2 in Fig. 269 represent the same base when its projecting plane co-incides with the vertical plane of projection. For reasons given in Problem 51, the center C., of this circle will lie in a straight line drawn perpendicu-lar to the line m n, and drawn through the point c midway between the extremities m and n. Now let us take any point as e2 in the circumference m2 n2 c2 d2, and find its horizontal projection. Our first step will be to find the position of the same point on the line m n, or in other words, find the posi-tion of the point e2 after the plane which contains the same has been revolved about its trace m n until it stands perpen-dicular to 1 he vertical plane of projection. Now,inrevolving this plane about its axis, which" is the trace m n, the path of the point e2 will be represented by a straight line e2 e drawn through e2 perpendicular to a,, and therefore the point e in which the line cuts the line m n, is the point sought. From the foregoing we see that the points e and e2 represent one and the same point in space the former is the position of the point when the projecting plane stands perpen-dicular to the vertical plane of projection, and the latter is the position of the point when the projecting plane coincides with the vertical plane of projection. Our next step will be to find the horizontal projec-tion of this point. Let us consider the point e to be the vertical projection of a given point in space ; we know, according to Article 227, that both the vertical and hori-zontal projection of a point must lie in a

/Fig. 272/ between the points e and e2. We therefore lay off on the line e e3 from the point e4, in which it cuts the line A B, a point e3, the distance between the points e4 and e3 being equal to that between the points e and e2. Then will the point es be the horizontal and the point e the vertical projection of a given point in space, and this same point is also represented by e2. But since e2 lies in the circumference of the circle, the point e3 will also be a point in the boundary line of the horizontal projection of this circle. In a similar manner we may obtain the hori-zontal projections of any number of points chosen in the circumference of the circle, and then by joining these horizontal pro-jections by a curved line we will obtain a boundary line of the base in the horizontal projection precisely the same as that shown in Fig. 268. Once more, in working draw- Pig. 273

projection " is meant an elevation of an object, and by the term " horizontal pro-jection " is meant a plan of the object (see Articles 215 and 222); and when we say—" the axis of the cylinder is to be parallel to the vertical plane of projection"—we simply mean that in drawing the elevation of the cylinder we must assume • the axis of the same to be parallel to the surface of the paper on which it is drawn ; and by the ex-pression " oblique to the horizontal plane of projection "—we mean that in drawing the plan of the cylinder we must assume the axis of the same to be *inclined to the sur-face of the paper on which it is drawn. In problems of this kind we must always make first that view of an object in which the true lengths of all the lines can be seen, and therefore we commence with the verti-cal projection or elevation of the cylinder.

two cylinders will be 11 inches long and 111 inches in diameter ; the remaining cylinder will be 8 inches in diameter and 112 inch-es long. We have now only to find the horizontal projection of each one of these cylinders by the method, given in Problem 51, and thus obtain the out-line of the flanged cylinder in the horizontal projection. In Article 18 it is stated that the science of geometry treats on the laws relating to space, and that a geometrical solid is that portion of space which a material object may occupy. hence, to find the horizontal projection of the hole in the cylinder, we simply consider it to be another right cylinder whose axis coincides with the others, and whose length is lim-ited by the face f g and h i of the upper and lower flanges, and then find the projection of this cylinder in precisely the same manner as shown in Fig. 268 and explained in Problem 51. Directions. —In the space marked Prob. 52 draw the verti-cal and horizontal projections of a flanged cylinder whose position and dimensions will agree with those given in Fig. 270. Use a 1I---inch scale. The ellipses which represent the horizon-tal projection of the faces i h, n m, 1 k, g of the flanges are exactly alike, and therefore we need to find only the points in one el-lipse. In drawings of this kind, the points so found can be joined sufficiently accurate by arcs of a circle, and, consequently, when one curve has been drawn in this manner, similar curves can be readily drawn without finding points in each curve. The manner of joining the points by arcs of a circle is explained in Article 379. In the case before us, we have only to find the correct positions of the major and minor axes, :and on these establish centers from which the arcs com-posing the curve can be drawn. Thus : For the horizontal projection of the uppefit flange we need only find, as is clearly shown in Figs. 270, 271, the position of the major e
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Instructions for Making Patterns from Models, Templets, Plaster Casts, Carved Blocks, Etc.
We will first consider what can be done with the templet and strickle. Fig. 1 is the sketch of a section of top and bottom railing about 9" wide and 1" thick all over. These are made in various lengths, some straight and others curved at one end. A few hours, at most, will serve to make such a pattern as this by the method under con-sideration, the only outlay for pattern work being the strickle and templet on which it is to travel. First consider a straight piece of pattern, say six feet long, and to the di-mensions given for Fig. 1. Let it be the top half. By referring to Fig. 2 it will be seen at a glance. Such as this can be made readily in a flask by securing parallel pieces (planed to a true surface) on the edges of the flask, as seen at A. The strickle is shown resting on these pieces, with stop B at one end, to guide it straight. The first thing to be done is to ram the sand very hard in the flask, and strike off the form of top side of parttern ; this is the • line marked C on the strickle. If this is carefully done a true and hard surface is the result. Smooth over and dust on the parting sand, taking care to have no more on than is necessary to part the cope. Let the cope be evenly rammed on this and lifted away. Before proceeding to strike out the thickness the bed must be prepared, as in this condition 'it would be altogether too hard for the iron to rest on. After such preparation is made, then strike off the thickness, as shown at line marked D. I have shown a space outside the web at E. This is to aid in securing a good inner edge when the web is deep, leaving the outside to be made up with a piece of pattern the thickness required. All that is needed now is the right man to finish up the mould—one who has made the use of his tools a study. Such a man will turn out a pattern by this method, equal in every respect to the one made from a wooden model ; in fact, very often much superior, as there is always great difficulty in keeping such light patt erns in shape. Of course blocks can be made to fit them, but this is only adding still more expense ; and why incur all this
but when properly done a good impression can be had. When the cope is lifted off, the templet must be replaced, and after the requisite preparations for venting, etc , have been made, proceed to ram the core, and with strickle No. 2 (which must have the required thickness allowed when made) proceed as directed for the outside. I may be pardoned for again saying that unless a first-class workman be entrusted with this kind of work, good results cannot ensue, as there are so many points to be watched, such as the even ramming, correct finish, and an eye at all times to the draft required to insure a smooth working pat-tern. Although I have not shown ends on the templet at Fig. 3, they can be put on when it is thought advantageous. It will at once be seen that this method may be applied to a wide range of work, and that it costs comparatively nothing for pattern making.

Fig. 1. Fig. C. Fig. 5.
gives less trouble. in ramming, and, secures a better core with less labor. It is right to say here that when method shown at Fig. 6 is adopted, the ends must be of the same diameter as the inside of pattern. Numerous illustrations might be given to show the adaptibility of this method to the production of other circular patterns, but I feel sure that enough has been said to prove its adequacy; for by slight modifications of the system, almost every emergency may be met successfully. We will now consider the subject of mak-ing cast patterns from models, plaster casts and carved blocks. Fig. 7 is the sketch of a newel post, quite a familiar object, and needs no explanation. My reasons for selecting this post is because it furnishes cap ital opportunities for illustrating the method of making patterns from carved blocks. This post is supposed to be 12" square at the base and cap, and 3' high; such a post is usually made up of four thin slabs about 1" thick, mitered at the corners, and held together by internal fast-enings. Being sold at so much apiece, it of course behooves the founder to keep therri as light as pos-sible, especially as com-petition in their manufac-ture is very keen. In fact, however massive any of this class of work may seem, we may rest assured that it is just as thin gs the manufacturer knew how to make it. Some of this work is really handsome, and tests the skill of the carver to produce it, but carving out the face side is not the whole difficulty. If (as is sometimes attempted) the back is cut out to the de-sired thickness all over, the chances are that some parts will be cut through, whilst other parts will not be cut deep enough; and to avoid the former evil, it is considered best --fig. 4.

_Fig. 7.
the block and proceed to lay in the thick-ness, which will be made of clay, after this manner : The best clay for the purpose is the red, smooth kind ; dry it and pound fine ; then sift through a fine sieve and wet to the consistency of stiff putty. Now nail two strips I" thick on a smooth board, as far apart as required, and roll out the clay between. All that is now needed is a knife and a little ingenuity, and the clay may be cut and laid on the hard mould with the greatest accuracy, every part of the surface being correct to thickness. It will now 1w seen why the bottom was to be rammed so hard the first time, and also why the joint was to be extended past the feather edge ; in thy` latter case, the thickness can stand past the edge a little when laid on, and pared off even with the joint afterwards. Now prepare for parting, and take this impression in cope No. 2. (This will be the top part of mould and the back of pattern.) Should there be intricate parts in the lift, clamp the two parts together and roll them both back on a soft bed. You can now loosen the nowel and lift the sand away carefully without disturbing any of the mould in the cope. When the clay is re-moved you have, a perfect impression. In finishing this, be careful to give good draft where it is needed. The necessity of cope No. 1 is now seen, for the joint in this is the same impress as that in cope No. 2, and nothing remains to be done but to place in the back, bring on the Dowel and ram so as to give a good, even casting. When this is turned over, cope No. 1 ends its usefulness by leaving you the joint exactly corresponding with the impression taken in cope No. 2, so that you have an absolute fit when they are placed together, and an even thickness at every part of the pattern. Should the design be very elaborate, with many delicate edges, it will facilitate the thicknessing very much if a coat of plaster be run over the pattern instead of the hard ramming as directed, thus leaving a good hard face to lay the clay to. This is the best where there is very fine carving, and the pattern is to be extra light, such as for ornaments, fine mouldings and all patterns for decorative purposes. When the model covers a large space it is customary for the designer to have it cast in plaster sections to insure easy and safe shipments. To make a pattern from such set.-

220 Water Street, Saginaw, Mich.
801 Fifth Ave., New York 736 White- Henry Bldg., Seattle, Wash.
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nowel was lifted to be rammed on cope No. 2.
I shall be excused, I think, for so much apparent repetition in these instructions, because I know that, to those who have had no experience in this class of work, there seems more or less mystery in the use of two copes; but a little thought will over-come all this and the whole thing appear in all its simplicity. To foundries where no pattern makers are employed a knowledge of the methods is indispensable, as it places them (so far as this class of work is con-cerned) on an equal footing with the best equipped firms. To conclude I would say that many in-genious contrivances will suggest them-selves to the moulder engaged on this line of work ; as, for instance, a rough block with bearings for a strickle to work on can be struck off in plaster to any design which runs the same along its whole length ; this can be used as a model and backed out with clay thickness as directed. All such patterns as are shown at Fig. 1 can be treated this way, thereby enabling the moulder to choose either the method ex-plained at Fig, 2 or the one just considered. In fact, this article is but a mere outline of what can be done by these methods ; for when once entered into it will be found that scarcely any limit can be placed to its use fulness.

Good Advice. In the copy of the constitution and by-laws of a mutual benefit association sent us by Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., of Roch-ester, N. Y., is a loose leaf not belonging to the copy referred to. From this leaf we learn that this firm has established a library consisting of books, newspapers, periodicals, etc.. for the use of their employes. On this leaf are printed a few very simple rules to be observed by those making use of the library—rules in which any intention to hedge about the use of the library by annoy-ing conditions is conspicuously absent. Then follows this advice, which is worthy of being given wide publicity. We think nothing better could be got into the same space: "Read something useful every day, if only for a few minutes. gineers. Regular meetings will be held at stated intervals, at which papers will be read and topics relating to foundry practice discussed. Following are the offic, rs of the new society : President, Isaac Wirclaester, of Boston ; vice-presidents, N. Balton of Norwich, Conn., R. H. Palmer, of Provi-dence, R. I. ; secretary, J. P. Pero, Stam-ford, Conn.; treasurer, Frank Gibby, Boston, Mass.; councilors, Frank Davey, Bristol, Conn., Joseph Hennessey, Chicopee Falls, Mass.; managers, J. B. Pero ,'Indian Orchard, Mass.; Jno. Witherell, Florence, Mass.; Thos. King, Meriden, Conn.; J. S. Richardson, Rutland, Vt.; H. B. Murless, Rockville, Conn. The next meeting of the society will be at Worcester, Mass., July 2.

A Good Appointment. Charles A. Bauer, general manager of the Wardner, Bushnell & Glessner Works, at Springfield, Ohio, has been appointed one of the commission( rs of the machinery depart-ment of the forthcoming centennial of Ohio. The officers of the department of machinery should receive credit for appointing a man of Mr. Bauer's well-known mechanical and business ability to this place. Such appoint-ments will go a long way towards establishing confidence in the enterprise, and are in pleas-ing con*rast to those sometimes made for similar purposes. Mr. Robert' E. Masters, well known to our readers, has accepted a new position. The following, from the Richmond Whig, will explain : **Mr. Robert E. Masters has been ap-pointed general superintendent of the Marshall Car Wheel and Foundry Com-pany's plant at Marshall, Texas, and in con-sequence has resigned his position as man-ager of the cast-iron de_ partment of the Tredegar 9 Iron Works, to take effect on the 31st of this month. ‘-‘ As an expert in the mixture of metals and in the management of men and work pertaining to foundry practice, Mr. Masters is said to have no superior. His practical, illustrated articles in the A mEiticAN MA- O States in 1886. We call attention to this fact, because there is nothing in the way measuring is done by ordinary mortals in this country to-day, to remind them of it, and they might lose sight of it. There is always the old difference between leading a horse to water and making him drink.

Something About Chucking Drills. BY FRANK H. RICHARDS. The makers of small machine tools—the successful and established makers — ac-complish a great good for the trade other than that which arises directly from the diffusion of their own products. They do much to raise the general standard of ex-cellence in such articles. The taps and drills and reamers offered ready-made to our hands to-day are so good that even those that we make for ourselves are better than those we would have made or expected twenty years ago. The ideas of the trade are unconsciously enlarged con-tinually, and the criterion of means and of accomplishment becomes more exacting. There are no articles that I think of that are better in their way than the reamers of the best makers. Taps are by no means so satisfactory. Years ago I used to find chuck or chuck-ing drills advertised ; lately I have been looking through a number of trade cata-logues and have not discovered them any-where. I suppose that when they have been offered to the trade there has not been much sale for themlbecause they are such a simple article. Anybody can make a chuck drill, is the general impression ; con-sequently anybody and everybody do make them, and we find them scattered through our shops in every grade of inefficiency. The importance of the chuck drill as a time-saver can scarcely be overstated. In points" of the chuck (bill are unim-portant, and that anything that can be crowded through a hole is good enough, is far from the actual fact. I believe, and am Prepared to maintain, that the chuck drill requires as much care and skill in the mak-ing as most tools, and that to maintain it in good condition and efficiency calls for unusual resolution and vigilance. Chuck drills should generally be used in sets of three. For some small work in clean and true castings two will do very well. The first drill wears much faster than the others, but should be kept sharp and true, as the more it does toward straightening and truing the hole the better it will he for the others, and the more satisfactory the final result. The first drill should do the heaviest cutting, while very little should be left for the last, so that it may maintain its size and not throw too much work upon the reamer which is to follow it. The chuck drill should be forged flat, usually of an uniform thickness through-out its length, and with the head large enough to be turned to the desired size anu the remainder of the drill small enough to pass freely into the hole it bores. The head may be in length three times the diameter, when it may be worn back twice the diameter before renewing. The drills should b e turned, each to its required size, perfectly straight and true, and square at the end, the cutting corner beveled as wide as the expected cut, and this beveled corner filed or ground back enough to give it clearance, and the drill then hardened The drill, Fig. 1, will then be in the best possible condition for boring a true hole. The only objection to it is that it will not work. If it could be once started true it must make a hole nearly true to any reasonable depth, for its turned edge against the side of the hole already trued would not allow it to get out of the way sidewise. But we find upon, trying to force it into the hole, that the friction at the edge is so great that it goes very hard and continually harder, that it heats up, and both the drill and the hole are roughened and abraded by the dust which forces between them. After turning the drill large enough to admit of it I would first grind it true to the circle, theffrindino hit ter
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ing into his mind that " knowledge is power." Then a four years' apprenticeship in a gene-ral workshop, at the same time following the course of instruction by Mr. Meyer in the AMERICAN M A( TINE Then he should have a four years' experience in the train ser-vice Of the Pennsylvania Railroad, to learn perfect system and self control, and the value of hardlabor ; by that time he would be anx-i►us to get back to his original place in the mechanical world, and be determined that his future salvation was in getting to the top of the ladder in mechanical engineering, and getting there quick too.

Keeping Boilers Clean. Editor American Machinist : L. F. Lyne gives his experience in the use of kerosene oil in boilers. I myself have tried the crude oil and found it very good in preventing the scaling of boilers, but the best thing I have ever used was the discharge water from a vacuum pan in a sugar house. I ran a pipe from the over-flow tank to my feed pump, and once a day would give the boilers a charge. There is just enough acid in the vapor from the pan to remove the scale, but it will not injure the iron. If this should be seen by any old Cuban engineer, it will call to mind how we used the crude molasses years ago to remove scale, and the consequence when we got too much in boiler; as it would go over into the cylinders, and that meant a stop. R. H. A.

Work Done on Milling Machines.
American Machinist: After reading the article of John J. Grant on uses of milling machines, I want to state my experience with a gang of them used for milling joints for buggy tops. One set of mills last one month, making 600 joints per day, or 15,600 joints per month. Two machines mill the form, each machine milling half the circle, the third slotting the pieces, this being one half the joint ; then these machines make the other half only, the third machine cuts the tontrue. One bov signature ; nothing whatever indicates to whom the catalogue should be addressed. This omission is by no means so uncommon as might be believed. The firm referred to write us that they frequently receive such letters. We receive them at this office every day. As we cannot Pay attention to com-munications unless we know the name of the writer, an average of several hundred each year go to waste. Undoubtedly many applications to manu-facturers for catalogues are unattended to for similar reasons. The moral is : Always give your address. We might add to this : Always sign your name plainly. Most other words can be deciphered, but a name written illegibly will puzzle the most expert.

New 16-Inch Engine Lathe.
The cuts presented herewith show a lathe recently brought out by Nicholson & Water-man, of Providence, R. I. As will be seen by reference to the cut, the lathe is of a neat and substantial design. It is furnished with independent rod and screw feed, and improved friction clutch countershaft. The carriage is gibbed to the bed front and back, has automatic cross feed, simple inch belt, its largest diameter being 11 inches. Change gears are furnished for cutting all pitches from 2 to 24 to the inch, and, by means of an additional stud, threads can be cut up to 48 pitch. The lathe swings over the carriage 11 inches, and with an 8-foot bed takes between centers 4 feet 9 inches. A locking device is provided for the car-riage, by which it is held in position when using the cross-feed. •■■• American vs. English Locomotives. The question of the comparative merits of American and English locomotives seems to be receiving a great deal of attention in England just now, and they seem to be more and more convinced over there that in neutral markets the English cannot success-fully compete with the American locomo-tive, being not only inferior for actual serv-ice, but higher in price. Most of the English writers have attempted to deny or explain away these facts, claim-ing that the English locomotive was really far better, if only people outside of England could be made to see it, and that its higher cost was simply the necessary result of its better construction.

and that in this respect the American loco-motive is far sueprior on account of its bogie, which we call the forward truck. He thinks, also, that the inferiority of the accommodation provided for the engineer tells heavily against the English locomotive in foreign markets, which is undoubtedly true. An engine, having a cab so con-structed as to expose the engineer to un-necessary discomforts, is not so apt to receive his approval as one which is better arranged in this respect, and in the introduc-tion of any machine, it is of prime import-ance that the man who is to manage and care for it should be pleased with it, and that every possible cause of annoyance to him should be avoided. This writer then takes up the argument that has been advanced by some Englishmen, that English workmen must work at smaller wages and longer hours, to reduce the cost of production, and shows that the trouble is not to be remedied in that way, and that the whole fault is with the designer, and not with the workman, since the machine is so made as to involve a great dial of expensive labor which is useless. He says : " The successful working of American locomo-tives proves that the designs on which they are made, the materials of which they are constructed, and the manner in which these are put together, are sufficient for every use-ful purpose; it is therefore by following different designs, by employing unnecessary, expensive materials, and putting them to-gether in an unnecessarily laborious man-ner, that we suffer in commercial competi-tion with Americans in supplying locomo Lives." He mentions the case of a car works there, where " center buffers, coupling with a link, after the American plan, were being made, but of a pattern that involved ten times the amount of labor there is in the ordinary American coupling buffers from which the idea was taken, and the result was an article not as good as the American buffer." Such statements, coming from an English mechanic, are very significant, and are de-cidedly complimentary to American me-

mills last, one month, making 600 joints per day, or 15,600 joints per month. Two machines mill the form, each machine milling half the circle, the third slotting the pieces, this being one half the joint then these machines make the other half only, the third machine cuts the tongue. One boy runs three machines and receives 15 cents per hundred. The mills are sharpened once a week, costing 75 cents to sharpen. Then at the end of one month the mills are an-nealed and worked over. I have two sets of cutters that have been working this way for one year, making nearly 200,000 joints, or 400,000 good pieces, for there are two pieces to one joint, andof course there are some spoiled, which are not counted. Cincinnati. JAS. D. HUBBELL. The Illinois Railroad Commissioners have arrived at a decision respecting the Chatsworth horror, and among other important facts stated in their report is the announcement that " the train would not have been destroyed if the bridge had not burned before the train reached it." Such an elucidation of the matter must be very comforting to those who lost friends in the accident. If one's friends must be crowded into excur-sion trains and run through burning bridges and killed, it is, of course, some consolation to be thus officially informed that if the bridge had not burned until after the train had passed over it, then the train would probably have passed over it in safety.

Mk American coupling buffers from which the idea was taken, and the result was an article not as good as the American buffer." • Such statements, coming from an English mechanic, are very significant, and are de-cidedly complimentary to American me-chanics, and a further illustration of their faculty of adapting means to ends in the best possible manner.

Don't Forget the Signature.
We have received, from a well-known firm of machine tool builders, the following letter, recently received by the firm. We omit date and location : Several mechanics in this city formed a company and got building and site, for a shop, and are going to start in the spring. Please send me your catalogue of lathes, planers, shapers and drills, with discounts for spot cash. We want lathes from 20 to 48 inch swing ; planers, 80x30 to 48x48, platen about 10 to 16 ft. It will be noticed that the only peculiarity in the above letter is the absence of any

and substantial apron gearing, and T-slots for fastening on attachments or work to be bored by a bar. The lead screw is of steel, of large diam-eter, and has an improved device for taking up end motion, and an open and shut nut operated by a lever. The spindles are made of hammered steel, the head-stock spindle running in composi-tion bearings, and having a hole 13r inches diameter through its entire length. The front bearing is 4 inches long by 21 inches diameter, the rear bearing being 3.-A- inches long by 1=2 inches diameter. Both of these bearings are ground, and the boxes scraped to a bearing. The foot-stock spindle is 13 inches long, 2 inches diameter, and has a bearing over its entire length. The cone pulley has four steps for a

A correspondent of Engineering,
in a re-cent communication to that journal, how-ever, takes a di fferent view of the matter, andiscandid enough to state things about as they are. lie st arts out by saying : " The fact of the American locomotive, handicapped as it is at present by higher cost of wages and material, and less facilities for ship-ment, being able to enter into and to sus-tain a successful competition in neutral markets with the English locomotive, de-monstrates that it must possess some inher-ent advantages which can hardly be better described than by the word superiority, dis-agreeable as that word may sound to Eng-lish ears when so applied." Ile then goes on to say that English loco-motives are too stiff to go around curves easily, and, as a result, destroy themselves and the road where there are many curves,

The Colliery Engineer has issued an extra sheet,'
giving statistics regarding the production of anthracite and bitumin-ous coal in Pennsylvania during the year 1886. According to the figures, the number of men employed inside the mines was 107,018, and the number outside 48,390 ; a total of 155,408. The production of coal was 61,884,791 tons. In view of the small wages paid at the mines—sixty to ninety cents per day—it is interesting to note that the men were employed less than two-thirds of the time. Regarding the clanger to life, there were in the anthra-cite mines one fatal accident for each 370 persons employed, and one non-fatal accident for each,122. As these figures of killed and wounded include those:, employed outside the mines—where: the danger is much less—as well as those inside, they are not` likely to reassure men whose inclination is to work at coal mining. An example of deterioration in values is shown in the recent sale of the Great Eastern for $100,000. The original cost of the vessel was 31 million dollars, but s was a gigantic failure from the start. building of this ship, however, was of val in demonstrating that there was a limit steamships in the direction of size. Wh those who invested their money in buildi this ship lost heavily in the venture, they can console themselves trith the fact that their loss was not altogether in vain. Their example has been profited by. •11111.• In England there is an early closing bill before Parliament, and public meetings are being held in favor of the movement. Shop girls and clerks, it is said, work from thir teen to fourteen hours per day.
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4. AMERICAN-MACHINIST-1922-page 2 January-5-Vol-56-No 1
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MORSE TWIST DRILL AND MACHINE COMPANY, New Bedford, Manufacturers of Morse Patent Straight-Lip Increase Twist Drills.

Solid and Shell Reamers, Beach's Patent Self-Centering Chuck, Bit Stock Drills. DRILL GRINDING MACHINES, MILLING CUTTERS AND SPECIAL TOOLS TO ORDER.


HODCE'S uiversal Angle Fa PATENTED Combining an elbow and union, and can be set at any angle at which it is desired to run the pipe. Manufacturers & Wholesale Agents, ULLSTOIIE MACHINE CO., 45Water St., FITCHBURG, MASS.


• ARS OR WRITE F: TO US FOR PRICES.' VAN DUZEN'S PATENT c,3 VAN DUZEN a. Ti FT. ',SOLE MAKERS LI,PAC I N y SEND FOB CIRCULAR. D. SHIMS' SONS, Manufacturers of Pipe Cutting & Threading Machines For Pipe, Mill and Steam Fitters' Use. TAPPING MACHINES, For Steam Fitting, also Steam and this Fitters' Hand Tools. YONKERS, N. Y. F. E. REED, Worcester, Mass.


J NN STEPTOE & CO., Cincinnati, Ohio.

IT WILL PA7 7:TJ TO WRITE FOR PRICES AND CATALOGUE DRILL GUIDE AND STEADY REST. A Complete Cutting-off Machine, $4.00. Larger ones which cnt to 2 in. $8.00. S. ELLIOTT, Newton, Mass.

We are making a specialty of 14 Inch ENCINE LATHES; And are selling them at such very low prices that even the Poverty-Stricken can afford to buy them. Don't sleeP another night until you write us for Photographs and Prices. S. Ashton Hand Mfg. Co, Toughkenamon, Pa, ENGINENGINE Lathes, Hand Lathes, Foot Lathes, Upright Drills, E Milling Machines. Agents, MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, 111 LIJSERTY STREET, NEW YORK.

UPRIGHT .DRILLS EMERY WHEEL TOOL, GRINDER. SPRINGFIELD GLUE&EICERY Wheec. SHAPINGM ACMES FOR HAND AND POWER, 6", 8" and 10" Stroke. Adapted to All Classes of Wwrl( to their Capacity. Circulars Furnished. BOYNTON & PLUMMER WORCESTER, MASS.

For guiding twist or fluted drills, for lathe work. Will keep the drill from shifting when blow holes are in castings. Send for Circular. NE11, MFG. C 1115 to 1123 So. 15th Street, PHILADELPHIA, PA. American Twist Drill Company's

Three sizes. Price per set of 4 Jaws, $40, $48, $56, Bolted to lathe face plates, they make best and cheapest chuck in the world. Address orders, Laconia, HILL, CLARKE & CO., Boston and St. Louis. MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, N. Y. City. TALLMAN & McFADDEN, Philadelphia, Pa., or WM. BINGHAM St CO., Clevela_ni, Ohio.

CAE MACHINEZ? CO. CLEVELAND, OHIO. Manufacturers of " ..a..e:snam 77 Single Double Automatic Boltcutters Cutting from 3-8 in. to 6 in. diameter. AlsoSeparate Heads and Dies. Send for Catalogue and Discounts. Agents, Manning, Maxwell & Moore, Newyork.


Embraces nearly 400 Machines for PLANING &MATCHING Surfacing, Moulding,Tenoning,Mor-tising, Boring, and Shaping, etc.

PAT. DEC. 5, 1882. PAT. DEC. 4, 1P83. PAT. AUG. 26, 1885

NEW STYLES. GREAT IMPROVEMENTS Patented Gang Drills. Two, Three and Four Spindles. The spindles in these drills are driven with n

patent Quick Return Latest -mAp7Oviments. coo ill._ rn ICI' ,1 .„ BICKFORD DRILL CO.

Cor.Frcnt &Pike Sts. CINCINNATI, 0. "Eclipse" Hand Pipe- Cutting Machines. No. I.-Powerful, inex-pensive, simple in construc-tion. Cuts and screws pipes 'A to 2-inch. Easily carried about. "ECLIPSE" Nos. 2 and These are Powerful and most efficient machines for cutting large PIPES, with which one man can easily cut of and thread6-inchple. No. 2 Cuts and Screws 2% to 4 in. No.3 " " " 212 to 6 in. It will pay you to. write us for particulars. PANCO AST e.9. AfAULE , [Mention this paper.] Philadelphia. Aar We also build Power Machines.

L W. Pond Machine Co
Manufacturers of and Dealers in Iron Tiortilli Iachillery. Improved Iron Planers a spe-cialty. Feed, pat-ented Feb. 9, 1886. Belt Shifter, patented Nov. 2, 1686. 140 Union St. Worcester, Mass. NEW YORK ACIENTS. AND SIZES Guaran-teed Satis-factory. WRITE FOR Illustrated Circular. No. D.

Patented Sept.25, 1883. Thee` Co- Spring-field, MI A

DIXON'S INaIA- Mr 11114 Surfacing, Moulding,Tenoning, Mor-tising, Boring, and Shaping, etc. Variety and Universal WOOD WORKERS. Band, Scroll and Circular Saws,Re-sawing Machines, Spoke and Wheel Machinery, Shafting, Pulleys, etc. All of the highest standard of excel-lence. "W. 1 DOANE, Pres't. D. L. LYON, Sec'y, aFrARE s 7selVu --'7/ENGRAVER n WaIID SSNIT ST. • NE*-7Irmar. MACHINERN/ Forliencilig&Pollitilialre I Especially adapted to pointing wire rode and wire for drawing. For IS chines or information, addrese SILVER LEAD tLe manufacturer, S. W. GOODYEAR, aterbury, CI —THE_— — - Powell Planer Co. Ilanfrs. mos PLANERS, Worcester, Mass. Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. JERSEY CITY, N. J.

FRASER & ARCHER, NEW AND SECOND-HAND MACHINERY, AFTING, maxims AND PULLETS, 121 CHA.lifB_EES ,STREET. CARY&M-CJEN U. \STEEL WIRE OF:DcERLIsPpTRIOINNG?),—. NEyvy 234- vv. 29.sT. EVE &STE ORK CITY( New Haven, Conn. Lathes, Planers, Shapers, Blotters. Etc.

William Barker&Co,
Manufacturers 'of IRON AND BRASS —WORKING— MACHINERY 140 k 142 E.Sixth Street, N'r Culvert, Cincinnati, 0. prices. A sd for circulars F

The spindles in these drills are driven with a sing le belt made endless, no lacing, and tightener pulleys for adjusting ten-sion provided. No more trouble from slack belts, slippage, uneven motion froth lacings, or time lost taking op 1-elts. ALWAYS READY FOR USE and superior to any multiple spindle . drill made for drilling from .001 to 3-8 inch holes. Single Spindle Drills improved. Over 800 in use. Send for catalogue. DWIGHT SLATE MACHINE CO. HARTFORD, CONN.

< >and I__ damage from too little and too much l'---';....4 water can be obviated, while securing „ „ economical results, by using the RE-MANCE SAFETY WATER COLUMNS. 0.1i) l Warranted and sold by Boiler Makers 0- and Dealers generally. 0•1 11 it-' Send for Illustrated Price List. ,l',,;,94,1=0„ G RELIANCE GAUGE CO., ,27 EUCLID AVENUE, CLEVELAND, 011I0. MEMINIMMI

VOLNEY W. MASON & CO., Friction Pulleys, Clutches and Elevators. PROVIDENCE, R. I. F. LLAISLELL & CO. 0111chn oil,

CURTIS & CURTIS, Successors to FORBES & CURTIS. 66 JOHN ST., Bridgeport Ct., U.S.A. MANUFACTURERS OF The Forbes Pat Die Stock, Pipe Cuttin and Threading Machine ine etc. A portable cutting and thread ing machine with which one man can with ease thread pipe up to six inch diam. No vise is required. ' Send for IlluStrated Catalogue. BEVEL GEARS Cut Theoreticall , y Couect. For particulars and estimat,* apply to BREHME 'BROS. Machin i, 440 N. 12th St., Phi 1phia, Pa. OUR RZIMING VALVE WORCES ER. PRAM PRESSURE lizEIL AMU Ours are used and recommend-416(1 by the leading pump man-ufacturers. JENKINS BROS., New

Will not "chatter" and will main-tain an even steam or water pressure as low as one pound. York & Chicago, Ag'ts MASON REGULATOR Clio 22 CENTRAL ST., BOSTON.
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HIGH SPEED POWER TRAVELING CRANES. We are now prepared to build HIGH SPED POWER TRAVELING CRANES for any capacity of load, any length of runway and any width of span, with one or with two trolleys on the bridge. These trolleys to work either slow or fast, together or independently, in like or in opposite directions, horizontally or vertically, while the bridge can be traversing slow or fast at the same time in either direction. The speeds of bridge on runway are 100 feet and 200 feet per minute; the speeds of trolleys on bridge are 50 feet and 100 feet per minute; and there are four hoisting speeds of 5, 10, 20 and 40 feet per minute ; all can be varied quickly without the least shock or Jar from zero to maximum or to any intermediate speed. The load is always automatically SUS-twined, thus aviriding absolutely the great danger and anxiety which are inseparable from the use of those Cranes which require the operator to apply the brake. We have had one of these Cranes of 26 tons capacity in constant nse in our foundry for nearly two years, and we offer them with full confidence for the greatest range of service. We invite the correspondence of parties interested in the subject. Sz CO., Inoorporatecl, PHILADELPHIA, PA.

Double, Single, Angle-Bar, Gang, Horizontal, Twin, Boiler, Spacing, Gate, Multiple, Belt and Steam-Driven

Punches and Shears. Over 300 Sizes. ALSO, Power Cushioned Hammer. Send for New Catalogue.

Weitmyer Patent Furnace Manufactured and Sold by FOUNIM AND MACHINE DEPARTMENT HAR.ISBURG- CAR YANFG, CO, HARRISBURG, PA. tl Ide Auto. Engines. Portable and Trac-tion Engines. Steam Road Rollers. Boil. ers of all descriptions.

IN Air C(1., 211 Race Street, PHILADELPHIA, MANUFACTURERS OF PATENT OILERS CYLINDER SIGHT' FEED CUPS, I Government Regu• lation Pop Safety Valves, for Locomotive, Stationary and Marine Boilers. SUPPLIES FROM HYDRANT PRESSURE the cheapest power known_ Invaluable for blowing Church Organs, running Printing Presses, Sewing Machines in Households, Turning Lathe s , Scroll Saws, Grindstones, Coffee Mills, Sausage Machines, Feed Cutters. Electric Lights, Elevators, etc. It needs little room, no firing up, fuel,ashes: repairs, en-gineer, explosion, or delay, no extra insurance, no coal bills. Is noiseless, neat, compact, steady; will work at any pressure of water above 15 lb. ; at 40 lb. pres-sure has 4-horse power, and


A FEW PRACTICAL OPINIONS OF THE OPEN SIDE PLANERS. No. 2. WEIMER MACHINE WORKS CO., Blowing Engines and Blast Furnace Machinery, Lebanon, Pa., November 23d, 1887. DETRICK SL HARVEY, Baltimore, Md. GENTLEMEN : We are pleased to say that the planer far exceeds our expectations, and we regard it as the coining planer. Were we to equip a new shop we would use nothing but the open side machines under five feet wide. We face off the foot and top of our engine housings from 15 to 18 feet long with the same ease as though they were only 12 in. long. There is not the slightest jar when reversing, nOr any trouble in the tool when cutting at extreme end of cross bar. Our planer is 36 in. wide, but with bent tool we have cut to 48 in. from upright post. Were we to order another we would have the cross bar made 48 in., or 12 in longer, as all other parts of the planer are stiff enough to stand the increased length. We would not hesitate to end off a job of ten tons weight by 30 feet long on our machine. Prior to purchasing your planer we were negotiating for a machine costing $10,000, for doing the work your planer now accomplishes. Kindly yours, WEIMER MACHINE WORKS CO., John A. Weimer, Supt. PROTOTYPES, PRICES, ETC., ON APPLICATION. DETRICK & HARVEY, Manufacturers, Baltimore, Md.


TRAVELING HEAD PLANER AND SHAPER. Only t le head travels, the work remaining stationary. Several sizes, any length of bed. Combines advantages of both planer and shaper, with special advantages for many kinds of work. Durable and convenient. SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. THERE IS MONEY IN ITS USE. TRY"IT. Send for Circular. E. A. WALKER, Manufacturer, 75 Laurel St., Philadelphia, Pa. Section of Copper-Wire-Sewed Light Double Belting, specially adapted to use on cone pulleys and other hard places. Manufactured by.the PACE BELTNC CO., Concord, N. H. Also manufacturers of Staple and Special Grades of Leather Belting — and the " HERCUL ES Lacing. Send for Catalogue No. 2. RICE AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF ENGINE. Se/

************************************************************************* SUPPLIES FROM RANT PRESSURE

eapest power known. able for b o wing h Organs, running ng Presses, Sewing es in Households, gLathes Scroll rindstones, Coffee Sausage Machines, Cutters, Electric Elevators, etc. It little room, no firing el,ashes, repairs, en-., explosion, or delay, ,ra insurance, no coal Is noiseless, neat, act, steady ; will work ir pressure of water 15 lb. ; at 40 lb. pres-ELS 4-horse power, and sty up to 10-horse 1 for circular to HYDI the ch Invalu Churn Printi Machin Turnii Saws, Mills, Feed Lights, needs up, fu gineer no ext bills. cutups at an above sure h, pad power. Prices from $15 to $300,caSenc

TEE BURIN WATER MOTOR CO,, Newark, N. J. Iron and Steel DROP FORGING Of Every Description, at Reasonable Prices. THE R. A. BELDEN 00„ DANBURY, CT. MANUFACTURER OF

E. A. WALKER, Manufacturer, 75 Laurel St., Philadelphia, Pa. Nifty •AT•EvERY•E 10.351f ION LOGUES•ON•APPLICATION H EA c) e. Ft 5, POINTEFtj RRIAGE•BOLT MACHINERY • AT C. NUT 8,WAsHER TAPPERS OF EVERY StIll WIRE•NAIL SPECIALISTS FU rU RN I 5 -rilENTY06t,-ICK1.-s-Tri.•Pkwi-5 _ ,THE u S •ilittifiTIONALlieltaY CO TIFFIN 01110,U•5 No more trouble with Loose Pulleys. ORMSBY'S PATENT SELF-LUBRI-CATED PULLEY BEARING settles the business. Can be used on old or new shafts, and in any position. Send for circular and price list. GLOBE LOOSE PU LLEYCO. Covington, Ky. 1111,1111",1,1 BORING AND TURNING MILLS. LAKE VILLAGE, N. H.

OSGOOD DREDGE CO., Albany, N, Y. RALPH R. OSGOOD, Pres. JAMES H. BLESSING, Vice-Pres. JOHN K. HO WE, Secretary and Treasurer. MANUFACTURERS OF Dredges, Excavators, Ditching Machines, Derricks, Etc, It plate part o shifti install Combined Steam Excavator and Derrick Car. L. 8. STARRETT,

Manufacturer of FINE TOOLS ATHOL, MASS. SEND FOR FULL LIST. Planers in Stock. One 36" x 36" x 9'. One 42" x 36" x 12'. Two 48" x 48" x any desired travel. One 42" x 42" x any desired travel. The above are held at very Low Prices. The Newark Machine Too Works, NEWARK, N. J.

**************************************************** Section of Copper-Wire-Sewed Light Double Belting, specially adapted to use on cone pulleys and other hard places. Manufactured by the PACE BELTNC CO., concord, N. H. Also manufacturers of Staple and Special Grades of Leather Belting and the HERCULES Lacing. Send for Catalogue No. 2.

**************************************************** RICE AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF ENGINE Ass OIL ENGINES. For Printers, Steam Yachts, pumping water, sawing wood, making ice-cream,Carpenters, Mechanics. 1 to 5 H. P. Fuel, Kerosene. No duA. Auto-matic in fuel and water sup-ply. Illustrated Catalogue free. Mention AMERICAN MA-CHINIST. SHIPMAN ENGINE CO., 92 Pearl St., Boston, Mass. KORTING GAS ENGINE. 12 Sizes, 1 to 60 EL P.

**************************************************** Satis-faction uaran-teed. Thousands in use in Europe, & 36 engines running in N. Y. City. KortingGas Engine Co., Ld. 60 Barclay St. New York. Self-Contained. Sensitive Governor. Balanced Valve. High Speeds. Stationary Oilers. Best Economy. Gold Medal Cincinnati Exposition, 1884. THE JOHN T. NOME MFG. CO., T-T3E1UP.13.31,C4, IV. Ir. THE Mtn ERIE, PA. ENGINE CO"

**************************************************** PORTABLE AND STATIONARY ENGINES and BOILERS
Send for Catalogue. WILLIAM TOD & CO.04. YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 75 Portable and Stationary Steam End piles and Boilers, both new and second-hand, in a great variety of sizes, from 2 to 75 H. P. Steam Poll er and Drainage Pumps for all kinds of duty. One second-hand Portable steam Saw Mill, one large second-band Punching Press. Shafting, Pulleys, Hangers and Belting. Parties in need of Machinery will do well to correspond with us for prices. S. L. HOLT & CO., 67 Sudbury Street, BOSTON, M C
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AMERICAN MACHINIST NEW TANGYEJ BUCKEYE AUTOMATIC1 CUT-OFF ENGINES In Use, Over 1,000. 25 to 1,000 H. P. These engines are the combined result of long ex-perience with automatic cut-off regulation, and most careful revision of all details. They are designed and constructed for heavy and continuous duty at medium or high rotative speeds. Highest attainable Economy in Steam Consumption and superior regulation guar-' anteed. Self-contained Automatic Cut-off Engines --- 12 to 109 H. P. for driving Dynamo Machines a specialty. Illustrated Circulars, with various data as to practical Steam Engine construction and performance, free by ----- mail- Address, BUCKEYE ENGINE CO., Salem, Ohio. SALES AGENTS • W. L. SIMPSON, 138107,ffinTBRUBIgilGi. lilt.aViiilstr8700111,trrglittioiln tiJnac4sonfits., Chicago, Ill.• KENSINGTON ENGINE WORKS, LIMITED, PHILADELPHIA. 4 Sole ensues and for Itew-hrseir(South orTienton):Easteiii:PennsiliinirDelaiire, Marylanifanc"-rfilli—nia. E ALBANY STEAM TRAP CO.'S BUCKET AND GRAVITATING TRAPS_ Automatically drain the water of condensation from HEATING COILS and return it to the boilers, whether the coils are above or below the water level in boiler, doing away with pumps and other mechanical devices for such purposes. Send also for Circulars of Blessing's Renewable-Seat Stop and ('heck Valves, Pump Governors, and Water Circulator and Purifier. Albany Steam Trap Co. A,41.31(7 MANUFACTURERS OF x STEAM ENGINES PULL vaati..11' Sizes Varying from 30 to 20:0 Horse Power. Horizontal or Vertical, Direct Acting or Beam, Condensing,Non-Condensing or Compound. Send for Circular. TIANTS SLED. evsralic Gravitating. "OTTO" GAS ENGINE WORKS SCHLEICHER, SCHUMM & CO., 33d and Walnut Sts. GINE TUBULAR BOILERS. GEO•R•BARNARD • AGENT - Branch Office, 130 Washington St. PHILADELPHIA. CHICAGO. OVER 25,000 ENGINES IN USE. "GUARANTEED Erigine doing Eclipse Corliss Engine. Non-Condensing, Condensing, Compound, 40 TO 1,000 H.P. Send for Circulars. E.P, HAMPSON & CO 36 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK, Sole Eastern Agents. M. J. TIERNEY, FRICK COMPANY, Builders, WAYNESBORO, PA. 20 NORTH CANAL A. GENUINE " COIRMISS." STREET, CHICAGO, WESTERN, AGENT. CRANK PLANERS Superior Design & Workmanship, Extra Heavy (1600 lbs.) PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING CEBITER D. EPT4IKAIGalEC 46,_TWIST DRILL GAUGE. Fine Machinists' Tools.—E. Boston, Mass—Send for Oircular obertWhiteht11,4/47,3Gz-FN" Op MANU MPRoVFC X Y. P0- VALVE SAAGXAt. 0 _ 1111110,, ' STATIONARY BOILERS. 40 TO 1,000 H.P. Send for Circulars. E.P.HAMPSCN&CO 36 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK, Sole Eastern Agents, NOMIiiiii01111.. M. J. TIERNEY, 20 NORTH CANAL A. GENUINE " CORLISS." STREET, CHICAGO, WESTERN, AGENT. CRANK PLANERS Superior Design Workmanship, Extra Ileavy (1500 ibS.) DOWN, ANGULAR AND CROSS-FEED, TO PLANE 12x16x15. THE R. A. BELDEN CO., DANBURY, CT. Brain's Piston Ring Packing 7---* Perfectly balanced against un-due pressure in all directions. Preserves bothcylinder and rings. Allows no waste by either fric-tion or leakage. Call and see working model, expressly made to demonstrate advantage s claimed. For packing or shop rights, address JAMES BRANDON, 390 Eleventh Ave., New York. Machine Tools. New and Second-hand, on Hand. t2 in.x6 ft. Engine Lathe, new 13 in.x6 ft. 64 Ames, 14 in.x6 ft. Si Blaisdell, 66 16-20 m..x.6-8-10 4t 12 ft. Bridgeport TV' if 16 in.x6 Blaisdell, 18 in.x8 ft. " Blaisdell, 66 24 in.x10-14 dc 20ft. " Ames, fif 23 in. x,, -12 & 14 1-2 ft." Bridgeport, 66 24 in.x16 ft. New Haven, good order. 30 in.x14 ft. if W. and L. pattern, new. 39 in x 15 ft. Eng. Lathe Lowell, 54 in.x30 ft. Engine Lathe, Niles, good as new 16 in.x42 in. Planer Bridgeport, new. 22 in.x4 ft, 46 Pease, new. 22 in.x6 ft. 46 Powell, 22 in.x5 ft. g 6 Hendey, new. 26 in.x5 ft. ' Biglow, good. 26 in.x7 ft. Brettell, new. 30 in.x7 ft ii New Haven, fair. 30 in.x8 ft. " Hewes & Phillips, new. 30 in.x10 ft. 6 f Powell. 12 in. Shaper, Traveling Head, new. 1.2 in. ' Hewes & Phillips, 13 in. Stroke, 9 ft. Bed, Tray. Head Shaper, Barr, A 1. 24 in. Shaper, Bridgeport, 24 in. " Wolcott, 32 in. Drill, Bickford, A 1. No. 1 Screw Machine, Wire Feed, Pratt & Whitney 16-18-20-23 25-28-34 in. Drills. 30 in. Radial Drill. No. 5 Screw Machine. Jones & Lamson. No. 2 Die Sinker, Pratt & Whitney. new. Center Bolt Cutter, new. 5 in Cutting Off Machine. Star. Merrill Drops, 800 lbs. good order. Bement 2250 lb. Steam Hammer. Milling Machines, Screw Machines, Slate Sensitive Drills. Gang Drills, and full line of all kinds of Machine Tools. Send for list and specify what is wanted. new. E. P. 13TJ31_41...A.1113, 72 Warren Street and 62 .illege Place, New York. PATENT UNIVERSAL SCREW-CUTTING CENTER DEPTHKV1 ANGLEc AND J. „TWIST DRILL GAUGE. Fine Machinists' Tools.—E. Boston, Mass—Send for Circular To Buyers of Engine Lathes We are now making from entirely new designs, extra heavy 17", 19", 21", 24" and 27" Engine Lathes (the most popu-lar sizes), of which we are making a ripecialty, and manufacturing in lots 01 not legs thapt1100 at a time. We make no charge for extras. Every lathe is furnished with hollow spindle ; the 19" with lx" hole, and 21' with 17/6" hole. Every lathe has substantial com-pound rest,heavy tool post (bar steel), rest to turn full swing, following rest with adjustable jaws to take any size from 234' down, with extra tool for shafting. Full set of gears to cut from 2 to 18 threads including 113 pipe thread. Automatic stop on carriage. Separate screw and rod feed, and the most substantial and easily managed taper attachment made. Cones and gears of large diam-eter and wide belt. Studs, screws and small gears are steelor gunmetal. Webbed live heads, heavy tail stocks. No worm or worm gears, no weak reverse plate. Perfect lubrication for all running parts, including carriage. Lead screw inside of shear, double nut (cut from solid), and taking hold of car-riage directly under the line of strain. Friction counter-shaft, the most dura-ble made. Our prices are reasonable for cash, and from which no deviation will be made. Our written guarantee accompanies every lathe. GUARANTEE. We guarantee this lathe to be equal in workmanship, truth, accuracy, solidity, Material and finish, to the best made, and hold ourselves legally liable for this guarantee. LODGE, DAVIS & CO. MANUFACTURERS Machine Tools, 169, 161, 163 and 165 EGGLESTON AVE., 06. 138,146, 148, 150.152, 154 E. 6th St, CINCINNATI, OHIO. (See our advertisement on last page.) 0-9° SLIDE VALVE F...1A STATIONARY BOILERS, GENERAL MACHINERY, %ON A"I \\AG5 ND BRASS CP-- 0-1ORK Oppic Room 6, COAL AND /RON EXCHANGE, COELCORTLANDT &CHURCH ST. JOHN MCLARJEN, BUILDER OF STEARNS MTG. COMPANY, ERIE, PA-ENGINES from 15 to 400 Horse Power. Boilers of Steel and Iron supplied tho trade or the user. Send for Catch goes. SAW MILLS and GENERAL MACHINERY. Works at Eft fE, PA. New York Store, 40 Cortlandt Street, SMITH A BARNHURST, - - MANAGERS. NO BOILER. NO STEAM. NO DANGER. FUEL, CRUDE PETROLEUM One New Putnam Screw Cutting O$ Engine Lathe, 36" Swing, 15' KEROSENE. Bed. CORM Engines, AIR Compressors and BOILERS. 11013011.EN, N. J. HILL, CLARE & 156 to 164 Oliver St., BOSTON, MASS. W0BEING Manila ON HUD, Adams & Richards Machine Co. New Brunswick, N. J. as they must be moved before Jan. 1. One Second-Hand Putnam Screw Cutting Engine Lathe, 42" Swing, 14' Bed. Both these Lathes will be sold low,
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1616161616 10th  AMERICAN-MACHINIST-Oct 3 1887 page 16 DECEMBER 31, 1887 AMERICAN MACHINIST

16161616161616 AMERICAN MACHINIST DECEMBER 31, 1887 I3B ROWN AND SHARP MANUFACTURING_Call.MING PROVIDENCE, R. I., U. S. A. FINE MACHINERY, TOOLS OF PRECISION. THE PRATT & WHITNEY CO., Manufacture LATHES of Various Sizes AND OF THE FOLLOWING RINDS Hand, Engine for Turning and Screw Cutting, Cutting 011, Gap Bed, Pulley Turning and Boring, Turret-Head Engine and Chucking, Hand Wheel, him Turning, Spinning, Grinding, Pattern Making, &c. re- PRICE LIST AND DISCOUNT SHEET SENT UPON APPLICATION. INVOLUTE GEAR CUTTER. SIDE MILLING CUTTER. FORMED CUTThil Coincident with the rapid and wide extension of the use of Milling Machines, has come an increased demand for Milling Cutters. Without good cutters, the efficiency of Milling Machines is much abridged. In extending the product of its Milling Department, the BROWN & SHARPE M'F.G. Co. has made many new varieties of Milling Cutters, and in order to supply the wants of customers, has found it necessary to greatly increase the number carried in stock. The Involute Gear Cutters in stock are from 3 to 48 pitch, 8 cutters to each pitch The Epicycloidal are from 2 to 10 pitch, 24 to each pitch. The nirves of gear cutters are obtained by machinery. Side h Cutters, from 3 1-2" to 8' diameter, are carried in stock On work having parallel surfaces, these cutters may be used in pairs Formed Cutters, for cutting various outlines, are made to order. These, as also th3 Gear Cutters, can be sharpened without changing their original form- a feature appreciated by those producing work, in duplicate. By.making cutters in large numbers, with expensive special tools, much greater accuracy has been attained than can be reached by the usual methods of manufacture. Users of cutters will generally find it more economical and satisfactory to purchase from experienced makers, rather than to attempt to manufacture for themselves. Catalogues mailed on application. All kinds of cutters made to order. SPECIAL PTLICY MACHINERY 36, 50 & 60 in. Swing. THE BILLINGS 86 SPENCER COMPANY, HARTFORD. CONN., MANUFACTURERS OF Billings' Improved Combination Pliers, Drop Forged from Tool Steel. DROPFORCINCS' Copnpleort,olrrsoannodrateneel,a-TorrsE'lectric Guns, Pistols, Sewing Machines, MACHINISTS' TOOLS AND Machinery Generally. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. WARNER & SWASEY, "MAN' moms NILES TOOL WORKS, Hamilton, 0. Chicago, March 19th, 1883. Gentlemen :—We have been using continuously for the past two years the FIFTY-INCH PULLEY MACHINES purchased of you, and they have not cost us a cent in the way of re pairs. We have turned out as high as 19 pulleys ranging from) to 28 inches in diameter and from 6 to 8 inches lace in 10 hours. Have turned 8 pulleys 48"x 8 inches in 10 hours. The manufacture of pulleys comprises quite a large part of our business, and we looked over the field considerably before purchasing of you, and this, with two years' experience, enables us to say we think them THE BEST PULLEY MACHINES in the market. W. McCRECOR & CO Very truly yours, For IRON and BRASS WORK. Illustrated Catalogue on application.
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Buying-A M E R I C A N M A C H I N I S T-Section Vol. 56, No. 1
Cut Production Costs-With Modern Equipment.

to do those things necessary to bring conditions back to normal. We've faced business stag- nation long enough
now to know what it means; so /et's go- let's get started on the right track again. This business de- pression will last
just as long as the people of this co\untry sit back and wait for something to happen-we've got to make things
We can accomplish nothing by waiting for the other fellow to start something-the chances are he is sitting back
waiting for us. We've simply got to realize that it is up to everyone to do his share, and there never was a better
time than right now to start the "ball a'rolling."
Then there is another and probably a much more threaten- ing angle to the situation. The period of prosperity just
passed has witnessed a tremendous over-expansion in practically every industry, not only in this country, but
throughout the entire civilized world. `As a consequence, today, and likely for many years to come, the facilities for
production will be greater than the powers of absorption-which means the keenest kind of competition and the
weeding out of the less stable and less progressive concerns in each industry. Business houses today are fighting
for their very existence, and those who survive will be the ones that start now to reduce their costs and better
their methods, in order to meet the keenest competition on a fair basis. ~
How should we begin? Where should we start?

If every manufacturer in the metal working industry would start by putting his own house in order, by replacing his
old worn'-out tools with new and better machines, by weeding out bis obsolete equipment, and installing more
modern, more prohtable equipment in its place, the first thing you know, we would have better business, things
would begin to move again, and industry once more would "hit the trail" of progress. We, The American Tool Works
Company, have already started. Since Jan. 1921, we have weeded out of our own plant, eighty-three machines of
different kinds, and are now replacing them with the latest and most modern tools. By this we have provided
business for the foundries, orders for the steel mills, and work for a number of men-in other words, we have "gone
into action" in our own plant.
If you will do the same in yours, the other fellow the same in his, and so on, ad infinitum, this country would soon
forget that there was a business depression, a readjustment period or a deflation spasm. It is up to every one of us
to put our shoulder to the wheel, so let's go-a slang expression -yes-but chuck full of meaning and good advice.

The American Tool Works Co.
Cincinatti, Ohio, U. S. A.

This is the 6rst of a series of cost reducing advertisements. The president of every metal Fabricatz.ng plant in t
country should hz.mselF read each and every one oF th advertisements, and then refer them to hz.s manager c