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Scientific-American-1900
The RICE Gear Cutting Machine ca. 1900 Ads.
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20834 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 1300.


A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. Vol. xxx V, --No . 22.1 [NEW SERIES. NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 25, 1876. 03.20 per Annum. `[POSTAGE PREPAID . J. A. FAY & CO.'S EXHIBIT OF WOODWORKING MACHINERY AT THE CENTENNIAL. It is generally admitted that the display of woodworking machinery at the Centennial Exposition has never been equaled in any previous world's fair, either in point of va-riety, of efficiency, or of numbers of the implements exhibi- ted. The policy of exhibitors has been to give in every case the fullest possible representation of their products; and in lieu of one or two prominent machines working, while the remainder in any one exhibitor's space remain idle, all are shown in operation. In very few instances, moreover, were special machines made for the Exposition, the general rule being to select good examples from the stock on hand. Thus the visitor saw the average tools under ordinary conditions of trial, and at the same time could draw his own inferences as to the excellence of the material used, and the design employed in construction. Continued on page 344.

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20834 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 1300.

336 I NOVEMBER 25, 1876. rit trim 18410. MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors. PUBLISHED WKLY AT NO. 87 PARK ROW, NEW YORK. 17. 0. D. MUNN. A. E. BEACH. TERMS FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. One copy, one year. postage included $3 20 One cony, six months, postage included 1 60 Club Rates. Ten copies, one year, each $2 '70, postage included $27 00 Over ten copies, same rate each, postage included 2 70 rir The postage is payable in advance by the publishers, and the sub-scriber then receives the paper free of charge. NOTE.—Persons subscribing will please to give their full names, and Post Office and State address, plainly written. In case of changing residence state former address, as well as give the new one. No changes can be made unless the former address is given. Scientific American Supplement. A distinct paper from the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, but of the same size and published simultaneously with the regular edition. One year by mail TERMS. $5 00 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SUPPLEMENT, to one address 7 00 Single Copies 10 The safest way to remit is by draft, postal order, or registered letter. Address MITNN & Co., 37 Park Row, N. Y. tar- Subscriptions received and single copies of either paper sold by all the news agents. VOLUME XXXV., No. 22, [NEw SERIES.] Thirty-ft/rat Yeavr. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 25, 1876. Contents. (Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.) Academy of Sciences, New York 345 Air and mine ventilation 343 Annotta. 343 Answers to correspondents 347 Bank clerks Batteries, plates for (15) Bevel, improved. Bixa orellana* Boats, engines, etc. (7) Boiler, setting a (3, 5) Boiler, water from a (16) Brass, malleable (20) Brass pans, cleaning Burns, cure for 347 338 343 347 347 347 347 341 ■ 337 Business and personal 347 Business, stick to a legitimate 341 Butter, artificial 337 Canal, the Bude, England 810 Castor oil plant, the* 343 Centennial exhibit, Fay& Co ' s."335,344 Centennial exhibition, close of 336 Centennial notes 345 Centennial revives business, the 341 Centennial, the closing of the 345 Centennial, the Corliss engine 340 Chairs, common sense 342 Chloroform in sleep 338 Collodion, removing (14) 317 Condenser, induction coil (17) 347 Counter gear for lathes. '342 Electrotyping insects, etc 341 Enameled cooking vessels 338 Encycloptedia, Appleton's 343 Engine, the Centennial Corliss 140 Evolution, thoughts on 345 Fay & Co.'s exhibit. 335, 344 Fertilizers, potash and bone (9) 347 Fire, in case of 338 Fish culture 445 irs Grindstones, speed of (3) 347 Gum copal, dissolving 346 Hospital in a crater, a 343 Ice, formation of (7) 347 Ice water head dress, a 342 Iodide of potassium crystals (8) 347 irrigator, a new* 338 Launches, speed of (4) 347 Leveling without a theodolite (2) 347 Locomotive, rapid transit" 342 Locomotives and railways. 339 Lyall loom, the awards to the 345 Microscopic detection 346 Mine ventilation, facts about 343 Oils, the adulteration of 346 Oxygen, our supply of 345 Patents, American and foreign 346 Patents, official list of 347 Planet Vulcan, the supposed 340 Plant, a dangerous 342 Pottery display, the French 345 Practical mechanism—No. 15* 341 Putty, removing 346 Railways and locomotives. 339 Records, intermittent, etc 336 Safe, fireproof and burglarproof ..338 Salt bluffs of Nevada 337 scientific apparatus, French 345 Silver-plating solution (13). 347 Soapstone, dissolving (19) 347 Stars, the twinkling of the 343 Stereoscope, the 337 Sun's inotion,the,and the weather 340 Tapestry, French 345 Time drop for clocks. 338 Tortoiseshell scraps (10) 347 Wagon wheel, weight on a (1) 347 Water supply for towns 341 Weather and the sun's motion 340 wolcylit ,it nrIlou and J.ntintnr (Al 341 THE CLOSE OF THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION. With ceremonies as simple and yet as befitting as those which marked its opening, the Centennial Exposition has closed, and so our grand celebration passes into the history of the country. The present is hardly the time to view it in the light of a single event, still less to attempt to point out its results and probable effect upon the industries of the na-tion and our future intercourse with the rest of the world. Our participation in its occurrences is too recent, the mem-ory of its details too fresh, for a retrospect ; nor can we pre-dicate results on the recent past, during which the excite-ment and turmoil of a phenomenal political campaign has held the uppermost place in the public mind. We shall rather look for results after the business and trade of the country, now rapidly recovering from the stagnation of the past three years, shall have resumed their normal activity, and after the finances of the nation shall have been settled on some sound, honest, and enduring basis. That the Centennial, both intrinsically as a display and in the circumstances connected with it., has been successful far beyond the lot of all previous world's fairs, is plainly evident. The exhibits collectively were, with few exceptions, splendid representations of the resources and skill of the contributing nations. Never before has there been gathered such a collection of wonderful productions as the English and German pottery, the French silks and tapestries, the Chinese carvings, the Japanese bronzes, the Austrian art work, the Belgian laces, the superb records of the vast en-gineering works of Holland, the exquisite Italian mosaics, the Bohemian glassware, the Russian silver and gold ob-jects and precious minerals, the Swedish iron and steel, the magnificent groups of Australian products, and our own la-bor-saving machinery. The extortions and privations which visitors to Vienna encountered at every turn were in Philadelphia rarely met with. Within the grounds the provisions for the public comfort were such that even the colossal crowds, which at times filled the buildings, failed to disarrange them. And then the crowds themselves ! Where could two hundred thousand enthusiastic people be gathered within such nar-row limits for a day, and yet not a single accident, no inju-ries to individuals, and no acts of lawlessness occur? What a magnificent proof of efficiency, for our railroads to be able to point to the fact that eight million people have been trans-ported to Philadelphia from every portion of the country, over a period of six months, and but one casualty wherein life was lost had occurred ! Eleven years ago, these eight million people were engaged in a bitter and terrible inter necine war. Now, great national gatherings have taken place day after day, unmarred by a word of sectional strife or ill feeling. For three years the nation has been suffering under a shrinkage of values and a financial stress which has brought ruin to thousands, and of which no one has escaped the evil effects. Yet despite all the privations and suffering incident thereto, a vast national enterprise has not only been successfully carried through, but has included such a representation of the fruits of American industry and genius as has never before been seen. Gradually historical research and archaeological investiga-tion came in to discover and imperfectly bridge over enor-mous gaps in the history once thought complete; highly im-portant events were found to have been lost track of; during long periods of time no records had been kept, and of records carefully made only disconnected fragments have survived ; unmentioned or falsely mentioned empires were found to have flourished side by side with those which had professed to be not only the people but the only people of their day, while others a little further off wore utterly unknown. Splendid civilizations, lasting many centuries, had contribu-ted nothing to the written chronicles of the nations whose records remained ; and others which had apparently burst in full panoply upon the gaze of an astonished world, were found to have had their beginning in barbarism, and to have slowly risen to the lofty stage at which history had formerly found them. Still more fatal to the ancient view of universal history were the discoveries that, at the generally accepted date of man's beginning, Egypt was in her decline, the grandeur of her civilization having, reached its culmination before Satan talked with Eve in the garden, and that other parts of the world which, had been accounted historically blank could show, like China and Peru, the remains of civilization cer-tainly as ancient as that of Egypt. Then geology came forward to show that the six thousand years of Hebrew chronology, or the doubly extended chro-nology of Egypt, covered but a minute fraction of the time since man made his first recognized appearance on our globe, and that all we know of human history is as nothing com-pared with the unrecorded ages of which we only know that man existed. Evidence of the gaps in the story of human-ity, gaps of enormous duration, are indeed overwhelming. Evidence of what man was doing during those ages is for the most part nil. It is possible, however, to bridge over some of those periods by inferences which cannot be consid-ered wholly illegitimate. We know that, back of every civi-lization which has been critically studied (no matter how ab-ruptly that civilization may have first seemed to come upon the stage of history),there have been found evidences of low-er and still lower culture. In some cases it has been possible to trace the successive steps of progress almost continuously from barbarism upward, and everywhere the drift of evi-dence touching early races is such as to justify the convic-tion that civilization has always been a product of human effort and time. Even when the antecedents of a civiliza-tion are lost entirely, we still know enough of human devel-opment not to believe that the nation began when and as it first appeared on the stage of history. All this is now common place enough, we are well aware; and it would be unworthy of serious rehearsal here were it not for the instructive parallel which may be drawn between it and the historical interpretation of the equally intermit-tent and fragmentary records of geology, touching which there is still a great deal of misunderstanding. In the early days of geological observation, men proceeded just as they had done in the case of human history. It was assumed that the rocks contained a divinely appointed re- 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777Centennial exhibition, close of 336 Centennial notes 345 Centennial revives business, the 341 Centennial, the closing of the 345 Centennial, the Corliss engine" 340 Pottery display, the French Practical mechanism—No. 15" Putty, removing Railways and locomotives. Records, intermittent, etc 3,15 341 346 339 336 Chairs, common sense 342 Safe, fireproof and burglarproof.*338 Chloroform in sleep 338 Salt bluffs of Nevada 337 Collodion, removing (14) 317 Scientific apparatus, French 345 Condenser, duction coil (17).... 347 Silver-plating solution (13). 347 Counter ge'a or lathes* Electrotypi insects, etc is; 342 341 Soapstone, dissolving (19) Stars, the twinkling of the 347 343 Enameled cooking vessels 338 Stereoscope, the '337 Encyclopaedia, Appleton's 343 Sun's inotion,the,and the weather 340 Engine, the Centennial Corliss 340 Tapestry, French 345 Evolution, thoughts on 345 Time drop for clocks" 338 Fay & Co.'s exhibit* 335, 344 Tortoiseshell scraps (10) 347 Fertilizers, potash and bone (9) .. 347 Wagon wheel, weight on a (1) 347 _Fire, in case of 338 Water supply for towns 341 Fish culture 145 Weather and the sun's motion.... 340 Fish, twin 345 Weight at poles and equator (6) .. 347 Fox fire (11) 347 Weights and measures 345 Gaslights, the inventor of 341 Wire rope, origin of 341 Glass and lead (18) 347 Woodworking machinery* ...335, 344 Glass plates, large 345 Wool and hair, detection of 346 THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT. Vol. II., No. 48. For the Week ending November 2591876. TABLE OF CONTENTS. I. THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876. With 12 illustrations.—Exhibits of Molding and Founding ; Apparatus for Sweeping Prismatic and Circular Patterns, Ring and Polygonal Figures; Ornamental Fig-ures; Swept Patterns of Various Shades; Apparatus for Sweeping Gear Wheel Patterns; for Forming and Adjusting the Teeth; for Soft Metal Patterns; for Cast Iron Beams .—Exhibits of Rock Drills, The Burleigh Drill II. ENG(NEERING AND MECHANICS.—The Great Suspension Bridge between New York and Brooklyn, with 4 illustrations.—Description of the Mode of Making and Laying the Cables, the Cradles, and Tempo-rary Foot Bridge.—Phosphor _Bronze, a valuable paper, showing its Uses, with Tables of its Comparative Strength.—The Use of the Mag-netic Needle in Searching for Iron Ore, by Professor J. C. SMOCK, Showing the Magnetism of Mineral Rocks, the Styles of Compass best suited for Exploration of the Ground Surface, Methods of Use, Manner of Surveying. etc. A valuable and interesting paper.--Compass Cor-rections of Iron Ships, by SIR WILLIAM TllomsoN.—Report of the Western Union. Telegraph Company ; Progress of Pneumatic Tubes in New York.—The Copper Deposits of America, by T. STERRY HUNT. — The Process of Hydraulic Mining at Dutch f lat.—Spring Motors, with 5 figures.—Plan for Street Car Propelled by Rubber Springs, 2 figures.—Combined Spring Motor,by C.J.SCHUMACHER, 3 figures.—Natural Gas.— Water Railways, with 4 illustrations.—The Proposed Road Locomotive, 330 feet long, 125 feet high, intended to run on the bottom of the En-glish Channel,between _France and England,2 figures.—The Water Rail-way now in operation at St. Malo, France, 2 engravings.—The New 100 Tun Gun made for the Italian Government, 1 engraving.—Trials of the New 81-tun Gun, England. How the 81-tun Gun was Made, with 8 fig-ures.—Oils and Fat Destructive to Iron.—Centroids and their Applica-tion to Mechanical Problems.—A Steam Lamp.—Experiments on the Turning of Screw Steamers, by Professor OSBORNE REYNOLDS.—New Standards of Weights and Measures, by Professor HENNESSY. III. TECHNOLOGY.—Manufacture of Artificial Butter, by Henry A. Mott, Jr., E. M. Ph. D. of New York, with six engravings. Being a full De-scription of the Method of Manufacture, Apparatus, Cost and Profits• A full and valuable paper, clearly explaining the entire process.—Aciion of Alcohol on the Brain.—A New Voltaic Cell, paper read before the British Association, by C. H. W. BRIGGS.—Professor Bell's Speaking Telegraph. Specimens of Conversation as Carried on Over Telegraph Wires.—Photographs upon an Enamel or Porcelain. Newton's New Process for Photo-Emulsion Plates.—How to Use Photographic Back-'rounds, by L. W. SEAVEY, of New York, with fourteen illustrations. Professor Seavey is the acknowledged master of the art of producing and using photo-backgrounds; and in this paper he fully explains the methods adapted for the production of the best practical effects in pho-tographic portraiture. Every artist should read this valuable paper. IV. LESSONS IN MECHANICAL DRAWING, No. 28. By Professor C. W. MACCORD, with 10 illustrations. The Scientific American Supplement is a distinctive publication issued weekly ; every number contains 16 oc-tavo pages, with handsome cover, uniform in size with SCIENTIFIC AMERI-CAN. Terms of subscription for SUPPLEMENT, $5.00 a year, postage paid, to subscribers. Single copies, 10 cents. Sold by all news dealers through-out the country. To SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUBSCRIBERS WHO WISH TO TAKE THE SUPPLE-MENT.—A subscriber to the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN may change at any time uo the SUPPLEMENT, or may have both papers sent to him, by remitting to us the difference between the amount already paid for the SCIENTIFIC AMERI-CAN and the SUPPLEMENT prices above mentioned. Remit by postal order. Address COMBINED RATES.—The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SCIENTIFIC AMER-ICAN SUPPLEMENT will be sent together for one year, postage free to sub-Scribers, on receipt of $7.00. All tne numbers 01 tilt SUPPLEMENT from its commencement, January 1, 1876, can be supplied ; subscriptions date with No. 1 unless otherwise or-dered. MUNN & CO., PUBLISHERS, 37 Park Now, New York. 1111r Single copies of any desired number of the SUPPLEMENT sent DO any address on receipt of 10 cents. million people were engaged in a bitter and terrible inter necine war. Now, great national gatherings have taken place day after day, unmarred by a word of sectional strife or ill feeling. For three years the nation has been suffering under a shrinkage of values and a financial stress which has brought ruin to thousands, and of which no one has escaped the evil effects. Yet despite all the privations and suffering incident thereto, a vast national enterprise has not only been successfully carried through, but has included such a representation of the fruits of American industry and genius as has never before been seen. While we cannot yet point to special results due to the Centennial, we may at least be assured that it has imparted to our people a valuable and healthy appreciation of the " goodness which lieth abroad." Its tendency has been to break down that bulwark of intolerance and self-sufficiency which Brother Jonathan too often deems in accordance with his independent notions of self-sovereignty, and which has caused him to depreciate the productions of older na-tions. On the other hand, it has opened the eyes o f the world to the fact that we are ready to compete for prece-dence in the trade in certain products, hitherto monopolized abroad, notably our steel, our porcelain, our cotton goods, and our silks. We have also learned to compare our own work with that done in Europe; and having found where we are excelled as well as where we excel, we have stored up a stock of ideas, sure to bear rich fruit in the future. In these ideas and thoughts suggested, in extended com-merce due to the closer intercourse with, and hence better knowledge attained of, other nations, in the consequent im-petus to our industries and educational systems, and in a broader cosmopolitan spirit diffused over the whole country, do we look for the best results yet to be gained from the Centennial Exposition. INTERMITTENT RECORDS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION A few years ago, men wrote universal history with the utmost precision and confidence, as though the doings and developments of humanity, during all ages and in every part of the world, were perfectly known. The threads of human history, so far as then possessed, plainly converged toward a little tract of country east of the Mediterranean Sea; and believing that the Scriptures contained a divinely inspired account of man's origin there, men not unreasona-bly inferred that all the world outside their knowledge was actually or practically blank. But for the past half century, intelligent people have ceased to entertain that view, except with great and various modifications, determined by a more or less honest desire to maintain the integrity of the scrip-tural record. As soon as the matter began to be critically investigated, it became very clear that, so far from being complete and continuous, the chronicles which had been woven so often into exhaustive histories, were disconnected and fragmentary, extremely limited in scope, and wretched-ly deficient every way. Even when fullest, they gave but scanty information of the daily lives of the people, the move-ments of nations, the rise of empires, the progress of inven-tion and discovery, indeed of everything now considered most valuable and important, historically considered. opment not to believe that the nation began when and as it first appeared on the stage of history. All this is no w common place enough, we are well aware; and it would be unworthy of serious rehearsal here were it not for the instructive parallel which may be drawn between it and the historical interpretation of the equally intermit-tent and fragmentary records of geology, touching which there is still a great deal of misunderstanding. In the early days of geological observation, men proceeded just as they had done in the case of human history. It was assumed that the rocks contained a divinely appointed re-cord of the earth's history, from which men could gather an exhaustive knowledge of the whole earth's experience. The strata of England and Western Europe were studied with great enthusiasm; their relative ages were determined, and their fossil remains were arranged according to the assumed order of their creation, with more or less forcing to make them tally with the Mosaic days. Everything seemed straightfor-ward and easy. If fish appeared in great numbers in one stratum, it was because they were created then and there ; if monstrous lizards swarmed suddenly in another, it was be-cause a new chapter had been begun in the geologic history; and so on to the minutest detail. But as knowledge increased by the study of outlying stra-ta, grave doubts began to arise with regard to the complete-ness of the supposed "perfect.' record and the correctness of previous interpretations. The times of "first" beginnings had to be pushed back again and again. Formations supposed to have succeeded each other immediately were found else-where to be separated by deposits of vast thickness, requir-ing enormous periods of time for their deposition. Creatures supposed to have come suddenly into being in one age were found to have existed at periods immensely more ancient. Gaps were discovered where none lead been suspected; broad distinctions of age and formation were ruthlessly wiped out; and as the work went on, it became more and more apparent that the classifications and chronologic schemes, which had been so confidently adopted, were largely misleading or meaningless. To those who studied geology in books, the completeness and continuity of the geologic record remained undoubted; to those, however, who were engaged in the study of the record itself, its intermittent and fragmentary nature was most apparent. It was seen that only under rare and exceptionally favorable conditions was it possible that any record of life could be made. It was only under still more exceptional conditions that the record, if made, could be preserved. And when the limited scope of geological investigation was taken into the account, the absurdity, of the early deductions considered as comprehensive and ex-haustive, became ludicrously plain. Yet when Mr. Darwin appealed to the imperfection of the geologic record, closet geologists everywhere raised a great laugh of derision, as thought he had invented the plea to cover the weakness of his case. Public opinion on this point had indeed to under-go the same course of instruction and enlightenment that we have noticed in connection with the history of man, a course which it has not yet by any means completed. Even men who consider themselves competent to discuss publicly the deeper problems of geology, evolution, and so on, not un-
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