page heading
Scientific-American-1876
J. A. FAY & CO.'S EXHIBIT OF WOODWORKING MACHINERY AT THE CENTENNIAL.
2nd page heading pic1t $--> https://antiquemachinery.com/images-scientific-american/Scientific-American-1-1874-pg-69-bott.jpeg $--> pic1b
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 344
A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. Vol. xxx     -No . 22.1 NEW SERIES. NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 25, 1876.
3.20 per Annum. POSTAGE PRE-PAID .
  page 344 Scientific American. Continued from first page. The large engraving which occupies our initial page this week represents one of the most complete exhibits in the whole magnificent array of woodworking machinery. It is that of Messrs.
J. A. Fay & Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, with many of whose excellent machines our readers are already familiar through the illustrated descriptions which have appeared in these columns. In the manufacture of these implements, extensive experience, talent, and the greatest care are brought to bear. All shafts and turned fittings are fin-ished to standard sizes, sore ws are turned, heads and threads made on a regular system, holes are bored and tapped exactly to correspond, every revolving part is carefully and accurately balanced, all bearings are reamed and scraped, none but the best materials are used, and finally a rigid trial and inspection renders each machine, before issuing from the factory, in the best possible condition. The implements exhibited at the Centennial are by no means all of the dif-ferent productions of Messrs. J. A. Fay & Co., but are selec-ted with much discrimination, so as to typify generally the variety manufactured by this firm. We describe them be-low in detail, referring to each, as will be seen, by a distin-guishing number placed on the engraving.
THE NO. 6 PLANING, MATCHING, AND BEADING MACHINE is marked 1 in the illustration. It is claimed to be the most important implement of the class displayed, on account of its admirable construction and the speed with which it fin-ishes the work it is designed to accomplish. The principal advantages are enumerated as follows : There are 6 feed rolls, 8 inches in diameter. The weight of the No. 6 machine is 10,600 lbs. , and it surfaces two sides 24 inches wide, 64 inches thick, and matches 14 inches thick. For a more detailed description, the reader is referred to page 147, Volume XXXV of the SCTENTIFIC AMERICAN.
At No. 2 in the engraving is represented
NO. 4 LARGE SIZE OUTSIDE PATENT MOLDING MACHINE. This will work any size of molding up to 9 inches wide, also plane, match, and bead narrow flooring, etc. The main spindle is 11 inches in diameter, provided with an outside bearing ; it is made from best English cast steel, and runs in patent self-oiling boxes,lined with the lining metal. The side spindles have patent setf-oiling steps and bearings, and ad-just vertically. The outer spindle adjusts laterally, and swings to any angle desired. The inside vertical spindle is arranged to adjust to and from the stuff, without altering the cutters. The under cylinder has a vertical movement, also a peculiar arrangement enabling the operator to take a greater or less cut without altering the cutters. The cylin-der is combined with the rear bed, and is adjusted on the main bed, the false or rear bed moving with the cylinder, making it very convenient to adjust. The feed works are driven by improved gearing, which is heavily weighted, and has two changes of speed. The feed rolls are hung in swinging cranes, and, by the means of a lever at the rear of the machine, are instantly elevated from the stuff, when it is desired to withdraw it before passing the cutter heads. capable of performing the work of several machines. It is adapted to planing out of wind, surfacing straight or tapered work, rabbeting door frames, etc., rabbeting and facing in-side blinds, jointing, beveling, gaining, chamfering, plow-ing, making glue joints, squaring up bed posts, table legs, newels, etc., raising panels, either square, bevel, or ogee, sticking beads, working circular molding, ripping, cross-cutting, tenoning, etc. When facing or planing out of wind, the vertical and lat-eral adjustments can be made simultaneously, thus constant-ly retaining the proper distance between periphery of cut and the edge of table. All of the different functions of the machine are secured by the use of two tables. For sawing, an extra table can be inserted between the other two, making a solid and continuous saw table. The arbor is of steel, of large diameter, and revolves in bearings supported on the column. One bearing is cast solidly to the column, and the other is movable, and is readily detachable for the purpose of substituting different heads. This is a very advantageous feature. Another combination, possessing a still wider range of capabilities, is depicted at
6. This is the NEW PATENT UNIVERSAL WOOD WORKER, claimed to be the only wood worker built in which both sides may be operated, and either side started or stopped without interfering with the other. As a planer, it is adapted for ordinary surfacing and thicknessing, planing out of wind, surfacing square, beveling, or tapering pieces, facing up bevels and baluster, etc. As a molding machine, it will work moldings, either simple or complex, up to 8 or 9 inches in width, stick sash and doors, tongue and groove ; and on the wood worker side it will produce waved, oval, elliptical, circular, and serpentine and rope or twist mold-ings. Among its other uses are chamfering, cornering, rab-beting and jointing window blinds, gaining, panel-raising on one or both sides, tenoning, ripping, cross cutting, groov-ing, hand matching, making glue and table joints, miter ing, nosing, squaring up, and a multiplicity- of other opera tions limited only by the skill of the operator. The molder and wood worker sides are securely connected upon one solid column with a substantial base, and the two sides of the machine are driven from one countershaft,which conveys power either separately or simultaneously. The molding side is so arranged as to form a complete four-side molder. The side spindles are fixed to and move with the table, which has a vertical movement of 16 inches. The feeding rolls are arranged for fast or slow feed. The wood worker side is constructed on the same princi-ple and embraces the same general features as the patent variety wood worker above described. At 7 we represent the NO. 3 SASH AND DOOR TENONING MACHINE, adapted for sash and door, cabinet, wheel, car, and railroad shops. The upper and lowe
r cutter heads are adjustable so as to vary the thickness of the tenon or depth of shoulder, the carriage remaining stationary. Gages and stops with ;NUMBER 25, 1876. PATENT BAND II IINA WIN11 MACIIINE It will re-saw luml 6 inches in thickness of re-splitting. It h the side of a plank, soft wood. Its work fifteen thousand feet width of material. and a saving of 20 p fected, shown by the two I inch panels, p] from 1 inch lumber, ber is required. The wheels are 5 feet in diameter, and the dletittuie be-tween their centers is such that there is but a corn pa rat' vcly small portion of the saw blade left unsupported, and there is consequently less liability to deviate from a straight eon rt-10. The upper wheel revolves on a 2-1 inch shaft running in long self-oiling bearings, has a vertical adjustment of 13 inches, and can be adjusted so that the saw will run at any desired point on its periphery. The feed rolls are connected by expansion gears, operated by friction. This friction is operated by a shaft connected with a lever in front of the column, by different movements of which the feed is instantly started or stopped, and grad-uated from fine to coarse. The feed is strong and powerful, and is under complete and immediate control of the opera-tor. There are also improved devices for cleaning the saw, etc. For full particulars, the reader is referred to the de-scription previously published in these columns. The ma-chine represented at 12 is a MI Inelwe in width, and from the thinnest stuff that admits %Iwo(' tor sewing boards from tinily well adapted for hard or wily Is saliI to from ten to depondinp: on the kind and v !Corr Is about inch thick, n lumbor Is 4.1alnuel to be ef-Lt, the, %IMO of tide machine, both shims, V11.11 hi, produced by other methods, mi :ing cape per day, The say er cent i fact thc Laned on whereas,
PATENT COMBINATION EDGING AND RIPPING SAW TABLE. designed for edging and ripping up lumber for the flooring machine. It is claimed to have all the advantages of a good self feed edging saw; and at the same time, the feet can be thrown off and the stuff passed by the saw in the ordinary manner. By a novel device, when slitting lumber, the oper-ator is enabled to elevate the saw so as to just cut through the board, thus economizing the power by a reduction of the friction on the saw, presenting a better cutting angle of the teeth, and consequently making a smoother cut and re-quiring less sharpening of the teeth. The fence or gage has a parallel movement of 8 inches, and is quickly adjust-ed for different widths without the necessity of measuring, the table being provided with a gage spaced into inches and parts of an inch. It is also provided with a binder pulley, hung in a swing-ing frame, operated from the front of the machine by means of a rod and handle by which it can be raised or lowered to slacken or tighten the belt, and thus stop or start the saw. The machine will make a straight cut without any guide,by simply letting the feed roll take the board through as started. This feature will be appreciated when sawing boards with a crooked edge, which require straightening before other strips can be sawn from them.
Continued on page 344.

also a peculiar arrangement enabling the operator to take a greater or less cut without altering the cutters. The cylin-der is combined with the rear bed, and is adjusted on the main bed, the false or rear bed moving with the cylinder, making it very convenient to adjust. The feed works are driven by improved gearing, which is heavily weighted, and has two changes of speed. The feed rolls are hung in swinging cranes, and, by the means of a lever at the rear of the machine, are instantly elevated from the stuff, when it is desired to withdraw it before passing the cutter heads. The bed drop is 13 inches. The machine is furnished with pressure bars, springs, steel wrenches, guides, and every thing needed for speedy adjustments. It is made to work either 3 or 4 sides, as may be desired, of 8, 9, and 10 inches wide or under. THE NO. 2 INSIDE PATENT MOLDING MACHINE, WITH BEAD-ING ATTACHMENT, is represented at 3. This machine will work moldings on one or both sides, 12 inches wide and under, and up to 5 inches in thickness, also plane, tongue, groove, and bead 12 inches wide. The cutters may be set at varying angles and are capable of sticking any style of molding, by using cutters on all four sides, thus equalizing the cut and utilizing the power. The under cylinder has a vertical adjustment, graduated to differ-ent thicknesses of cut while in motion; and by simple loos-ening one bolt, the pressure bar and stands can be swung en-tirely clear of the cylinder, giving free access to the cutters for purposes of sharpening or adjusting. A patent beading attachment upon the pressure bar, over the under cylinder, gages the depth of the bead from the surface of the board, thus securing an automatic adjustment of the beading shaft at all times. The upright spindles can be moved vertically or horizon-tally while in motion, the outer spindle to any angle de-sired. Devices are provided for preventing the possibility of movement after the heads are brought to the desired posi-tion; and there is a chip breaker for holding the fiber of the wood while the side cuts are being made. An equal pres-sure is maintained on the lumber being worked, regardless of any equalities in the thickness. The rolls are connected by expansion gearing, which allows the upper roll to adapt itself to the varying angles on irregularly sawn lumber. At 3 is represented the PATENT CARVING AND PANELING MACHINE, the object of which is to produce carvings and recessed or relieved panels on the surface of lumber, edge molding, or-namenting, fret and bracket work, etc. It is especially adapted for fine furniture, coffin and piano manufactories, etc. A hollow iron column gives an ample support for the cutter spindle and also for the table, which is adjusted and regulated to form the required depth of moldings or carvings by means of hand wheel and screw, and has sufficient ver-tical movement to admit of working stuff of four inches thick and under. THE NO. 2 VARIETY WOOD WORKER is represented at 5. This is one of those remarkable tools I lit, LUIZ/11111g 1 VIM VA, IU11augeu 1 VI W. ZIA/ W 1 The wood worker side is constructed on the same princi-ple and embraces the same general features as the patent variety wood worker above described. At 7 we represent the NO. 3 SASH AND DOOR TENONING MACHINE, adapted for sash and door, cabinet, wheel, car, and railroad shops. The upper and lower cutter heads are adjustable so as to vary the thickness of the tenon or depth of shoulder, the carriage remaining stationary. Gages and stops with the carriage render setting out unnecessary. The copes are raised and lowered with the cutter heads, but may be inde pendently set. Both cope and cutter head shafts are pro tected against endwise vibration. The upper cutter head is arranged to cut one shoulder of the tenon longer if desired, saw spurs are used in lieu of knife spurs, and the cutters operate with a drawing stroke. There is a binding pulley which keeps the belt right and self-adjusting, and the bon-net may be conveniently swung back out of the way to afford access to the cutters. The ELLIS PATENT BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE, shown at 8, is adapted to any length or width of slat, work-ing both ends, cutting the shoulder and rounding the tenons simultaneously at one and at the same operation. The ma-chine, which has a hand feed, is provided with two adjusta-ble arbors and frames, carrying a set of circular saws for forming the shoulder and rounding the tenon. Connected to the arbor frames are revolving disks, into which the slat is inserted and rotated in contact with the saws or cutting tools. We are informed that it is capable of working 20,000 slats per day. At 9 is shown the PATENT SELF-FEED BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE, which differs from the machine last described. It differs somewhat from the Ellis machine, as the slat is fed endwise through rotating chucks, the shoulder being pressed against an adjustable gage for regulating the length of slat. By the peculiar construction of the revolving cutting tools, two tenons are cut and divided with one cutter head, simulta-neously and at one operation. A pressure upon the treadle causes a rotation of the slat, and at the same time depresses the chucks, carrying the slat against the cutting tools, ena-bling them to form a perfect tenon on each end. It will work any length of slat from 11 inches up to 24 inches, and will make any size of tenon desired. TWO PATENT BAND SAWING MACHINES are depicted in the engraving, one for ordinary curve saw-ing, the other (10) intended for the furniture, wagon, sash and door,and agricultural shops,etc. An important feature is the method of keeping 1 he saw at its proper tension, allow-ing at the same time some flexibility to the parts, to com-pensate for any sudden impact, and prevent breaking of the saws by buckling or friction upon the back or sides. There is also a shipper with frictional brake for arresting the saw motion, and the table is provided with irregular adjustment for bevel sawing. At 11 is represented a parts of an inch. It is also provided with a binder pulley, hung in a swing-ing frame, operated from the front of the machine by means of a rod and handle by which it can be raised or lowered to slacken or tighten the belt, and thus stop or start the saw. The machine will make a straight cut without any guide,by simply letting the feed roll take the board through as started. This feature will be appreciated when sawing boards with a crooked edge, which require straightening before other strips can be sawn from them. In order to meet the need of a cheap and good boring ma chine, for either straight or angular boring, the UNIVERSAL HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE, represented at 13, has been designed. The table is adjustable for boring at any desired upward or downward angle and the fence for any lateral angle. The traversing steel spindle is operated by means of a pow-erful jointed treadle, fitted with an improved step, which is provided with a steel point, forming a bearing for the end of the spindle, thus greatly reducing the wear, caused by the spindle pressing against a shoulder. The treadle has a weighted counterbalance, giving a quick return to the spin-dle. The spindle is fitted with cone pulley, with three changes of speed,and adjusting collars to graduate the depth of the hole to be bored. At 14 is shown a novel PATENT BAND SAW SETTING AND FILING MACHINE, which, it is claimed, will set an ordinary band saw blade in three minutes, more accurately than can be done by hand in an hour. The saw being adjusted, the wheels are set far enough apart to straighten the blade, which is then pinched by a cam and wedges. The dies are set on the points of the teeth,and are adjusted with set screws on top. This sets the points over without bending them at the roots, pre-venting the warping of the saw which is liable to occur in setting by hand. Lastly at 15 we illustrate a HAND AND POWER FEED SURFACE PLANING MACHINE. This is provided with steel-lipped cylinder, pressure bar, shaving bonnet, and adjustable tables. It will surface 24 inches wide up to 6 inches in thickness. This completes our list of machines, which, as embodi-ments of the new and ingenious devices, and as showing ad-mirable adaptation to their several purposes, may justly be regarded as representing the best work of both inventor and manufacturer. It is hardly necessary to add that their su-perior qualities are appreciated in foreign countries as well as in our own, and that the large trade which their maker now control, with Japan, Australia, South America, Enf land, New Zealand, and elsewhere, is one which reflect great credit upon our home industries. The machines have received the largest premiums at local fairs in this country, a medal at the Vienna Exposition, 'a medal for excel-lence and superiority at the late Chilian Exposition, Santia-go, Chili, South America, and also medal of honor and spe-cial commendatory reports from the Centennial jurors of awards.

 
pic 2 top https://antiquemachinery.com/images-scientific-american/Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p-344-top-Inside-patent-Monding-Machine-sash-and-door-Tendoning-machine.jpeg $--> https://antiquemachinery.com/images-scientific-american/Scientific-American-12-1-1900-20833-bot-RICE-Supplement-No1300-Leakage-Detecting-forgeries-on-paper-60x60-per.jpg $--> $--> https://antiquemachinery.com/images-scientific-american/Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p-344-bot-Inside-patent-Monding-Machine-sash-and-door-Tendoning-machine.jpeg $-->

 
$--> https://antiquemachinery.com/images-scientific-american/Scientific-American-12-1-1900-20833-bot-RICE-Supplement-No1300-Leakage-Detecting-forgeries-on-paper-60x60-per.jpg $--> pic1b
2frequently show their unfamiliarity with Nature by repeat-ing the old objections to any admission of breaks in the re-cord of the rocks, apparently unconscious that the pre-sent scope of geological knowledge is as limited, geographi-cally viewed, as the range of universal history was a century ago, or that it is simply absurd to argue as though what is ►own of the earth's history is the whole of that history, Even if we had, duly arranged in our cabinets, every fossil the world contains, we should still fall as far short of a con-nected history of life as our libraries do of a history of humanity. From the necessary conditions of the case, it is and must al ways be simply presumptuous to make sweeping asser-tions of what may or may not have been, in the absence of positive evidence. We can only assume that the unknown most probably conformed to the known in general character : that, if there is found in any region a sudden accession of vestiges of high civilization, it is more likely that a civi-lized people suddenly invaded that country and took posses-sion of it, as the whites have this country, than that a pe-culiar civilization came suddenly into existence by direct creation. And similarly, if we find a stratum of rock sud-denly (geologically speaking) filled with the remains of a higher form of life than the underlying strata showed, it is more reasonable to attribute the change to migrations, such as we have evidence of, than to creations, of which we have no evidence. And when all the evidence we have points to the evolution of higher types of civilization or of life from lower types: and since we know that, in our histories of earth and man, the unrecorded periods clearly exceed enor-mously in duration those of which we have even partial records; it is altogether more prudent to be modestly guided by the known than to give ourselves up, as the unscientific are prone to do, to wild imaginations and the traditions of those whose means of knowledge were demonstrably inferior to ours.

THE STEREOSCOPE.
We are indebted to the late Sir Charles Wheatstone for a series of investigations on binocular vision, which finally culminated in the invention of that now very popular little apparatus, the stereoscope. It was in 1823 that Wheatstone called attention to a fact until then hardly noticed, namely, that the perception of relief in objects is the result of the superposition of the images, one on each eye ; but these im-ages slightly differ from each other. The mind, guided by the experience of many years, receives in this way the im-pression of various distances ; and Wheatstone discovered that this impression may also be given to the mind by two pictures if each is drawn so as to correspond,respectively, to the image received by each eye. In order to prove this, Wheatstone invented the stereoscope. Considered from the standpoint of pure Science (apart from its practical applica-tion for amusement, instruction, and research, and the bi-nocular microscopes and telescopes that have grown out of it) this discovery of Wheatstone's is perhaps as interesting A recent application of the spectroscope, especially useful for the student of Science, consists in the reproduction of drawings of geometrical figures, illustrating the various forms used in the study of stereometry, such as the pro-jection of solids in descriptive geometry and spherical tri-gonometry, and especially in crystalography. In the latter science, it may be made especially useful, as, in this way, not only the crystals themselves, but also the forms result-ing from the interpenetration of two crystals, may be ex-plained better than can be done in any other way. The re-lation of various systems of crystalization, the transition of one form into another, the relation of the nucleus to ex-terior forms, the directions of cleavage, the position of axes of crystalization, the laws of double refraction, and various other more or less intricate subjects may thus be made sim-ple to the average understanding : and these studies may awaken some interest in this important subject, and sim-plify it to those who cannot afford to buy the expensive and bulky models of crystals. A number of stereoscopic pic-tures may thus be made equivalent to a collection of models costing as many dollars as the pictures cost cents.

ARTIFICIAL BUTTER.
There has been for some time past a prevalent impression that, if the manufacture of artificial butter has not died out, at least no product of this description is now industrial-ly made which has any standing in the market, or which cannot, by any one, be properly distinguished from the gen-uine article. It is true that the public, both in this country and more especially in England, has had placed before it in the newspapers more records of failures in artificial butter making than of the successful efforts therein; and these, to-gether with the popular prejudice which exists against the material, are sufficient, perhaps, to account for the general impression referred to. The facts, however, we are assured by competent authority, are altogether against any such con-clusion, for quite recently no less than fifty artificial butter factories were counted in this city; and large quantities of artificial butter are sold in the market by wholesale dealers, or are purchased direct from the manufactories by large re-tailers, and offered to the customer as genuine butter. There is, of course, a duplicity in this business which is re-prehensible; but if people cannot distinguish the made from the natural product, and if the former is, as reported by Professor Chandler, actually more healthful than the average cow butter sold, it would be difficult to prove any damages save to the moral sense to all, and to the over-qualmish pre-judices of a part, of the community. It will be seen furthermore that, the above being the case, the problem of succesfully producing the imitation product has been solved, and in that we may recognize an important step in scientific progress, which it is worth while to consider briefly in the light of previous efforts. As the successful process is based mainly on the invention of Hippolyte Mege, patented in this country in December 1873, the previous patents, obtained by Bradley in 1871, and by • " ,, Al __a. 1_1 T.1 stirred. After the scrap has settled, the clear yellow oil is drained off in cans, and left for from 12 to 24 hours in a room at 70° Fah. to granulate. The refined fat is now packed in cloth into small packages, about 8 inches long by 1+ inches thick by 4 inches wide, and these are placed on metal plates, and piled one above another in a press. Grad-ual pressure is applied, when the oil is driven out, and cakes of pure white stearin left. The oil, being cooled to 70° Fah., is next churned with sour milk, annatto. and soda, 100 lbs. of oil being used to 15 or 20 lbs. of milk, 3 ozs. of an-natto solution, and oz. of bicarbonate of soda. The mixture is agitated for ten or fifteen minutes, and then led into a tub of pounded ice, with which it is thoroughly mingled. This process completely removes the grain. After the ice melts, the solidified oil is crumbled, and 30 lbs. of it are in-troduced in a churn with 25 lbs. of churned sour milk. Here it takes up a percentage of the milk, as well as the but-ter flavor and odor. Lastly, the butter is worked and salted in the usual way, and is packed in firkins, etc., for the mar-ket. Hon. X. A. Willard, President of the New York State Dairymen's Association, an able butter expert, admits his surprise at the flavor, and declares the butter the best yet made. The cost of manufacture is about 13 cents a pound, the selling price 25 cents to wholesale dealers ; so that, so far as the saving is concerned, there is very little, over the cost of genuine butter. The economy, however, would doubt-less become manifest were the people willing to accept the material for what it is, and thus enable the industry to be-come established on a broader foundation. Dr. Mott's report on artificial butter, recently read before the Chemical Society of this city, contains complete details of his processes, together with a review of those previously patented, besides full chemical analyses, complete estimates, and plans for a factory capable of producing 500 lbs. of but-- ter daily, and drawings of apparatus, etc. This valuable pa-per, too lengthy for these columns, appears in full in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, Nos. 48 and 49, cur-rent volume.

THE SALT BLUFFS OP VIRGIN RIVER, NEVAIA.
The mineral wealth of Nevada is by no means confined, as many may suppose, to Big Bonanzas and similar stores of precious metal hid within its seemingly barren moun-tains. In many places its sterile plains—the beds of recent-ly evaporated seas—are underlaid with extensive strata of cruder though possibly not less important commodities, among which common salt is certainly not the least valu-able. Perhaps the most important of the formations of this character are the vast deposits of rock salt along the valley of the Rio Virgin, in the southeastern corner of the State. Their discovery is quite recent. Lieutenant Wheeler, in charge of the survey of the region west of the 100th meri-dian, first visited their neighborhood in 1869, and again two years later, at which time the only indication of their pres can(..' n nintlarca fn it Arn /1..11 n r•Tivir,ioa tmr‘Al THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT. Vol. II., No. 48.


For the Week ending November 25 9 1876. TABLE OF CONTENTS. I. THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876.
With 12 illustrations.—Exhibits of Molding and Founding ; Apparatus for Sweeping Prismatic and Circular Patterns, Ring and Polygonal Figures; Ornamental Fig-ures; Swept Patterns of Various Shades; Apparatus for Sweeping Gear Wheel Patterns; for Forming and Adjusting the Teeth; for Soft Metal Patterns; for Cast Iron Beams .—Exhibits of Rock Drills, The Burleigh Drill II. ENG(NEERING AND MECHANICS.—The Great Suspension Bridge between New York and Brooklyn, with 4 illustrations.—Description of the Mode of Making and Laying the Cables, the Cradles, and Tempo-rary Foot Bridge.—Phosphor _Bronze, a valuable paper, showing its Uses, with Tables of its Comparative Strength.—The Use of the Mag-netic Needle in Searching for Iron Ore, by Professor J. C. SMOCK, Showing the Magnetism of Mineral Rocks, the Styles of Compass best suited for Exploration of the Ground Surface, Methods of Use, Manner of Surveying. etc. A valuable and interesting paper.--Compass Cor-rections of Iron Ships, by SIR WILLIAM TllomsoN.—Report of the Western Union. Telegraph Company ; Progress of Pneumatic Tubes in New York.—The Copper Deposits of America, by T. STERRY HUNT. — The Process of Hydraulic Mining at Dutch f lat.—Spring Motors, with 5 figures.—Plan for Street Car Propelled by Rubber Springs, 2 figures.—Combined Spring Motor,by C.J.SCHUMACHER,
\ 3 figures.—Natural Gas.— Water Railways, with 4 illustrations.—The Proposed Road Locomotive, 330 feet long, 125 feet high, intended to run on the bottom of the En-glish Channel,between _France and England,2 figures.—The Water Rail-way now in operation at St. Malo, France, 2 engravings.—The New 100 Tun Gun made for the Italian Government, 1 engraving.—Trials of the New 81-tun Gun, England. How the 81-tun Gun was Made, with 8 fig-ures.—Oils and Fat Destructive to Iron.—Centroids and their Applica-tion to Mechanical Problems.—A Steam Lamp.—Experiments on the Turning of Screw Steamers, by Professor OSBORNE REYNOLDS.—New Standards of Weights and Measures, by Professor HENNESSY. III.
TECHNOLOGY.—Manufacture of Artificial Butter, by Henry A. Mott, Jr., E. M. Ph. D. of New York, with six engravings. Being a full De-scription of the Method of Manufacture, Apparatus, Cost and Profits• A full and valuable paper, clearly explaining the entire process.—Aciion of Alcohol on the Brain.—A New Voltaic Cell, paper read before the British Association, by C. H. W. BRIGGS.—Professor Bell's Speaking Telegraph. Specimens of Conversation as Carried on Over Telegraph Wires.—Photographs upon an Enamel or Porcelain. Newton's New Process for Photo-Emulsion Plates.—How to Use Photographic Back-'rounds, by L. W. SEAVEY, of New York, with fourteen illustrations. Professor Seavey is the acknowledged master of the art of producing and using photo-backgrounds; and in this paper he fully explains the methods adapted for the production of the best practical effects in pho-tographic portraiture. Every artist should read this valuable paper. IV. LESSONS IN MECHANICAL DRAWING, No. 28. By Professor C. W. MACCORD, with 10 illustrations. The Scientific American Supplement is a distinctive publication issued weekly ; every number contains 16 oc-tavo pages, with handsome cover, uniform in size with SCIENTIFIC AMERI-CAN. Terms of subscription for SUPPLEMENT, $5.00 a year, postage paid, to subscribers. Single copies, 10 cents. Sold by all news dealers through-out the country. To SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUBSCRIBERS WHO WISH TO TAKE THE SUPPLE-MENT.—A subscriber to the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN may change at any time uo the SUPPLEMENT, or may have both papers sent to him, by remitting to us the difference between the amount already paid for the SCIENTIFIC AMERI-CAN and the SUPPLEMENT prices above mentioned. Remit by postal order. Address COMBINED RATES.—The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and SCIENTIFIC AMER-ICAN SUPPLEMENT will be sent together for one year, postage free to sub-Scribers, on receipt of $7.00. All tne numbers 01 tilt SUPPLEMENT from its commencement, January 1, 1876, can be supplied ; subscriptions date with No. 1 unless otherwise or-dered.

Gradually historical research and archaeological investiga-tion came in to discover and imperfectly bridge over enor-mous gaps in the history once thought complete; highly im-portant events were found to have been lost track of; during long periods of time no records had been kept, and of records
carefully made only disconnected fragments have survived ; unmentioned or falsely mentioned empires were found to have flourished side by side with those which had professed to be not only the people but the only people of their day, while others a little further off wore utterly unknown. Splendid civilizations, lasting many centuries, had contribu-ted nothing to the written chronicles of the nations whose records remained ; and others which had apparently burst in full panoply upon the gaze of an astonished world, were found to have had their beginning in barbarism, and to have slowly risen to the lofty stage at which history had formerly found them. Still more fatal to the ancient view of universal history were the discoveries that, at the generally accepted date of man's beginning, Egypt was in her decline, the grandeur of her civilization having, reached its culmination before Satan talked with Eve in the garden, and that other parts of the world which, had been accounted historically blank could show, like China and Peru, the remains of civilization cer-tainly as ancient as that of Egypt. Then geology came forward to show that the six thousand years of Hebrew chronology, or the doubly extended chro-nology of Egypt, covered but a minute fraction of the time since man made his first recognized appearance on our globe, and that all we know of human history is as nothing com-pared with the unrecorded ages of which we only know that man existed. Evidence of the gaps in the story of human-ity, gaps of enormous duration, are indeed overwhelming. Evidence of what man was doing during those ages is for the most part nil. It is possible, however, to bridge over some of those periods by inferences which cannot be consid-ered wholly illegitimate. We know that, back of every civi-lization which has been critically studied (no matter how ab-ruptly that civilization may have first seemed to come upon the stage of history),there have been found evidences of low-er and still lower culture. In some cases it has been possible to trace the successive steps of progress almost continuously from barbarism upward, and everywhere the drift of evi-dence touching early races is such as to justify the convic-tion that civilization has always been a product of human effort and time. Even when the antecedents of a civiliza-tion are lost entirely, we still know enough of human devel-opment not to believe that the nation began when and as it first appeared on the stage of history. All this is now common place enough, we are well aware; and it would be unworthy of serious rehearsal here were it not for the instructive parallel which may be drawn between it and the historical interpretation of the equally intermit-tent and fragmentary records of geology, touching which there is still a great deal of misunderstanding. In the early days of geological observation, men proceeded just as they had done in the case of human history. It was assumed that the rocks contained a divinely appointed re- 777777777777777 MUNN & CO., PUBLISHERS, 37 Park Now, New York. 1111r Single copies of any desired number of the SUPPLEMENT sent DO any address on receipt of 10 cents

. million people were engaged in a bitter and terrible inter necine war. Now, great national gatherings have taken place day after day, unmarred by a word of sectional strife or ill feeling. For three years the nation has been suffering under a shrinkage of values and a financial stress which has brought ruin to thousands, and of which no one has escaped the evil effects. Yet despite all the privations and suffering incident thereto, a vast national enterprise has not only been successfully carried through, but has included such a representation of the fruits of American industry and genius as has never before been seen. While we cannot yet point to special results due to the Centennial, we may at least be assured that it has imparted to our people a valuable and healthy appreciation of the " goodness which lieth abroad." Its tendency has been to break down that bulwark of intolerance and self-sufficiency which Brother Jonathan too often deems in accordance with his independent notions of self-sovereignty, and which has caused him to depreciate the productions of older na-tions. On the other hand, it has opened the eyes o f the world to the fact that we are ready to compete for prece-dence in the trade in certain products, hitherto monopolized abroad, notably our steel, our porcelain, our cotton goods, and our silks. We have also learned to compare our own work with that done in Europe; and having found where we are excelled as well as where we excel, we have stored up a stock of ideas, sure to bear rich fruit in the future. In these ideas and thoughts suggested, in extended com-merce due to the closer intercourse with, and hence better knowledge attained of, other nations, in the consequent im-petus to our industries and educational systems, and in a broader cosmopolitan spirit diffused over the whole country, do we look for the best results yet to be gained from the Centennial Exposition.

INTERMITTENT RECORDS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

A few years ago, men wrote universal history with the utmost precision and confidence, as though the doings and developments of humanity, during all ages and in every part of the world, were perfectly known. The threads of human history, so far as then possessed, plainly converged toward a little tract of country east of the Mediterranean Sea; and believing that the Scriptures contained a divinely inspired account of man's origin there, men not unreasona-bly inferred that all the world outside their knowledge was actually or practically blank. But for the past half century, intelligent people have ceased to entertain that view, except with great and various modifications, determined by a more or less honest desire to maintain the integrity of the scrip-tural record. As soon as the matter began to be critically investigated, it became very clear that, so far from being complete and continuous, the chronicles which had been woven so often into exhaustive histories, were disconnected and fragmentary, extremely limited in scope, and wretched-ly deficient every way. Even when fullest, they gave but scanty information of the daily lives of the people, the move-ments of nations, the rise of empires, the progress of inven-tion and discovery, indeed of everything now considered most valuable and important, historically considered.

opment not to believe that the nation began when and as it first appeared on the stage of history. All this is no w common place enough, we are well aware; and it would be unworthy of serious rehearsal here were it not for the instructive parallel which may be drawn between it and the historical interpretation of the equally intermit-tent and fragmentary records of geology, touching which there is still a great deal of misunderstanding. In the early days of geological observation, men proceeded just as they had done in the case of human history. It was assumed that the rocks contained a divinely appointed re-cord of the earth's history, from which men could gather an exhaustive knowledge of the whole earth's experience. The strata of England and Western Europe were studied with great enthusiasm; their relative ages were determined, and their fossil remains were arranged according to the assumed order of their creation, with more or less forcing to make them tally with the Mosaic days. Everything seeme

The Board of Physicians of the Neapolitan Hospital for Incurables have determined to build a hospital in the crater perimeter of any other figure. Airways should be as large and with as smooth a surface as pos-sible. Splitting the air current was preferable to taking the whole current of air round the work-ings in one body. Generally speaking, splitting the air increased the quantity of air obtained by a given ex-penditure of power ; but the benefits to be derived from split-ting were limited by the area of the shaft.

The Twinkling of the Stars d straightfor-ward and easy. If fish appeared in great numbers in one stratum, it was because they were created then and there ; if monstrous lizards swarmed suddenly in another, it was be-cause a new chapter had been begun in the geologic history; and so on to the minutest detail. But as knowledge increased by the study of outlying stra-ta, grave doubts began to arise with regard to the complete-ness of the supposed "perfect.' record and the correctness of previous interpretations. The times of "first" beginnings had to be pushed back again and again. Formations supposed to have succeeded each other immediately were found else-where to be separated by deposits of vast thickness, requir-ing enormous periods of time for their deposition. Creatures supposed to have come suddenly into being in one age were found to have existed at periods immensely more ancient. Gaps were discovered where none lead been suspected; broad distinctions of age and formation were ruthlessly wiped out; and as the work went on, it became more and more apparent that the classifications and chronologic schemes, which had been so confidently adopted, were largely misleading or meaningless. To those who studied geology in books, the completeness and continuity of the geologic record remained undoubted; to those, however, who were engaged in the study of the record itself, its intermittent and fragmentary nature was most apparent. It was seen that only under rare and exceptionally favorable conditions was it possible that any record of life could be made. It was only under still more exceptional conditions that the record, if made, could be preserved. And when the limited scope of geological investigation was taken into the account, the absurdity, of the early deductions considered as comprehensive and ex-haustive, became ludicrously plain. Yet when Mr. Darwin appealed to the imperfection of the geologic record, closet geologists everywhere raised a great laugh of derision, as thought he had invented the plea to cover the weakness of his case. Public opinion on this point had indeed to under-go the same course of instruction and enlightenment that we have noticed in connection with the history of man, a course which it has not yet by any means completed. Even men who consider themselves competent to discuss publicly the deeper problems of geology, evolution, and so on, not un- close of 336 Centennial notes 345 Centennial revives business, the 341 Centennial, the closing of the 345 Centennial, the Corliss engine" 340 Pottery display, the French Practical mechanism—No. 15" Putty, removing Railways and locomotives. Records, intermittent, etc 3,15 341 346 339 336 Chairs, common sense 342 Safe, fireproof and burglarproof.*338 Chloroform in sleep 338 Salt bluffs of Nevada 337 Collodion, removing (14) 317 Scientific apparatus, French 345 Condenser, duction coil (17).... 347 Silver-plating solution (13). 347 Counter ge'a or lathes* Electrotypi insects, etc is; 342 341 Soapstone, dissolving (19) Stars, the twinkling of the 347 343 Enameled cooking vessels 338 Stereoscope, the '337 Encyclopaedia, Appleton's 343 Sun's inotion,the,and the weather 340 Engine, the Centennial Corliss 340 Tapestry, French 345 Evolution, thoughts on 345 Time drop for clocks" 338 Fay & Co.'s exhibit* 335, 344 Tortoiseshell scraps (10) 347 Fertilizers, potash and bone (9) .. 347 Wagon wheel, weight on a (1) 347 _Fire, in case of 338 Water supply for towns 341 Fish culture 145 Weather and the sun's motion.... 340 Fish, twin 345 Weight at poles and equator (6) .. 347 Fox fire (11) 347 Weights and measures 345 Gaslights, the inventor of 341 Wire rope, origin of 341 Glass and lead (18) 347 Woodworking machinery* ...335, 344 Glass plates, large 345 Wool and hair, detection of 346

pg 337 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.



 

< $--> https://antiquemachinery.com/images-scientific-american/Scientific-American-12-1-1900-20833-bot-RICE-Supplement-No1300-Leakage-Detecting-forgeries-on-paper-60x60-per.jpg $--> pic1b
20834 retest SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 1300.
pg 337 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.

>337 NER 25, 1876.1 337 aaddd
Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p339-bot.jpeg
width="1189" />
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 338 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.

pg 338 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.

IMPROVED FIREPROOF AND BURGLARPROOF SAFE.
It has been suggested that the simplest fireproof safe is found in a hole in the ground. The present invention im-proves upon this idea by suspending a safe by a chain in a well, and also by locking it there so as to prevent burglars from raising it. A, in the engraving, represents a well of strong masonry in the cellar under the safe, B, in which is a watertight case, C, of galvanized iron, surrounded, except at the top and bottom, by water. Into this case the safe is low-ered by a chain, pulley, crank shaft, counterweight, etc. A staple is attached to the bottom of the safe, and a bolt, K, which is operated through the medium of the arm, a, and rock lever, b, by rod, Z, passes into said staple and so holds the safe down. m,,in the small diagrams, is a sliding bolt, which, in connection with the tumblers, L, controls the locking bolt, K. The tumblers are connected to rods, 0 P, respectively, ex-tending up through the floors to the room in which the safe is used, to be manipulated conveniently. Q is a trap door in the floor of the room, over which the safe stands when raised. The invention was patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, September 26, 1876, by Mr. I. J. Gray, of Pentwater, Mich. -111. 4 • 11 In Case of Vire. The season is at hand when fires most prevail, and when the precautionary hints of the late Dr. Hall are most important to be heeded. They are as follows : Keep doors and windows of the structure closed until the firemen come; put a wet cloth over the mouth, and get down on all fours in a smoky room; open the upper part of the window to get the smoke out ; if in a thea-ter, church, or school room, keep cool ; descend lad-ders with a regular step to prevent the vibration. If kerosene just purchased can be made to burn in a sau-cer by igniting with a match, throw it away. Put wire work or glass shades over gaslights in show windows, and in bedrooms with curtains ; sprinkle sand instead of sawdust on floors of oil stores; keep shavings and kindling wood away from steam boilers, and greasy rags from lofts, cupboards, boxes, etc. ; see that all stovepipes enter well in the chimney, and that all lights and fires are out before retiring or leaving the place of business ; keep matches in metal or earthen vessels, and out of the reach of children ; and provide a piece of stout rope, long enough to reach the ground, in every chamber. Neither admit any one if the house be on fire, except police, firemen, and known neighbors nor swing lighted gas brackets against the wall ; nor leave small children in a room where there are matches or an open fire; nor deposit ashes in a wooden box, or on the floor; nor use a light in examining the gas meter. Never leave clothes near the fire place to dry; nor smoke or read in bed by candle or lamp light; nor put kindling wood to dry on top of the stove; nor take a light into a closet ; nor pour clock is attached to a wall and to the bottom of a shelf. The other end of the lever, D, rests against the arm of an obtuse angled lever, E, which is pivoted at its angle to the bottom of the clock, or to the shelf to which said clock is attached, so that its other arm may project beyond the end of the said bottom or shelf. The loop rod, C, the lever, D, and the ob-tuse-angled or cam lever, E, are so arranged that the ope-ration of hanging the loop rod, C, upon a wheel of the alarm mechanism may raise the free end of the obtuse-angled le- is adjusted upon the long arm of the square at a point re-presenting the half width of the building, and upon the short arm at a point representing the desired pitch of the rafters. The bars, C, are then ad j usted against the edges of the arms of the square, and are clamped in place by the screws, B. The instrument is now set to give the length of the rafters and the bevels of thei r ends. The instrument may be used without a square, by having lines drawn upon the under side of the bar, A, to represent the different po-sitions of the bars, C, for different lengths and pitch-es of rafters. The device was patented September 26, 1876, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, by Mr. George H. Bradshaw, of Fayetteville, Tenn.

GRAY'S: FIREPROOF SAFE.
ver, E, into a horizontal position, so that it may receive and hold any object hung upon it. With this construction, as soon as the alarm mechanism starts, the loop rod, C, will drop, which withdraws the end of the lever, D, from the arm of the angle lever, E, so that the object hung upon or We and

Enameled Cooking Vessels.
Cast iron cooking vessels, coated on tlu inside with a white porcelain or enamel, are now ex tensi vely used, and are generally supposed to be as safe as they are convenient and cleanly. It has been assumed that vegetable acids, which act more or less energetically upon metallic surfaces, do not affect this porcelain lining, and that vessels protected by it may therefore be used for cooking acid fruits, preparing pickles, and kindred processes. It seems, however, that there may be " death in the pot," even when it is enameled. A Scotch chemist, in a paper recently read at Glasgow before the Society of Public Analysts, states that some kinds, at least, of this porcelain lining are very readi-ly acted upon by acid fruits, common salt, and other substances used for food, and that thus large quanti-ties of lead and even arsenic are dissolved out during culinary operations. Analyses were given of three en-amels taken from cast iron pots made by as many dif ferent manufacturers. All contained arsenic, and two of them lead; but it is not so much on account of the presence of these substances that the enamels are ob-jectionable, but because of their highly basic charac-ter, which renders them peculiarly susceptible to the action of even feebly acid solutions. The percentage of bases in the three enamels was 38'58, 53.73, and 55.28, respectively. A one per cent solution of citric acid, boiled in the third, roughened and destroyed the enamel at once, dissolving out enough lead to give a dense black precipitate with hydrosulphuric acid. An enamel that will not bear so moderate a test as a one per cent solution of citric acid is certainly not fit to be used for culinary purposes. If the enamels employed in this country are similar to those in Europe, as they probably are, our readers should be cautious in using vessels coated with them. have not experimented upon them as yet, but may do so give the results at some future time.

A NEW IRRIGATOR. Mr_ Frederick Taylor of Covintrton _ has mitentiql
of stout rope, long enough to reach the ground, in every chamber. Neither admit any one if the house be on fire, except police, firemen, and known neighbors ; nor swing lighted gas brackets against the wall ; nor leave small children in a room where there are matches or an open fire; nor deposit ashes in a wooden box, or on the floor; nor use a light in examining the gas meter. Never leave clothes near the fire place to dry; nor smoke or read in bed by candle or lamp light; nor put kindling wood to dry on top of the stove; nor take a light into a closet ; nor pour out liquor near an open light ; nor keep burning or other in-flammable fluids in rooms where there is a fire ; nor allow smoking about barns or warehouses. TIME DROP ATTACHMENT FOR ALARM CLOCKS. This is an ingenious device connected with ordinary clock mechanism, which may be attached to the door of a fur-nace to turn on the draft; with the faucet of a water pipe, to turn off or on the water ; or with the valve of a gas pipe, to turn off the gas at any time. A rod, C, passes through the bottom of the case of the clock, and has a loop formed upon its upper end, to enable it to be hung upon the teeth of the wheel of the alarm mechanism, B. To the lower end of the loop rod, C, is pivoted the end of a lever, D, which is pivoted to the bottom of the clock, A, when said

GRAY'S: FIREPROOF SAFE.
1 per cent solution of citric acid is certainly not fit to be ver, E, into a horizontal position, so that it may receive and hold any object hung upon it. With this construction, as soon as the alarm mechanism starts, the loop rod, C, will drop, which withdraws the end of the lever, D, from the arm of the angle lever, E, so that the object hung upon or from its other arm may drop. In case it is not wished to sound an alarm when the alarm mechanism, B, starts, the bell, or hammer, or both, may be detached. The lower end of the loop rod is provided with a handle for convenience in hanging it upon a wheel of the alarm mechanism. The ob-ject, in falling, may release a weight which performs the required operation. This device was patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, September 26, 1876, by Mr. Charles Cottrell, of Newport, R. I. IMPROVED BEVEL. Carpenters and builders will be interested in a new in-strument which we illustrate herewith, and which is in-tended for use in determining the length of rafters and the bevels of their ends, when the width of the building nd the desired pitch of said rafters are known. The device may also be used for getting the length and the bevels of the ends of braces, and for other similar purposes. A re-presents a bar, upon the edge of which is formed a scale of division marks, numbered to represent the length of the rafter or brace, and which should be made upon a scale of an inch to the foot to make it correspond with the division marks of an ordinary square. The bar, A, is slotted longi-tudinally to receive the clamping screws, B, which are screwed into straight bars, C, placed upon the lower side of said bar, A, as shown. In using the instrument the bar, A, is laid diagonally across the arms of an ordinary square, and used for culinary purposes. If the enamels employed in this country are similar to those in Europe, as they probably are, our readers should be cautious in using vessels coated with them. We have not experimented upon them as yet, but may do so and give the results at some future time.

A NEW IRRIGATOR.

Mr. Frederick Taylor, of Covington, Pa., has patented, through the Scientific American Patent Agency, ikeptember 26, 1876, an improvement in irrigating apparatus, which, as shown in the engraving, consists of a tube, A, with a point-ed and perforated end to be set in the ground near the plants; the water from this tube slowly escapes through the perfo-rations and thus gently moistens the ends of the plants. A number of conically pointed and perforated tubes, B, are attached to a main pipe for holding the water to irrigate a number of plants or hills from one supply, the pointed pipes being attached so as to project laterally from the main pipe. These irrigators may be used independently of the main pipe by setting them upright on the point in the ground and filling them. For elevating the main pipe, and for adjusting the laterals as required, they are made of flexible material; but the points are of metal. 4 CHLOROFORM has been administered to a child during sleep, and a painful operation was performed, the child sleep-ing on and awaking in the morning unconscious of anything unusual having occurred.

******************

width="1189" />

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 339 NOVEMBER 25, 1876. page 339
NOVEMBER, 25, 1876. pg 339 NOVEMBP:R 25, 1876.1 LOCOMOTIVES AND RAILWAYS.

Our molootIonn this week from Knight's " Mechanical Dic-tionary" (published
in numbers by Messrs. Hurd & Houghton, Now York city) include a number of interesting engravings of locomoti yes, among which will be found represented the early machines of Stephenson and others, now carefully preserved OH historical relics. We also give illustrations of two rail-ways of curious construction. The FERRY RAILWAY, , has its track on the bottom of a water course, and Fig. 1. Ferry- Railway. pg-339 the carriage which runs thereon has an elevated deck which supports the train. Chains are attached to the carriage and connected to engines on each side of the stream, and in this way the huge vehicle is pulled from shore to shore. A fer-ry of this kind is in existence at St. Malo, France, and there are others in various parts of Holland. It is a cheap sub-stitute for a railway bridge, Fig. 2 represents Vignolles and Ericsson's     CENTRAL FRICTION RAIL,

which is grasped by apparatus from the locomotive, so that the latter is thus assisted in ascending grades. The rail consists of a flat piece of iron fixed in a vertical posi-tion in chairs, a. c, d are horizontal friction rollers, c being fixed and d movable on their respective shafts. To the driving axle, g, is attached bevel gear, It i, which rotates the shaft, e, of the driving roller, c. The friction roller, d, may be pressed against the rail by the lever, m, which is so con-nected as to be easily operated by the engineer. The driving wheels, n o, may be released from the power of the engine by disengaging the clutches, p q, so as to throw the whole force of the engine upon the griping rollers, c d, when as-cending a grade. In Fig. 3 are represented BLENKINSOP'S AND HEDLEY'S LOCOMOTIVES, two of the earliest constructed machines. Blenkinsop's lo-Fig. 3. Fig. 2. Vignoles and Ericsson's Central Rail. comotive, in 1811, was usefully employed at the Middleton colliery in hauling coals on a tramway, the engine having spur wheels working into a rack on one side of the track. The engine, A, Fig. 3, was otherwise supported on four wheels. The fire was built in a large tube passing through the boiler, and the tube was bent up at the end to form a Fig. 5. A, Stephenson's" Rocket" (1829). B, English Locomotive (Longitudinal Section). C, Gooch's Express Engine ( English). D, Crompton's Express Engine (English). chimney. Two vertical cylinders were placed above the boiler, and the pistons were connected by crossheads and connecting rods to cranks on the axles of spur pinions, which geared into the main spur wheel, which formed the driver. It was long used on a colliery railway between Leeds and Middletown, 34- miles distant, and perhaps was the first suc-cessful locomotive in regular use. It drew trains of 30 tuns weight at 3 miles per hour. propelled by a gear in the center, driven by a pitman from the walking beam. Hedley's locomotive was objected to by residents of Newcastle, on account of the smoke. He there-fore passed the smoke into a large receiver, n, and turned the exhaust steam upon it. From the receiver the steam and smoke were conveyed by a pipe, b, to the chimney, which device soon developed into the steam blast. " Puffing Billy" was at work more or less until 1862, when it was laid up as a memorial in the British Patent Office Museum. Hedley died in 1842

. DODDS AND STEPHENSON'S LOCOMOTIVE. In 1815, Dodds and Stephenson patented an engine (shown by side and end views, Fig. 4), in which the power might be applied either through wrists, at angles of 90° to each other on the driving wheel, or an endless chain working in gear-ing on the axles. In 1829, the Liverpool and Manchester railway, then the most extensive and finished work of the kind ever under-taken, was completed, and the directors offered a reward of $2,500 for the best locomotive which should fulfill certain imposed conditions. Among these were that it was to con-sume its own smoke, and draw three times its own weight at a rate of not less than 10 miles an hour, and the boiler pres-sure was not to exceed 50 lbs. per square inch. The weight was not to exceed 6 tuns, nor the cost $2,750. THE " ROCKET." Three engines competed for the prize : the Rocket, con-structed by George Stephenson; the Sanspareil, by Thomas Hackworth ; the Novelty, by Messrs. Braithwaite and Er-icsson. The Rocket weighed 4 tuns 5 cwt., and its tender, with water and coke, 3 tuns 4 cwt. It had two loaded car riages attached, weighing a little over 9 tuns and 10 cwt. The greatest velocity attained was 241 miles per hour, and the average consumption of coke per hour 217 lbs. See A, Fig. 5. The Sanspareil attained a speed of 22-1 miles per hour, but with an expenditure of fuel per hour of 692 lbs. The Novelty carried its own water and fuel. In consequence of successive accidents to the working arrangements, this engine was withdrawn from competition. A fourth engine, the Perseverance, by Burstall, not being adapted to the track, was withdrawn. The Rocket engine was superseded in 1837, being con-demned for life to the collieries. Here it proved itself ca-pable of a rate of 60 miles an hour ; but being again con-victed of levity while on duty, it was cashiered and its place filled by heavier machines of 12 tuns. After a few years of inglorious retirement, some one, not totally oblivious of how it would look in history, recalled the old soldier from his limbo, and now he enjoys the company of his elder brother, Hedley's Puffing Billy, in the English Patent Museum. In Fig. 5, A is an elevation of the Rocket. The boiler, a, is a cylinder 6 feet long, and has 25 tubes. The fire box, b, has two tubes, communicating with the boiler below and above, and is surrounded by an exterior casing, into which the water from the boiler flows and is maintained at the same level as that in the boiler. B is a longitudinal vertical

BLENKINSOP'S AND HEDLEY'S LOCOMOTIVES, two of the earliest constructed machines. Blenkinsop's lo-Fig. 3. A, Blenkinsop's Locomotive (1811). B, Hedley's Locomotive (1818). Fig. 4. B, English Locomotive (Longitudinal Section). C, Gooch's Express Engine (English). .D, Crampton's Express Engine (English). chimney. Two vertical cylinders were placed above the boiler, and the pistons were connected by crossheads and connecting rods to cranks on the axles of spur pinions, which geared into the main spur wheel, which formed the driver. It was long used on a colliery railway between Leeds and Middletown, miles distant, and perhaps was the first suc-cessful locomotive in regular use. It drew trains of 30 tuns weight at 31 miles per hour. Fig. 6. inglorious retirement, some one, not totally ODI1V10118 or now it would look in history, recalled the old soldier from his limbo, and now he enjoys the company of his elder brother, Hedley's Puffing Billy, in the English Patent Museum. In Fig. 5, A is an elevation of the Rocket. The boiler, a, is a cylinder 6 feet long, and has 25 tubes. The fire box, b, has two tubes, communicating with the boiler below and above, and is surrounded by an exterior casing, into which the water from the boiler flows and is maintained at the same level as that in the boiler. B is a longitudinal vertical Baldwin Locomotive ( central Longitudinal Section). In the spring of 181.3, William Hedley built a locomotive with four smooth drive wheels, to run on a smooth rail. The machine failed to accomplish much, on account of its small boiler. Hedley thereupon, the same year, built ano-ther engine (shown at B, Fig. 3), having a return-flue boiler, and mounted on eight driving wheels, which were coupled together by intermediate gear wheels on the axles, and all podd: and ,Step/Aenson Locomotive (18161 Fig. 7. Baldwin Locomotive (End Elevation and Transverse Section). section of a modern English locomotive, which may serve as a contrast to Stephenson's first crude effort. The boiler is surrounded by two casings, one within the other, united by stays. The tubes, a, are of brass, 124 in number, and the boiler has longitudinal stays connecting the ends. b is the smoke box, into which the blast pipe, c, discharges. d is the Fig. 8. *********************************************************reset itself at 1000*****Left 20 was 80****************************************************

Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p339-bot.jpeg

width="1189" />

NOVEMBER, 25, 1876.

pg 340 NOVEMBER 25, 1876. steam dome, into which the steam from the upper part of the boiler enters, its amount being governed by a regulator controlled by a winch. This serves to obviate in great de gree the effects of priming. The steam pipe, e, has two branches, each entering one of the boxes containing the valves by which the flow of steam to the cylinders is con-trolled. C is an express engine designed by Gooch for the Great Western Railway, where an unusual rate of speed is maintained. The boiler has 305 tubes, 2 inches in diameter. The cylinders are 18 inches diameter and 24 inches stroke, the driving wheels 8 feet in diameter, the heating surface of the fire box 153 square feet. D is an express engine de-signed by Crampton. It is adapted for the usual gage. Fig. 6 is a central longitudinal section of an approved form of American locomotive as made at the Baldwin Loco-motive Works, Philadelphia. Fig. 7 is a perspective view. Fig. 8 is a front elevation, one half of which shows a trans-verse section through the boiler. The engine has four dri vers, 60- inches in diameter, and a four-wheeled swing bol-ster truck, and weighs, with water and fuel, about 65,000 lbs. The flues, 144 in number, are 2 inches in diameter, and 11 feet 5 inches in length. The fire box, of cast steel, is 66 inches long, 344 inches wide, and 63 inches deep. Water space 3 inches sides and back, 4 inches front. Grates, cast iron. The cylinders are horizontal. Valve motion gradua-ted to cut off at any point of the stroke. The tires are cast steel, and the wheel centers of cast iron with hollow spokes and rims, the wrist pins of cast steel, the connecting rods of hammered iron. The truck wheels are 28 inches in diame-ter. All the principal parts of such engines are interchangea-ble. Attempts are being made, by adaptation of the furnace and boiler, to run locomotives by means of liquid fuel. Differences also occur in the construction of the heating parts, according to the character of the fuel—coal, coke, wood, peat, etc. The ordinary speed attained on English railways is great-er than that usual in this country. The Great Western ex-press from London to Exeter travels at the rate of 57 miles an hour including stoppages, or 55 miles an hour while ac-tually running. Midway between some of the stations a speed of 65 miles an hour has been reached. A speed of 75 miles is equivalent to 35 yards per second, so that if a row of stakes one yard apart were driven at the side of the road, they would, at this velocity, appear undistinguishable one from another. Were the driving wheels of the locomotive 7 feet in diameter, they would revolve 5 times in a second, each piston would traverse the cylinder 10 times per second, while there would be 20 discharges of waste steam per se-cond, causing a continuous sound instead of the cough which is heard when the engine is moving slowly. Very high speeds have been attained, on special occasions, on American roads, probably fully equaling any time ever made in England. For instance, it is stated that a train, con-veying some officials of the New York Central Railroad, made the distance from Rochester to Syracuse, 81 miles, in 61 minutes, said to be the fastest time ever made in America osopher,

Professor Prestel," ascribes weather changes " to the moon."
Allow me to present my views, The sun retrogrades in the plane proper of the ecliptic 50f seconds, annually; and so of course does the earth, in her own orbit, as it were; and it takes her 20 minutes and 20 seconds, in other words, 1 year, 20 minutes, and 20 seconds, to reach the same point in the heavens that she was at, say, on December 31 last at 12 o'clock at night. Twenty minutes and twenty seconds amounts to one day, or one rotation of the earth, in 70i years. In 70 years and 8 months,therefore, the earth loses one day on the stars; and it will be seen in a moment or two that she loses the same amount, in the same space of time, on the winds and the weather ; for the winds do not circulate round the earth, as supposed, but the earth turns—retrogrades round—to receive the winds, sup-posing them to blow from the same quarter. To give a proper idea of what we mean, suppose the sun to be moving retrogressively at great velocity,and the earth in consequence to be ever meeting and stemming an etheric current : suppose too that the earth's rotary motion is stopped, and that nothing but her orbital motion and the sun's is going on. In such a case,the etheric current would ever strike the earth on one point of her surface; that would be the point or side of her that is ever lying next to the cur-rent. Now suppose that she retrogrades round her axis in a year, an amount equal to the 1-3651 of a rotation—an amount equal to 20 minutes and 20 seconds—the point on her surface that directly breasted, so to speak,the etheric breeze last year would not breast it this year; but one, a little more than 5° east from it, would. Thus, by the earth's westerly or retrograde motion, as it were round her axis, the ever parallel current of storm seems, to all appearance and to meteorological evidence, to circulate easterly round the earth, while in reality it is the earth that is turning round to receive the ever parallel-flowing etheric breeze: a current that must ever flow directly from the sun as radiance, or be the result of the earth's being drawn, as it were, through ether by virtue of the sun's velocity, as a vessel propelled through water meets the still water as if it were flowing in a current against it. This, I say, would give the winds and weather an apparent easterly motion round the earth in some seventy years : and that is exactly as Mr. Schott finds it. I cite again from Harper's Magazine: " Mr. Schott finds no perceptible secular change in the temperature of the country, nor any decided connection be-tween our temperature and the variations in solar spots. For ten stations the mean temperature has been commuted for every day of the year, and it appears from these that changes in the normal temperature of any day extend over large tracks of country, and progress in an easterly direc-tion." Thus I connect even the winds and the weather with solar retrograde motion, and I think that the moon has nothing to do with the weather. She, in every 18 years,and all along through the 19th year, so conjoins with the sun and earth that the four—sun, earth, moon, and storm cur-rent—are in line, or parallel with each other, and so a sort of periodic 19 years storm occurs. But the moon has no sages long enough to contain half of the steam used. It makes no difference whether the steam is exhausted from the cylinder at 90 or at 5 lbs. pressure to the inch ; the per-centage of waste will be precisely the same. The cubic capa-city of the steam passages between the valve and the bore of the cylinder represents exactly the cubic quantity of steam used over and above what is needed to work the en-gine ; and the sooner locomotive builders realize this, the sooner they will be prepared to red ice the length of these wasteful passages. Another improvement noted in this engine consists in the interposition of a short link between the rocker arm and the arm upon the valve stem, in such a way as to cause the valve to open and close quickly, and to remain open and al-most stationary for a considerable interval, thus giving a very free exhaust and a timely and rapid opening and clos-ing of the valves. F. G. WOODWARD. Worcester, Mass.

The Bude Canal In Cornwall, England. To the Editor of the Scientific American: The Bude Canal, from Bude to Launceston, is said to have been working for fifty years. It was intended to transport ore from Launceston to Bude, but is now principally used to carry coal, and sand from the coast for manure for the farms. In order to carry the canal over the highest points of the land, a very simple and wonderfully effective plan has been carried out. The canal is made in sections, each on a level; and each two sections are joined by an inclined plane, on which are laid grooved rails. The barges, which are built for the purpose, are hauled bodily out of the canal laden with, say, 4 tuns of coal or sand, and drawn up the tram. way with a chain, and launched again in the next section of canal, which starts from the top of the hill. There are in the entire length of the canal six of these planes, three be-tween Bude to the highest point, and three down into Laun-ceston. At Marham, about 14 miles up the canal from Bade, is the first ascent. I judged the length of the incline to be 800 feet, and the gradient 1 in 6; the total ascent, therefore, is about 130 feet. The barges are small, of about 5 feet beam, and 15 feet in length, and are loaded with 4 tuns, total weight being 5 tuns each when loaded. Fitted on the flat bottoms are four wheels, which run in the grooved rails, laid like an ordinary tramway, in two lines up the incline. An endless cable passes between the rails, up one and down the other, and round large wheels at either end. These wheels are fixed horizontally. The wheel of the upper end has a strong shaft or axis, which descends into a chamber below, where, by means of cogged wheels, it is connected with an enormous water wheel, the moving power. This water wheel is overshot, and has a diameter of 60 feet. The barge to be hauled up having been placed in position and fastened-.to the endless cable chain, the water wheel is set in motion, and the barge is rapidly drawn to the top of the incline and floated again in the upper canal. About two miles further up I came to Hob-bacott, where is the second incline. This is longer and steep- while there would be 20 discharges of waste steam per se-cond, causing a continuous sound instead of the cough which is heard when the engine is moving slowly. Very high speeds have been attained, on special occasions, on American roads, probably fully equaling any time ever made in England. For instance, it is stated that a train, con-veying some officials of the New York Central Railroad, made the distance from Rochester to Syracuse, 81 miles, in 61 minutes, said to be the fastest time ever made in Ameri-ca. The life of a locomotive engine is stated, in a paper read before the British Association, at thirty years. Some of the small parts require renewal every six months. The boiler tubes last five years, and the crank axles six years ; tires, boilers, and fire boxes, seven to ten years. The side frames, axles, and other parts, thirty years. During this period, the total cost of repairs is estimated at *24,450 in American mo-ney, the original cost of the engine being '1;8,490. It there-fore requires for repairs, in eleven years, a sum equal to its original cost. In this time it is estimated that an engine in average use has run 220,000 miles. forropouttenct. The Sun's

Retrograde Motion and the Weather. To the Editor of the Scientific American: Some time ago, I showed, in your columns, that both lunar acceleration and retardation in the earth are pure re-sults or outgrowths of increase in the sun's motion; and still later, I showed, through the same channel, that inequality in the moon's mean motion is a result of solar retrograde mo-tion ; and now, with your permission, I will show that solar retrograde motion, or the sun's velocity, has much to do with our terrestrial winds and weather. It is recorded in Harper's Monthly Magazine for November, 1876, that Mr. Charles A. Schott, of the Coast Survey Office, has, by great labor and investigation, discovered that there is what we may call an oscillation of the winds and weather in about every seventy years. Says the magazine : " All the stations agree in showing a rapid rise in the temperature about February 20. There are also indications that the hottest and coldest epochs change somewhat from year to year, making a complete circuit in seventy years through a range of about six weeks. On comparing the average di-rection of the wind with the average temperature,it appears evident that for years of northerly winds the temperature is lower,and for southerly winds it is higher So that secular changes in local temperature are attributable to correspond-ing changes in the direction of the winds. These latter changes, on the other hand, must be a part of a system of oscillation in the general currents of the atmosphere, which may be ultimately due to slight variation in solar radiation." Here I wish to note three things : first, that the wind and weather are supposed to circulate round the earth in some 70 years; second, that change in the winds may possibly be due to slight variation in solar radiation; and third, that I see, from another printed source, that a certain " German phil. changes in the normal temperature of any day extend over large tracks of country, and progress in an easterly direc-tion." Thus I connect even the winds and the weather with solar retrograde motion, and I think that the moon has nothing to do with the weather. She, in every 18 years,and alt along through the 19th year, so conjoins with the sun and earth that the four—sun, earth, moon, and storm cur-rent—are in line, or parallel with each other, and so a sort of periodic 19 years storm occurs. But the moon has no more to do with raising it than the surface of the earth has with the so-called seventy years oscillation, that is, the seventy years and eight months oscillation. When astronomers, meteorologists, and other scientists, can clearly see the sun and the whole solar system moving retrograde in the plane proper of the ecliptic, they will be much more able to tell how and why phenomena occur ; and it will cost them less time and labor too, I think. Gloucester city, N. J.

JOHN HEPBURN. The Corliss Engine at the Centennial.
To the Editor of the Scientific American While watching the movements of this celebrated engine a few days ago, I noticed among its details two improve-ments upon former engines of the Corliss style. The most important of these consists in the placing of the valves in the heads of the cylinder instead of in the cylinder casting. This disposition of the valves does away with the eight tri-angular cavities in each cylinder which form the steam ports, namely, A, the inlet, B, the exhaust ports. The diagram shows a cross section at one end of a cylinder through the center of the ports, the aggregate capacity of these ports being equal to from two to four per cent of the steam used in working the engine. By placing the valves in the heads of the cyl-inder, they are brought almost in contact with the piston (when at the end of its stroke) from end to end of the ports, thus effecting a saving of the two or four per cent A B A B k, of steam usually wasted, and of course enhancing the econ-omy of the engine in like proportion. Could a like improvement be made in the valve gear of locomotives, the consequent saving of fuel ought to give the inventor a fortune in a short time. In locomotives, from five to ten per cent of the steam used is wasted in the huge passages between the valve and piston : and more, another benefit (aside from the direct saving of from five to ten per cent of steam, owing to the more perfect appropriation of the steam used, consequent upon the close proximity o f the valves to the piston) is lost. Some engineers argue that short steam ports are of but little benefit in any case, espe-cially in engines working under a high degree of expansion. By what line of sophistry they arrive at such a conclusion, I know not. They might, by the same reasoning, say that an engine would work just as economically with steam pas- or axis, into a chamber below, where, by means of cogged wheels, it is connected with an enormous water wheel, the moving power. This water wheel is overshot, and has a diameter of 60 feet. The barge to be hauled up having been placed in position and fastened-,to the endless cable chain, the water wheel is set in motion, and the barge is rapidly drawn to the top of the incline and floated again in the upper canal. About two miles further up I came to Hob-bacott, where is the second incline. This is longer and steep-er, and is worked in a different manner. This incline is 900 feet long; total rise, 275 feet. At the top are two wells, 20 feet in diameter and 225 feet deep. At the bottom of each is an escape for water to flow out into the lower canal. Suspended in these wells, by massive cables from a horizon-tal roller, are two huge iron buckets, capable of holding 60 hogsheads of water each, and weighing, when full, 16 tuns. These are so arranged that, when one bucket is at the top of one well, the other bucket is at the bottom of the other. The bucket which is at the top of the well is filled with wa-ter from a sluice, and is allowed to descend; and in doing so, it raises the bucket in the other well, which comes up empty, the water having escaped through a valve which opened mechanically when the bucket reached the bottom. The alternate rising and falling of these buckets sets in mo-tion the endless chain cable on the incline; and by means of cogged wheels, the power is so multiplied that the descent of the bucket, weighing 16 tuns, into the well 225 feet deep, suffices to haul a barge weighing 5 tuns up the entire length of the incline, 900 feet, in the space of 44- minutes. The whole of this machinery is worked by two men and a boy, with no further expense than the oil for the machine. About nine miles further up the canal, at its highest point, is a vast reservoir measuring 60 acres, which supplies the water for working the canal. London, England.

B. R. PLANTE. The Supposed Planet Vulcan. To the Editor of the Scientific American : Please to add my testimony to that of others regarding the intra-mercurial planet. Unfortunately, when I saw the planet, supposing it to be known to astronomers, I did not attach such importance to the subject as to induce me to make memoranda, and at this distance of time can only think that it was about the year 1860. I was residing then in Washington Territory, and was superintending some work on a prairie, a few miles from Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia River. A range of mountains was in the distance, from behind which the sun had reached an alti-tude of about 30° above the horizon, when a small boy asked me what was the matter with the sun. On looking at it I saw a planet, not as your correspondent saw it, but as a per-fectly rounded, well defined dark spot, having with the disk a smaller relative proportion than that you have illustrated, and situated nearer the disk's diameter. I watched its pro-gress till its completion without a telescope, merely glan-cing with partially closed eyes, at very short intervals. It Was in the hight of summer, and the hour was so early that no one but our party, that I have heard of, saw it. I am
https://www.antiquemachinery.com/Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p-339-bot-.jpeg
*****************************************************************************************************************************************************

Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p339-bot.jpeg

width="1189" />
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 341 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.
NOVEMBER, 25, 1876. page 341

NOV 25, 1876. pg 341   
sorry I can gi ye so few data regarding an event of which I Ipattern work are made very fine, in fact merely distinguish-am am certain as of my own existence. The clear but pecul- able; and the instrument by which they are drawn is shown lar (44 of that region in summer may account for the dis-m.1,1149414 of the view. W ash ngton, D. C. 
 
RICHARD COVINGTON.PRACTICAL MECHANISM,     BY JOSHUA ROSE      .SECOND SERIES-Number XV. 
PATTERN MAKING. Our second example, Fig. 106, is a design for another kind of gland, such as is often fitted to glands for pump rods and spindles. For the small sizes, the glands are usually cast 
solid, and the hole is drilled out in the lathe, in which case, providing the gland is not very deep, it would be molded vertically, with the head in the nowel, and would be turned out of the solid piece of wood in the style of our previous example, treating for the moment the hexagonal part as a flange, whose diameter must be turned to the size of the hexagon across the corners. After the turning is done, we mark the hexagon as follows. We set a pair of compasses as nearly as possible to the radius of the turned piece that is to form the hexagon, and divide that piece off into six divisions, in the manner shown in Fig. 107 ; for the radius of a circle will divide its circumference into six equal parts. So that, i f the compasses are correctly set, one trial will be sufficient ; but if not, we must readjust the compasses and go around again. Then, from these points, we square lines, as shown in Fig. 107, at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; and then, with the paring chisel, we pare off tho sides to the lines. It is not necessary to actually draw the hexagon on the circumference by join-ing the lin(Is of di vit41011 ol► tho top of the flange; for a in Fig. 110. It is called a cutting scriber, and the end at A is beveled off at both sides, like a skew chisel, forming a knife edge. The end, B, is ground to a point, and both ends are finished on an oilstone. The point end is for drawing lines along the grain, while the cutting edge, A, is for draw-ing lines across the grain of the wood. The wooden handle in the center is to enable the operator to hold it more firm-ly. It sometimes happens that the size of the hexagon is given across the flat sides instead of over the angle; and when that is so, we proceed as follows : We describe upon a piece of board, as in Fig. 111, a circle of a diameter equal to the given distance between the flat sides. We then take a hexagon gage, or else set the bevel square to an angle of 120°: and applying it to the planed edge of the board, we draw the line, C D, in Fig. 111, in which figure, A is the circle of the size of the flat sides of the hexagon, and B E are the planed edges of the board. We next reverse the be-vel; and from the opposite edge of the board we strike the line, F D, cutting C D at the point, D, where both the lines cut the circumference of the circle, A. Then from the cen-ter of the circle, A, we draw the circle, G, intersecting the point, D. The diameter of G will be the size of the hexa-gon across the corners. If the gland is a long one, it will be better to make it in 1 
to test its strength in comparison with hempen rope and chain, as regarded weight, size, strength, price, durability, and economy. This required time, patience, and a heavy outlay of capital. On January 12, 1835, the first patent was obtained by Mr. Smith, and in 1839 he had obtained his fourth patent. 
Stick to a Legitimate Business. Well directed energy and enterprise are the life of Ameri-can progress ; but if there is one lesson taught more plainly than others by the great failures of late, it is that safety lies in sticking to a legitimate business. No man—manufacturer, trader, or banker—has any moral right to be so energetic and enterprising as to take from his legitimate business the cap-ital which it requires to meet any emergency. Apologies are sometimes made, for firms who have failed, by recurring to the important experiments they have aided, and the unnumbered fields of enterprise where they have freely scattered their money. We are told that individual losses sustained by those failures will be as nothing com-pared with the benefits conferred on the community by their liberality in contributing to every public work. There is little force in such reasoning. A man's relations to a credi-tor are vastly different from his relations to what is called the public. The demands of the one are definite, the claims of the other are just what the ambition of the man may make them. The histories of honorably successful business men unite to exalt the importance of sticking to a legitimate business ; and it is most instructive to see that, in the greater portion of the failures, the real cause of disaster was the branching out beyond a legitimate business, in the taking hold of this and that tempting offer, and, for the sake of some great gain, venturing where they did not know the ground, and could not know the pitfall. 
The inventor of Gas Lights. The inventor of gas lights is said to have been a French-man, Philippe Le Bon, an engineer of roads and bridges, who in 1782 adopted the idea of using, for the purpose of illumination, the gases distilled during the combustion of wood. He labored for a long time in the attempt to perfect his crude invention, and it was not until 1799 that he con-fided his discovery to the Institute. In September, 1800, he took out a patent, and in 1801 he published a memoir contain-ing the result of his researches. Le Bon commenced by distilling wood, in order to obtain from it gas, oil, pitch, and pyroligneous acid; but his work indicated the possibility of obtaining gas by distillation from fatty or oily substances. From 1799 to 1802, Le Bon made numerous experiments. He established at Havre his first thermo-lamps ; but the gas which he obtained, being a mixture of carburetted hydrogen and oxide of carbon, and but imperfectly freed from its im-purities, gave only a feeble light and involved an insupport-able odor, and the result was that but little favor was shown to the new discovery ; the inventor eventually died, ruined 

 

chisel, we pare off the sides to the lines. It is not necessary to actually draw the hexagon on the circumference by join-ing the lines of division on the top of the flange; for a straight edge, being applied as the paring proceeds, will be all that is necessary to produce a true hexagon. Neverthe-less it is possible that error may have crept in, though we have performed the above operation with the greatest of care ; it is therefore imperative upon us to apply correcting tests to our work, such as a pair of calipers to try if each pair of the opposite sides are parallel, also the bevel to ve-rify if each angle of the figure contains 1200. Hexagon shapes are so common that a special hexagon gage is very useful; and such a gage, of the most approved form, is shown in Fig. 108, together with its method of application, the edges, A B, being to try the hexagon, and C D to square the edge to the face, and the edge, E, being used as a straight edge. If, however, we have not such a gage, we may set the bevel square, shown in Fig. 23, in the following man-ner : Take a piece of board planed on one side and on one edge, and let A B, in Fig. 109, represent the planed edge, from which we mark with the gage the line, C D. Then taking any point, such as I, in the line, C D, as a center, at a convenient distance we describe with a pair of com-passes the arc, F O. We then take the compasses, and, without shifting their points at all, we rest one point on the intersection of the lines, C D and F G, and then mark the arc, H. If then we draw a line from the intersection of the arc, F G, and the arc, H, to the center, I, upon which the arc, F G, has struck, the lines, H I, I C, form the angle re-quired; and we may apply the stock of the bevel square to the planed edge, A B, and set the blade to the line, I H, as don oted by the dotted lines. The bevel being set, we test the work as it proceeds, first cutting down one hexagonal side and then applying the bevel to gage the angle of the others; and as the diametrically opposite sides are finished, 7,ve apply the calipers. The lines of division upon all good ter of the circle, A, we draw the circle, G, intersecting the point, D. The diameter of G will be the size of the hexa-gon across the corners. If the gland is a long one, it will be better to make it in halves, letting it part across two corners, as shown in Fig. 112. When a gland of this kind is made in halves, the cor-ners at the parting are liable, from their weakness, to chip off, and it is therefore proper to make it of hard wood. Mater Supply for Towns. The subject of water supply is one that is now engaging the attention of the authorities in many large towns. The extended drought in the Eastern States during the past summer has revived in this vicinity the enquiry for advice as to the best means of providing an inexhaustible supply of water. The city of Orange, N. J.,and the adjoining town of Mont-clair, both rapidly growing places, have during the past summer been exceedingly short of water, to the inconve-nience of many of the citizens. Montclair lies at the foot of Orange Mountain, and the city of Orange scarcely one mile from the base of the same mountain, on which inexhausti-ble springs are found by digging only a few feet. It occurs to us that the above places, as well as many other towns, similarly situated in the vicinity of mountains, might readily be supplied in the manner in which the city of Du-buque, Iowa, has recently (by accident) acquired a novel and practical water system. Some time ago, in one of the bluffs, a lead-mining company met obstruction from water; and to obtain relief the bluff was tunneled, when it was found that a copious fountain had been struck,which ran to waste for several years. But the water was most excellent, the supply exceedingly liberal, and thelead so elevated that the idea of utilizing it was seized by a company, the property purchased, and a system perfected which gives the cheapest and best water supply known in the country. Origin of Wire Rope, Mr. Andrew Smith, C. E., of London, in the year 1828, first applied wire rope as a substitute for catgut, in aid of another invention of his for metallic shutters. The rats have destroyed the strength of the catgut line by eating it; the position of the sheave or pulley was so placed and so nar-row in the groove that none but a small substance could be applied to that particular case. Necessity, after all, was the the mother of invention. Time rolled on, and the author watched anxiously the working of this experimental metal-lic cord; four years were spent in experimenting, in order distilling wood, in order to obtain from it gas, oil, pitch, and pyroligneous acid; but his work indicated the possibility of obtaining gas by distillation from fatty or oily substances. From 1799 to 1802, Le Bon made numerous experiments. He established at Havre his first thermo-lamps ; but the gas which he obtained, being a mixture of carburetted hydrogen and oxide of carbon, and but imperfectly freed from its im-purities, gave only a feeble light and involved an insupport-able odor, and the result was that but little favor was shown to the new discovery ; the inventor eventually died, ruined by his experiments. The English soon put in practice the crude ideas of Le Bon In 1804, one Winsor patented and claimed the credit of inventing the process of lighting by gas; in 1805 several shops in Birmingham were illuminated by gas manufactured by the process of Winsor and Mur-dock; among those who used this new light was Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. In 1816 the first use was made of gas in London, and it was not until 1818 that this invention, really of French origin, was applied in France, How the Centennial Revives Business. Much has been said by the press throughout the country about the visitors to the Centennial, and the advantages to be derived by the Exhibition. But the American Builder advances an idea which we have not seen alluded to else-where : Every merchant and most well-to-do farmers and mechanics have visited some one of our large cities. But never before did they bring their wives and daughters. This last is the marked feature of the travel this year. For the first time, in a number of cases, the wife, mother, and daughters have passed the borders of their native States. To them the crowded car, the well lighted hotel, the thronged streets, the new customs, are a revelation. They will carry back to their homes new wants and desires. Insensibly, perhaps, there will be a change in household and personal habits. The furniture of the parlor and sleeping room will have ad-ditions and changes. Clothing once esteemed as tasteful will be replaced by other styles, not more expensive, but of different shades and shapes. The mechanic or the farmer will have new and enlarged ideas of his power as a part of our political and economical forces. This increased know. ledge is one of the principal reasons why such expositions are encouraged ; and it is to play no unimportant part in the pre-sent marked revival of business activity. To electrotype insects, ferns, etc., immerse the object in a solution of nitrate of silver in wood naphtha. When par-tially dried, the object should be treated with ammonia, the result being a double salt easily reduced. After thorough drying, expose the article to the vapor of mercury, when the surface becomes completely metallized in a few minutes. It may then be placed in the bath and metal deposited in the usual way. BRASS cooking pans should be cleaned inside with vine-gar and brick, then rinsed, thoroughly dried at the fire, and wiped with a clean cloth. White enameled pans require only a little soda and warm water to keep them clean and free from grease.
kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p339-bot.jpeg

width="1189" />

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 342 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.  RAPID TRANSIT LOCOMOTIVE
                                                                                NOVEMBER, 25, 1876. page 342


pg 342 NOVEMBER 25, 1876. page 342, NOV 25, 1876. Scientific Amerion. page 342
342 frientific merican. NOVEMBER 25, 1876. RAPID TRANSIT LOCOMOTIVE. We give a plate representing one of the three new tank engines built for the New York and Harlem Railroad, by the Schenectady Locomotive Works. They are intended-to run local trains between the Grand Central Depot, 42d street, New York, and Williamsbridge, a distance of eleven miles, including that portion of the Underground Railway on Fourth avenue, between Grand Central Depot, 42d street, nd Harlem river. These trains are at times very heavy, ( wing to excursions, races, etc.: and as the stopping places u re very close together, very powerful engines are required x13 inches; throw of eccentrics, 44 inches; outside lap of valve, ; inch; inside lap of valve, 114- inch; size of main dri-ving axle journal, 64x8 inches; size of other driving axle journal, 64x8 inches; size of truck axle journal, 31x6 inches; diameter of pump plunger, 41 inches; stroke of pump plun-ger, 3 inches; capacity of tank, 1,200 gallons.—Railroad Ga-zette. . Common Sense Chairs. For several months we have had in use sundry examples of the " Common Sense " chairs, as made by Mr. F. A. Sin- tion wheels are used. That marked B can be wedged out between or withdrawn from tIu other two by a screw on the axis of A. This latter wheel ean 1e moved by the endless chain, C C.—The Engineer. An Ice Water Head Dress. In cases of hyperpyrexia, tlu rapid reduction of the patient's temperature by means of ,ova! application of cold is known to be highly beneficial, and In twiny eases is exe-cuted in a rather rough manner by sponging the head, etc. But this presents many inconveniences, such as unnecessary

RAPID TRANSIT LOCOMOTIVE, UNDERGROUND RAILWAY, NEW YORK CITY. for the service. Their general plan will be recognized as that which has long been advocated by Mr. M. N. Forney. The'frames which extend back of the firebox are continuous, although they do not appear so on the engraving. The Westinghouse brake has been applied to the truck and also to the driving wheels. Owing to the great weight on the latter, and the power which the brake exerts on them and also on the truck, the engine can be stopped very quickly ; and as there is plenty of adhesion, it can be started without Alinninfr. The following are the principal clair, of the Union Chair Works, Mottville, N. Y. , and we are therefore enabled to speak from experience concerning their merits. As to comfort, they compare favorably with the most expensively upholstered or stuffed chairs, and are superior to the latter in durability of materials and economy of price.

The " Common Sense " chair is made wholly of wood, with elastic wood woven backs and seats. Mr. Sin-clair has evidently discovered the art of physiologically forming and proportioning the parts of the chair so as to secure the greatest amount of ease. fatigue to the patient, and probability of wetting portions not requiring the application of moisture.

Mr. Knowsley Thornton has perfected an ice water cap, composed of a coil of India rubber tubing,bound together so as to fit the patient's head. One extremity of the coil is connected with a pail or other vessel containing iced water; the other is placed in anthat which has long been advocated by Mr. M. N. Forney. The'frames which extend back of the firebox are continuous, although they do not appear so on the engraving. The Westinghouse brake has been applied to the truck and also to the driving wheels. Owing to the great weight on the latter, and the power which the brake exerts on them and also on the truck, the engine can be stopped very quickly ; and as there is plenty of adhesion, it can be started without much danger of slipping. The following are the principal dimensions Gage of road, 4 feet 8i inches ; total wheel base, 20 feet 11 inches; distance between centers of front and back driving wheels, 6 feet 8 inches; total weight of locomotive in working order, 72,000 lbs.; total weight on driving wheels, 49,500 lbs. ; diameter of driving wheels, 48 inches; diameter of truck wheels, 26 inches; diameter of cylinders, 15 inches; stroke of cylinders, 20 inches ; outside diameter of smallest boiler ring, 44+ inches ; size of grate, 35x53 inches; number of tubes, 144 ; diameter of tubes, 2 inches; length of tubes, 9 feet 61 inches; square feet of grate surface, 12.88190; square feet of heating surface in fire box, 81; square feet of heat-ng surface in tubes, 710.4 ; total feet of heating surface, 804'28 ; exhaust nozzles, double; diameter of nozzle, 2/ inch-es; size of steam ports, 1x13 inches; size of exhaust ports, 21 are therefore enabled to speak from experience concerning their merits. As to comfort, they compare favorably with the most expensively upholstered or stuffed chairs, and are superior to the latter in durability of materials and economy of price.

The " Common Sense " chair is made wholly of wood, with elastic wood woven backs and seats. Mr. Sin-clair has evidently discovered the art of physiologically forming and proportioning the parts of the chair so as to secure the greatest amount of ease. Furthermore, his flourishing establishment is an example of what may be achieved by intelligent effort and persever-ing industry. From a small beginning, with his own labor, his works have grown until now he employs twenty-five men, aided by improved machinery. The best ornamental woods are used, which are kiln-dried, worked, and joined in the most substantial manner. His illustrated catalogue shows several varieties of chairs, with the prices, which are quite moderate.

COUNTER GEAR FOR LATHES. Our engraving shows a new driving gear for lathes, etc., now being introduced by Messrs. Hind, of Nottingham, En-gland. The illustration practically explains itself. Fric-
not requiring the application of moisture. Mr. Knowsley Thornton has perfected an ice water cap, composed of a coil of India rubber tubing, bound together so as to fit the patient's head. One extremity of the coil is connected with a pail or other vessel containing iced water; the other is placed in any convenient outlet for the water to trickle away. Its effect in cooling the brain makes it most valuable in cases of this description.


A  DANGERIOUS PLANT.  The Revue Horticole

draws attention to the fact that con-tact of the skin with the leaves, and more especially the roots, of the rhus juglandifolia or vernicifera is likely to be followed with great irritation from the stinging juices which exude from them. The symptoms much resemble those caused by the rhus toxicodendron, or poisoned sumach, long used in England as an irritant, and still in use in America. There is an intense itching, followed by swellings and, perhaps, severe and obstinate ulcers. Though some people can handle the plant with impunity, yet to most it is dangerous; therefore, as it is now in great request in consequence of the beauty of its foliage, let them beware how they handle it. 


BEVEL-COUNTER-GEAR,  FOR LATHES AND OTHER MECHANISMS. 

COUNTER GEAR FOR LATHES. Our engraving shows a new driving gear for lathes, etc., now being introduced by Messrs. Hind, of Nottingham, En-gland. The illust

b> kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p339-bot.jpeg

width="1189" />

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 343 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.   --- THE CASTOR OIL PLANT AS A TREE.----
test3


pg 342 NOVEMBER 25, 1876. page 342, NOV 25, 1876. Scientific Amerion. page 342

--- THE CASTOR OIL PLANT AS A TREE.
In France,s what i5 there stated, under favorable circumstances, castor oil plants sometimes grow to the bight of ten or even 12 feet, and have leaves nearly a yard in width. In England, they gl v11 Indications of becoming arborescent in autumn; but the cold weather which soon afterwards sets in puts a fu alter progress in that direction. The tree Hei-n us, shown in our engraving, is not a distinct spe-cies ; on the contrary, it is the type of all the va-rities with which we are acquainted, and may be net with continually in warm climates, like those of the Riviera and Algeria, and even as far north as Montpellier, in France, provided it be protected against frost by straw or matting. The common castor oil plant, says a correspond-ent of the English Garden,likes a warm aspect and a light rich soil. It is easily, as all of us know, raised from seed, which should be sown in heat early in spring. As soon as the young plants are old enough to handle, they should be pricked out separately into pots, and again placed in heat. They must be well watered and shaded until they have become thoroughly established, and should be allowed plenty of air on fine days, otherwise they will throw out long, weak shoots that very materially detract from their beauty. Their growth being very fast,the roots soon fill the pots in which they are placed, and when that occurs they must be shifted into larger ones. Towards the end of this month they may be gradually hardened off, and finally transplanted out of doors in good rich soil when all danger from frost is over, care being taken to give them plenty of water in dry weather. When castor oil plants are once transplanted, their roots spread so rapidly that they cannot be lifted and potted again successfully; therefore, if they are to be grown in pots, they must always be kept potted, shifting them, of course, into larger ones from time to time. The only care which they re-quire during the winter is frequent but moderate watering, giving them air whenever the weather is favorable. Thus treated, castor oil plants may be kept in growth and beauty for several years in succession, when they will form trees, which, if not as large as that here represented, or those grown in more favored climates, will at least add beauty to our gardens in summer. The most nota-ble varieties are ricinus sanguineus, the stem, leaf stalks, young leaves, and fruit of which are of a blood red color; r. Borboniensis, which in southern climates attains a great hight ; and r. giganteus. stop to it makes the crimson paint with which Indians adorn their bodies; and they employ the leaves and roots in cookery to increase the flavor and give a saffron color. Annotta is principally consumed by painters and dyers ; but it is also used to color cheese with, a pale yellow or flesh color. The Dutch use it for hightening the color of their diseases have been restored to health by inhaling this vapor for a few weeks. Facts About Air and Mine Ventilation. At a recent meeting of the North Staffordshire Mining In-stitute, a paper by Mr. Wardle, of Burslem, was read on this subject. He said the temperature of the earth increased as they descended at about 1° Fah. for every 50 feet to 60 feet. At the deep coal pit at Dukinfield, the temperature was constantly 75° Fah. at a depth of 2,151 feet, and at a depth of 17 feet it was only 1° Fah., which gave an increase of 1° Fah. for every 89 feet only. The average degree of temperature of the earth was 1° Fah . for every 55 feet in descent to a depth of 1,800 feet, and afterwards 1° Fah. for every 44 feet. At r. BIXA ORELLANA—ANNOTTA. It is from this shrub, the foliage and flowers of which is now figured,that the annotta of commerce, commonly called annatto, is produced. Plants of it are seldom seen except in botanical collections ; but they are not devoid of orna THE CASTOR OIL PLANT,
butter, and it is used for the same purpose in some Ameri-can and English dairies. A Hospital in a Crater. The Board of Physicians of the Neapolitan Hospital for 10,000 feet, the temperature would be 212° Fah., provided all other circumstances remained the same ; at 20 miles, 1,760° Fah. ; and at 50 miles it would be 4,600° Fah., heat sufficient to melt any known metal. Thus, the deeper the shafts of their coal mines, the greater the amount of na-tural ventilation they would obtain. A current of air, traveling at a speed of 10 feet per second, gave a 'pressure of 0.492 lb. to the square foot at 16 feet, = 0'989 ; at 51.34, 6.027; and at 200, =39.2, as experienced on the surface of the earth. These might be described as, first, a breeze ; second, a light gale ; third, a gale ; and, fourth, a hurricane. Increased velocity of wind meant greater friction or higher water gage. Air was perfectly elastic ; by pressure it could be squeezed into less bulk ; and if that pressure were withdrawn, it filled the same space as for-merly. Heat had the same effect upon it as pressure. A cubic foot of air weighed 223 grains; a cubic foot of water weighed 1,000 ozs. ; a cubic foot of watery vapor weighed only `'.372 grains. So that the more vapor there was in the air, the lighter it would be. Friction was estimated by the force required to overcome it. Friction of air increased or decreased in the same proportion that the extent of the rubbing surface exposed to the air increased or decreased. A circular airway offered less resistance in proportion to its area than any other form, because its circumference was less in proportion to its area than the pe-rimeter of any other figure. Airways should be as large and with as smooth a surface as pos-sible. Splitting the air current was preferable to taking the whole current of air round the work-ings in one body. Generally speaking, splitting the air increased the quantity of air obtained by a given ex-penditure of power ; but the benefits to be derived from split-ting were limited by the area of the shaft. The Twinkling of the Stars. ble varieties are ricinus san,guineus, the stem, leaf stalks, young leaves, and fruit of which are of a blood red color; r. Borboniensis, which in southern climates attains a great hight ; and r. giganteus. BIXA ORELLANA—ANNOT TA. It is from this shrub, the foliage and flowers of which is DOW figured, that the annotta of commerce, commonly called annatto, is produced. Plants of it are seldom seen except in botanical collections ; but they are not devoid of orna-ment by their fine green leaves and chaste pink flowers. When grown from seed, the plants attain a large size be-fore producing flowers : but when raised from cuttings they flower freely when in a comparatively dwarf state. Cut-tings of half -ripened wood strike readily in heat under a bell glass. The plants require a summer temperature of 75° to 85°, and a winter temperature of 50° to 60°. This shrub grows spontaneously in South America, and is cultivated in the East Indies. The fruit is like a chestnut, a two-valved capsule covered with flexible bristles, and contains a certain number of seeds smaller than peas. These seeds are covered with a soft,viscous resinous pulp, of a beautiful vermilion color and un-pleasant smell like red lead mixed with oil, and it is this matter which constitutes annotta or annatto. The mode in which it is obtained, says the Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener, is by pouring hot water over the pulp and the seeds, and leaving them to macerate, and then separating them by pounding them with a wooden pestle. The seeds are then removed by straining the mass through a sieve ; and the pulp being allowed to settle, the water is gently poured off, and the pulp put into shallow vessels, in which it is gradually dried in the shade. After acquiring a proper consistence, it is made into cylindrical rolls or balls, and placed in an airy place to dry, after which it is sent to market. It is most common in the English market, and is in the form of small rolls, each 2 or 3 ozs. in weight, hard, dry, and compact : brownish without and red within The other process of manufacture is that pursued in Cayenne. The pulp and seeds together are bruised in wooden vessels, and hot water poured over them ; they are then left to soak for several days, and of _erwards passed through a close sieve to separate the seeds. The matter is then left to ferment for about a week, when the water is gently poured off, and the solid part left to dry in the shade. When it has acquired the consistence of solid paste, it is formed into cakes of 3 or 4 lbs. weight, which are wrapped in the leaves of arunda or banana. This vari-ety is of a bright yellow color, rather soft to the touch, and of considerable solidity. Labat informs us that the Indians prepare an annotta greatly superior to that which is brought to us, of a bright shining red color, almost equal to carmine. For this purpose, instead of steeping and fermenting the seeds in water, they rub them with the hands, previously dipped in oil, till the pulp comes off and is reduced to a clear paste, which is scraped off from the hands with a knife, and laid on a clean leaf in the shade to dry. Mixed with lemon juice and gum? THE CASTOR OIL PLANT. butter, and it is used for the same purpose in some Ameri-can and English dairies. A Hospital in a Crater. The Board of Physicians of the Neapolitan Hospital for Incurables have determined to build a hospital in the crater rimeter of any other figure. Airways should be as large and with as smooth a surface as pos-sible. Splitting the air current was preferable to taking the whole current of air round the work-ings in one body. Generally speaking, splitting the air increased the quantity of air obtained by a given ex-penditure of power ; but the benefits to be derived from split-ting were limited by the area of the shaft. The Twinkling of the Stars. The scintillation of stars, and its close connection with changes of weather, has, as is known, much interested Humboldt, Arago, Kaemtz, Secchi, and many others ; and recently it has also been the subject of valuable spectro-scopic researches by M. Respighi. M. Montigny, who some time ago investigated scintillation in relation to the special characteristics of the light of different stars, pub-lishes in the Bulletin of the Belgian Academy, No. 8, an elaborate report upon his researches into the connection existing between scintillation and various meteorological elements. The chief results, arrived at after a discussion of 1,820 observations made on 230 days on 70 different stars, are as follows: The intensity of scintillation (mea-sured by a special apparatus, the scintillomtre) increases in variably with the occurrence or approach of rainy wea they, and with the increase of tension of vapor in the air on one side, and the increase of pressure and decrease of temperature on the other : the influence of the two for-mer factors being far more sensible than the combined in-fluence of the two latter. The scintillation, which is on an average stronger during winter than during summer, increases with the arrival of moist weather at all seasons. It increases also not only on rainy days, but one or two drys before, decreasing immediately after the rain has ceased. Moreover, the intensity of scintillation increases during strong winds, and with the approach of barome-tric depressions, or bourrasques, the increase being most pronounced when the depression passes near to the ob-server. It then largely exceeds the average increase cor-responding to rainy days; and the influence of great move-ments in the atmosphere totally counteracts the contrary influence of a lowering of pressure. M. Montigny is thus correct in saying that a continued investigation of scin-tillation would be of great service, not only for the pre-vision of weather, but also for the general study of me-teorology, affording a very useful means for the explora-tion of the higher regions of the atmosphere.—Nature. BIXA ORELLANA.' of Solfatara, lying between Naples and Pozzuoli, in Southern Italy. The vapor that arises from the crater has been found to be charged not only with sulphur but also with arsenic, aid it is said that several persons suffering from lung Appleton's Encyclopaedia. The new revised edition of this magnificent work is now completed, and forms one of the most valuable and important collections of popular knowledge ever brought out in this country. The printing materials, engravings, etc., have alone cost the publishers over half a million dollars. The reader will be able to form an approximately correct idea of the magnitude and sterling character of the work by consulting the publisher's advertisement given on another page. The work more than justifie

kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk

Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p339-bot.jpeg

width="1189" />

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 343 NOVEMBER 25, 1876. 
                             

pg 343   NOVEMBER 25, 1876.    
NOVFMBER 25, 1876.pic 9 ---page 344 Scientifir American.

Continued from first page. The large engraving which occupies our initial page this week represents one of the most complete exhibits in the whole magnificent array of woodworking machinery. It is that of Messrs. J. A. Fay & Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, with many of whose excellent machines our readers are already familiar through the illustrated descriptions which have appeared in these columns. In the manufacture of these im-plements, extensive experience, talent, and the greatest care are brought to bear. All shafts and turned fittings are fin-ished to standard sizes, screws are turned, heads and threads made on a regular system, holes are bored and tapped ex-actly to correspond, every revolving part is carefully and accurately balanced, all bearings are reamed and scraped, none but the best materials are used, and finally a rigid trial and inspection renders each machine, before issuing from the factory, in the best possible condition. The implements exhibited at the Centennial are by no means all of the dif-ferent productions of Messrs. J. A. Fay & Co., but are selec-ted with much discrimination, so as to typify generally the variety manufactured by this firm. We describe them be-low in detail, referring to each, as will be seen, by a distin-guishing number placed on the engraving. THE NO. 6 PLANING, MATCHING, AND BEADING MACHINE is marked 1 in the illustration. It is claimed to be the most important implement of the class displayed, on account of its admirable construction and the speed with which it fin-ishes the work it is designed to accomplish. The principal advantages are enumerated as follows : There are 6 feed rolls, 8 inches in diameter. The weight of the No. 6 machine is 10,600 lbs. , and it surfaces two sides 24 inches wide, 6+ inches thick, and matches 14 inches thick. For a more detailed description, the reader is referred to page 147,

Volume XXXV of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. At No. 2 in the engraving is represented the NO. 4 LARGE SIZE OUTSIDE PATENT MOLDING MACHINE. This will work any size of molding up to 9 inches wide, also plane, match, and bead narrow flooring, etc. The main spindle is 1 inches in diameter, provided with an outside bearing ; it is made from best English cast steel, and runs in patent self-oiling boxes,lined with the lining metal. The side spindles have patent setf-oiling steps and bearings, and ad-j ust vertically. The outer spindle adjusts laterally, and swings to any angle desired. The inside vertical spindle is arranged to adjust to and from the stuff, without altering the cutters. The under cylinder has a vertical movement, also a peculiar arrangement enabling the operator to take a greater or less cut without altering the cutters. The cylin-der is combined with the rear bed, and is adjusted on the main bed, the false or rear bed moving with the cylinder, making it very convenient to adjust. The feed works are driven by improved gearing, which is heavily weighted, and has two changes of speed. The feed rolls are hung in swinging cranes, and, by the means of a lever at the rear of the machine, are instantly elevated from the stuff, when it is desired to withdraw it before passing the cutter heads. capable of performing the work of several machines. It is adapted to planing out of wind, surfacing straight or tapered work, rabbeting door frames, etc., rabbeting and facing in-side blinds, jointing, beveling, gaining, chamfering, plow-ing, making glue joints, squaring up bed posts, table legs, newels, etc., raising panels, either square, bevel, or ogee, sticking beads, working circular molding, ripping, cross-cutting, tenoning, etc. When facing or planing out of wind, the vertical and lat-eral adjustments can be made simultaneously, thus constant-ly retaining the proper distance between periphery of cut and the edge of table. All of the different functions of the machine are secured by the use of two tables. For sawing, an extra table can be inserted between the other two, mak-ing a solid and continuous saw table. The arbor is of steel, of large diameter, and revolves in bearings supported on the column. One bearing is cast solidly to the column, and the other is movable, and is readily detachable for the purpose of substituting different heads. This is a very advantageous feature. Another combination, possessing a still wider range of ca-pabilities, is depicted at 6. This is the

NEW PATENT UNIVERSAL WOOD WORKER, claimed to be the only wood worker built in which both sides may be operated, and either side started or stopped without interfering with the other. As a planer, it is adapted for ordinary surfacing and thicknessing, planing out of wind, surfacing square, beveling, or tapering pieces, facing up bevels and baluster, etc. As a molding machine, it will work moldings, either simple or complex, up to 8 or 9 inches in width, stick sash and doors, tongue and groove ; and on the wood worker side it will produce waved, oval, elliptical, circular, and serpentine and rope or twist mold-ings. Among its other uses are chamfering, cornering, rab-beting and jointing window blinds, gaining, panel-raising on one or both sides, tenoning, ripping, cross cutting, groov-ing, hand matching, making glue and table joints, miter ing, nosing, squaring up, and a multiplicity of other opera' tions limited only by the skill of the operator. The molder and wood worker sides are securely connected upon one solid column with a substantial base, and the two sides of the machine are driven from one countershaft,which conveys power either separately or simultaneously. The molding side is so arranged as to form a complete four-side molder. The side spindles are fixed to and move with the table, which has a vertical movement of 16 inches. The feeding rolls are arranged for fast or slow feed. The wood worker side is constructed on the same princi-ple and embraces the same general features as the patent variety wood worker above described. At 7 we represent the NO. 3

SASH AND DOOR TENONING MACHINE, adapted for sash and door, cabinet, wheel, car, and railroad shops. The upper and lower cutter heads are adjustable so as to vary the thickness of the tenon or depth of shoulder, the carriage remaining stationary. Gages and stops with


PATENT BAND RESAWING MACHINE It will re-saw lumber up to 30 inches in width, and from 6 inches in thickness down to the thinnest stuff that admits of re-splitting. It is also arranged for sawing boards from the side of a plank, and is equally well adapted for hard or soft wood. Its working capacity is said to be from ten to fifteen thousand feet per day, depending on the kind and width of material. The saw kerf is about T\I- inch thick, and a saving of 20 per cent in lumber is claimed to be ef-fected, shown by the fact that, by the use of this machine, two inch panels, planed on both sides, can be produced from 1 inch lumber, whereas, by other methods, I i rich lum-ber is required. The wheels are 5 feet in diameter, and the distance be-tween their centers is such that there is but a comparati vely small portion of the saw blade left unsupported, and there is consequently less liability to deviate from a straight course. The upper wheel revolves on a 2+ inch shaft running in long self-oiling bearings, has a vertical adjustment of 13 inches, and can be adjusted so that the saw will run at any desirea point on its periphery. The feed rolls are connected by expansion gears, operated by friction. This friction is operated by a shaft connected with a lever in front of the column, by different movements of which the feed is instantly started or stopped, and grad-uated from fine to coarse. The feed is strong and powerful, and is under complete and immediate control of the opera-tor. There are also improved devices for cleaning the saw, etc. For full particulars, the reader is referred to the de-scription previously published in these columns. The ma-chine represented at 12 is a



PATENT COMBINATION EDGING AND RIPPING SAW TABLE. designed for edging and ripping up lumber 'for the flooring machine. It is claimed to have all the advantages of a good self feed edging saw; and at the same time, the feet can be thrown off and the stuff passed by the saw in the ordinary manner. By a novel device, when slitting lumber, the oper-ator is enabled to elevate the saw so as to just cut through the board, thus economizing the power by a reduction of the friction on the saw, presenting a better cutting angle of the teeth, and consequently making a smoother cut and re-quiring less sharpening of the teeth. The fence or gage has a parallel movement of 8 inches, and is quickly adjust-ed for different widths without the necessity of measuring, the table being provided with a gage spaced into inches and parts of an inch. It is also provided with a binder pulley, hung in a swing-ing frame, operated from the front of the machine by means of a rod and handle by which it can be raised or lowered to slacken or tighten the belt, and thus stop or start the saw. The machine will make a straight cut without any guide,by simply letting the feed roll take the board through as started. This feature will be appreciated when sawing boards with a crooked edge, which require straightening before other strips can be sawn from them. T A.

also a peculiar arrangement enabling the operator to take a greater or less cut without altering the cutters. The cylin-der is combined with the rear bed, and is adjusted on the main bed, the false or rear bed moving with the cylinder, making it very convenient to adjust. The feed works are driven by improved gearing, which is heavily weighted, and has two changes of speed. The feed rolls are hung in swinging cranes, and, by the means of a lever at the rear of the machine, are instantly elevated from the stuff, when it is desired to withdraw it before passing the cutter heads. The bed drop is 13 inches. The machine is furnished with pressure bars, springs, steel wrenches, guides, and every thing needed for speedy adjustments. It is made to work either 3 or 4 sides, as may be desired, of 8, 9, and 10 inches wide or under.

THE NO. 2 INSIDE PATENT MOLDING MACHINE, WITH BEADING ATTACHMENT, is represented at 3. This machine will work moldings on one or both sides, 12 inches wide and under, and up to 5 inches in thickness, also plane, tongue, groove, and bead 12 inches wide. The cutters may be set at varying angles and are capable of sticking any style of molding, by using cutters on all four sides, thus equalizing the cut and utilizing the power. The under cylinder has a vertical adjustment, graduated to differ-ent thicknesses of cut while in motion; and by simple loos-ening one bolt, the pressure bar and stands can be swung en-tirely clear of the cylinder, giving free access to the cutters for purposes of sharpening or adjusting. A patent beading attachment upon the pressure bar, over the under cylinder, gages the depth of the bead from the surface of the board, thus securing an automatic adjustment of the beading shaft at all times. The upright spindles can be moved vertically or horizon-tally while in motion, the outer spindle to any angle de-sired. Devices are provided for preventing the possibility of movement after the heads are brought to the desired posi-tion; and there is a chip breaker for holding the fiber of the wood while the side cuts are being made. An equal pres-sure is maintained on the lumber being worked, regardless of any equalities in the thickness. The rolls are connected by expansion gearing, which allows the upper roll to adapt itself to the varying angles on irregularly sawn lumber. At 3 is represented the PATENT CARVING AND PANELING MACHINE, the object of which is to produce carvings and recessed or relieved panels on the surface of lumber, edge molding, or-namenting, fret and bracket work, etc. It is especially adapted for fine furniture, coffin and piano manufactories, etc. A hollow iron column gives an ample support for the cutter spindle and also for the table, which is adjusted and regulated to form the required depth of moldings or carvings by means of hand wheel and screw, and has sufficient ver-tical movement to admit of working stuff of four inches thick and under.



THE NO. 2 VARIETY WOOD WORKER is represented at 5. This is one of those remarkable tools I lit, LUIZ/11111g 1 VIM VA, IU11augeu 1 VI W. ZIA/ W 1 The wood worker side is constructed on the same princi-ple and embraces the same general features as the patent variety wood worker above described. At 7 we represent the

NO. 3 SASH AND DOOR TENONING MACHINE, adapted for sash and door, cabinet, wheel, car, and railroad shops. The upper and lower cutter heads are adjustable so as to vary the thickness of the tenon or depth of shoulder, the carriage remaining stationary. Gages and stops with the carriage render setting out unnecessary. The copes are raised and lowered with the cutter heads, but may be inde pendently set. Both cope and cutter head shafts are pro tected against endwise vibration. The upper cutter head is arranged to cut one shoulder of the tenon longer if desired, saw spurs are used in lieu of knife spurs, and the cutters operate with a drawing stroke. There is a binding pulley which keeps the belt right and self-adjusting, and the bon-net may be conveniently swung back out of the way to afford access to the cutters. The

ELLIS PATENT BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE, shown at 8, is adapted to any length or width of slat, work-ing both ends, cutting the shoulder and rounding the tenons simultaneously at one and at the same operation. The ma-chine, which has a hand feed, is provided with two adjusta-ble arbors and frames, carrying a set of circular saws for forming the shoulder and rounding the tenon. Connected to the arbor frames are revolving disks, into which the slat is inserted and rotated in contact with the saws or cutting tools. We are informed that it is capable of working 20,000 slats per day. At 9 is shown the

PATENT SELF-FEED BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE, which differs from the machine last described. It differs somewhat from the Ellis machine, as the slat is fed endwise through rotating chucks, the shoulder being pressed against an adjustable gage for regulating the length of slat. By the peculiar construction of the revolving cutting tools, two tenons are cut and divided with one cutter head, simulta-neously and at one operation. A pressure upon the treadle causes a rotation of the slat, and at the same time depresses the chucks, carrying the slat against the cutting tools, ena-bling them to form a perfect tenon on each end. It will work any length of slat from 11 inches up to 24 inches, and will make any size of tenon desired.

TWO PATENT BAND SAWING MACHINES are depicted in the engraving, one for ordinary curve saw-ing, the other (10) intended for the furniture, wagon, sash and door,and agricultural shops,etc. An important feature is the method of keeping 1 he saw at its proper tension, allow-ing at the same time some flexibility to the parts, to com-pensate for any sudden impact, and prevent breaking of the saws by buckling or friction upon the back or sides. There is also a shipper with frictional brake for arresting the saw motion, and the table is provided with irregular adjustment for bevel sawing. At 11 is represented a parts of an inch. It is also provided with a binder pulley, hung in a swing-ing frame, operated from the front of the machine by means of a rod and handle by which it can be raised or lowered to slacken or tighten the belt, and thus stop or start the saw. The machine will make a straight cut without any guide,by simply letting the feed roll take the board through as started. This feature will be appreciated when sawing boards with a crooked edge, which require straightening before other strips can be sawn from them. In order to meet the need of a cheap and good boring ma chine, for either straight or angular boring, the

UNIVERSAL HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE, represented at 13, has been designed. The table is adjustable for boring at any desired upward or downward angle and the fence for any lateral angle. The traversing steel spindle is operated by means of a pow-erful jointed treadle, fitted with an improved step, which is provided with a steel point, forming a bearing for the end of the spindle, thus greatly reducing the wear, caused by the spindle pressing against a shoulder. The treadle has a weighted counterbalance, giving a quick return to the spin-dle. The spindle is fitted with cone pulley, with three changes of speed,and adjusting collars to graduate the depth of the hole to be bored. At 14 is shown a novel

PATENT BAND SAW SETTING AND FILING MACHINE, which, it is claimed, will set an ordinary band saw blade in three minutes, more accurately than can be done by hand in an hour. The saw being adjusted, the wheels are set far enough apart to straighten the blade, which is then pinched by a cam and wedges. The dies are set on the points of the teeth,and are adjusted with set screws on top. This sets the points over without bending them at the roots, pre-venting the warping of the saw which is liable to occur in setting by hand. Lastly at 15 we illustrate a

HAND AND POWER FEED SURFACE PLANING MACHINE. This is provided with steel-lipped cylinder, pressure bar, shaving bonnet, and adjustable tables. It will surface 24 inches wide up to 6 inches in thickness. This completes our list of machines, which, as embodi-ments of the new and ingenious devices, and as showing ad-mirable adaptation to their several purposes, may justly be regarded as representing the best work of both inventor and manufacturer. It is hardly necessary to add that their su-perior qualities are appreciated in foreign countries as well as in our own, and that the large trade which their maker now control, with Japan, Australia, South America, Enf land, New Zealand, and elsewhere, is one which reflect great credit upon our home industries. The machines have received the largest premiums at local fairs in this country, a medal at the Vienna Exposition, 'a medal for excel-silence and superiority at the late Chilian Exposition, Santia-go, Chili, South America, and also medal of honor and spe-cial commendatory reports from the Centennial jurors of awards.

Scientific-American-Nov-25-1876-p339-bot.jpeg

width="1189" />

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 343 NOVEMBER 25, 1876. 
                             

pg 344 test test    NOVEMBER 25, 1876.    
NOVFMBER 25, 1876.pic 9 ---page 344 Scientifir American.

Continued from first page. The large engraving which occupies our initial page this week represents one of the most complete exhibits in the whole magnificent array of woodworking machinery. It is that of Messrs. J. A. Fay & Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, with many of whose excellent machines our readers are already familiar through the illustrated descriptions which have appeared in these columns. In the manufacture of these im-plements, extensive experience, talent, and the greatest care are brought to bear. All shafts and turned fittings are fin-ished to standard sizes, screws are turned, heads and threads made on a regular system, holes are bored and tapped ex-actly to correspond, every revolving part is carefully and accurately balanced, all bearings are reamed and scraped, none but the best materials are used, and finally a rigid trial and inspection renders each machine, before issuing from the factory, in the best possible condition. The implements exhibited at the Centennial are by no means all of the dif-ferent productions of Messrs. J. A. Fay & Co., but are selec-ted with much discrimination, so as to typify generally the variety manufactured by this firm. We describe them be-low in detail, referring to each, as will be seen, by a distin-guishing number placed on the engraving. THE NO. 6 PLANING, MATCHING, AND BEADING MACHINE is marked 1 in the illustration. It is claimed to be the most important implement of the class displayed, on account of its admirable construction and the speed with which it fin-ishes the work it is designed to accomplish. The principal advantages are enumerated as follows : There are 6 feed rolls, 8 inches in diameter. The weight of the No. 6 machine is 10,600 lbs. , and it surfaces two sides 24 inches wide, 6+ inches thick, and matches 14 inches thick. For a more detailed description, the reader is referred to page 147,

Volume XXXV of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. At No. 2 in the engraving is represented the NO. 4 LARGE SIZE OUTSIDE PATENT MOLDING MACHINE. This will work any size of molding up to 9 inches wide, also plane, match, and bead narrow flooring, etc. The main spindle is 1 inches in diameter, provided with an outside bearing ; it is made from best English cast steel, and runs in patent self-oiling boxes,lined with the lining metal. The side spindles have patent setf-oiling steps and bearings, and ad-j ust vertically. The outer spindle adjusts laterally, and swings to any angle desired. The inside vertical spindle is arranged to adjust to and from the stuff, without altering the cutters. The under cylinder has a vertical movement, also a peculiar arrangement enabling the operator to take a greater or less cut without altering the cutters. The cylin-der is combined with the rear bed, and is adjusted on the main bed, the false or rear bed moving with the cylinder, making it very convenient to adjust. The feed works are driven by improved gearing, which is heavily weighted, and has two changes of speed. The feed rolls are hung in swinging cranes, and, by the means of a lever at the rear of the machine, are instantly elevated from the stuff, when it is desired to withdraw it before passing the cutter heads. capable of performing the work of several machines. It is adapted to planing out of wind, surfacing straight or tapered work, rabbeting door frames, etc., rabbeting and facing in-side blinds, jointing, beveling, gaining, chamfering, plow-ing, making glue joints, squaring up bed posts, table legs, newels, etc., raising panels, either square, bevel, or ogee, sticking beads, working circular molding, ripping, cross-cutting, tenoning, etc. When facing or planing out of wind, the vertical and lat-eral adjustments can be made simultaneously, thus constant-ly retaining the proper distance between periphery of cut and the edge of table. All of the different functions of the machine are secured by the use of two tables. For sawing, an extra table can be inserted between the other two, mak-ing a solid and continuous saw table. The arbor is of steel, of large diameter, and revolves in bearings supported on the column. One bearing is cast solidly to the column, and the other is movable, and is readily detachable for the purpose of substituting different heads. This is a very advantageous feature. Another combination, possessing a still wider range of ca-pabilities, is depicted at 6. This is the

NEW PATENT UNIVERSAL WOOD WORKER, claimed to be the only wood worker built in which both sides may be operated, and either side started or stopped without interfering with the other. As a planer, it is adapted for ordinary surfacing and thicknessing, planing out of wind, surfacing square, beveling, or tapering pieces, facing up bevels and baluster, etc. As a molding machine, it will work moldings, either simple or complex, up to 8 or 9 inches in width, stick sash and doors, tongue and groove ; and on the wood worker side it will produce waved, oval, elliptical, circular, and serpentine and rope or twist mold-ings. Among its other uses are chamfering, cornering, rab-beting and jointing window blinds, gaining, panel-raising on one or both sides, tenoning, ripping, cross cutting, groov-ing, hand matching, making glue and table joints, miter ing, nosing, squaring up, and a multiplicity of other opera' tions limited only by the skill of the operator. The molder and wood worker sides are securely connected upon one solid column with a substantial base, and the two sides of the machine are driven from one countershaft,which conveys power either separately or simultaneously. The molding side is so arranged as to form a complete four-side molder. The side spindles are fixed to and move with the table, which has a vertical movement of 16 inches. The feeding rolls are arranged for fast or slow feed. The wood worker side is constructed on the same princi-ple and embraces the same general features as the patent variety wood worker above described. At 7 we represent the NO. 3

SASH AND DOOR TENONING MACHINE, adapted for sash and door, cabinet, wheel, car, and railroad shops. The upper and lower cutter heads are adjustable so as to vary the thickness of the tenon or depth of shoulder, the carriage remaining stationary. Gages and stops with


PATENT BAND RESAWING MACHINE It will re-saw lumber up to 30 inches in width, and from 6 inches in thickness down to the thinnest stuff that admits of re-splitting. It is also arranged for sawing boards from the side of a plank, and is equally well adapted for hard or soft wood. Its working capacity is said to be from ten to fifteen thousand feet per day, depending on the kind and width of material. The saw kerf is about T\I- inch thick, and a saving of 20 per cent in lumber is claimed to be ef-fected, shown by the fact that, by the use of this machine, two inch panels, planed on both sides, can be produced from 1 inch lumber, whereas, by other methods, I i rich lum-ber is required. The wheels are 5 feet in diameter, and the distance be-tween their centers is such that there is but a comparati vely small portion of the saw blade left unsupported, and there is consequently less liability to deviate from a straight course. The upper wheel revolves on a 2+ inch shaft running in long self-oiling bearings, has a vertical adjustment of 13 inches, and can be adjusted so that the saw will run at any desirea point on its periphery. The feed rolls are connected by expansion gears, operated by friction. This friction is operated by a shaft connected with a lever in front of the column, by different movements of which the feed is instantly started or stopped, and grad-uated from fine to coarse. The feed is strong and powerful, and is under complete and immediate control of the opera-tor. There are also improved devices for cleaning the saw, etc. For full particulars, the reader is referred to the de-scription previously published in these columns. The ma-chine represented at 12 is a



PATENT COMBINATION EDGING AND RIPPING SAW TABLE. designed for edging and ripping up lumber 'for the flooring machine. It is claimed to have all the advantages of a good self feed edging saw; and at the same time, the feet can be thrown off and the stuff passed by the saw in the ordinary manner. By a novel device, when slitting lumber, the oper-ator is enabled to elevate the saw so as to just cut through the board, thus economizing the power by a reduction of the friction on the saw, presenting a better cutting angle of the teeth, and consequently making a smoother cut and re-quiring less sharpening of the teeth. The fence or gage has a parallel movement of 8 inches, and is quickly adjust-ed for different widths without the necessity of measuring, the table being provided with a gage spaced into inches and parts of an inch. It is also provided with a binder pulley, hung in a swing-ing frame, operated from the front of the machine by means of a rod and handle by which it can be raised or lowered to slacken or tighten the belt, and thus stop or start the saw. The machine will make a straight cut without any guide,by simply letting the feed roll take the board through as started. This feature will be appreciated when sawing boards with a crooked edge, which require straightening before other strips can be sawn from them. T A.

also a peculiar arrangement enabling the operator to take a greater or less cut without altering the cutters. The cylin-der is combined with the rear bed, and is adjusted on the main bed, the false or rear bed moving with the cylinder, making it very convenient to adjust. The feed works are driven by improved gearing, which is heavily weighted, and has two changes of speed. The feed rolls are hung in swinging cranes, and, by the means of a lever at the rear of the machine, are instantly elevated from the stuff, when it is desired to withdraw it before passing the cutter heads. The bed drop is 13 inches. The machine is furnished with pressure bars, springs, steel wrenches, guides, and every thing needed for speedy adjustments. It is made to work either 3 or 4 sides, as may be desired, of 8, 9, and 10 inches wide or under.

THE NO. 2 INSIDE PATENT MOLDING MACHINE, WITH BEADING ATTACHMENT, is represented at 3. This machine will work moldings on one or both sides, 12 inches wide and under, and up to 5 inches in thickness, also plane, tongue, groove, and bead 12 inches wide. The cutters may be set at varying angles and are capable of sticking any style of molding, by using cutters on all four sides, thus equalizing the cut and utilizing the power. The under cylinder has a vertical adjustment, graduated to differ-ent thicknesses of cut while in motion; and by simple loos-ening one bolt, the pressure bar and stands can be swung en-tirely clear of the cylinder, giving free access to the cutters for purposes of sharpening or adjusting. A patent beading attachment upon the pressure bar, over the under cylinder, gages the depth of the bead from the surface of the board, thus securing an automatic adjustment of the beading shaft at all times. The upright spindles can be moved vertically or horizon-tally while in motion, the outer spindle to any angle de-sired. Devices are provided for preventing the possibility of movement after the heads are brought to the desired posi-tion; and there is a chip breaker for holding the fiber of the wood while the side cuts are being made. An equal pres-sure is maintained on the lumber being worked, regardless of any equalities in the thickness. The rolls are connected by expansion gearing, which allows the upper roll to adapt itself to the varying angles on irregularly sawn lumber. At 3 is represented the PATENT CARVING AND PANELING MACHINE, the object of which is to produce carvings and recessed or relieved panels on the surface of lumber, edge molding, or-namenting, fret and bracket work, etc. It is especially adapted for fine furniture, coffin and piano manufactories, etc. A hollow iron column gives an ample support for the cutter spindle and also for the table, which is adjusted and regulated to form the required depth of moldings or carvings by means of hand wheel and screw, and has sufficient ver-tical movement to admit of working stuff of four inches thick and under.



THE NO. 2 VARIETY WOOD WORKER is represented at 5. This is one of those remarkable tools I lit, LUIZ/11111g 1 VIM VA, IU11augeu 1 VI W. ZIA/ W 1 The wood worker side is constructed on the same princi-ple and embraces the same general features as the patent variety wood worker above described. At 7 we represent the

NO. 3 SASH AND DOOR TENONING MACHINE, adapted for sash and door, cabinet, wheel, car, and railroad shops. The upper and lower cutter heads are adjustable so as to vary the thickness of the tenon or depth of shoulder, the carriage remaining stationary. Gages and stops with the carriage render setting out unnecessary. The copes are raised and lowered with the cutter heads, but may be inde pendently set. Both cope and cutter head shafts are pro tected against endwise vibration. The upper cutter head is arranged to cut one shoulder of the tenon longer if desired, saw spurs are used in lieu of knife spurs, and the cutters operate with a drawing stroke. There is a binding pulley which keeps the belt right and self-adjusting, and the bon-net may be conveniently swung back out of the way to afford access to the cutters. The

ELLIS PATENT BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE, shown at 8, is adapted to any length or width of slat, work-ing both ends, cutting the shoulder and rounding the tenons simultaneously at one and at the same operation. The ma-chine, which has a hand feed, is provided with two adjusta-ble arbors and frames, carrying a set of circular saws for forming the shoulder and rounding the tenon. Connected to the arbor frames are revolving disks, into which the slat is inserted and rotated in contact with the saws or cutting tools. We are informed that it is capable of working 20,000 slats per day. At 9 is shown the

PATENT SELF-FEED BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE, which differs from the machine last described. It differs somewhat from the Ellis machine, as the slat is fed endwise through rotating chucks, the shoulder being pressed against an adjustable gage for regulating the length of slat. By the peculiar construction of the revolving cutting tools, two tenons are cut and divided with one cutter head, simulta-neously and at one operation. A pressure upon the treadle causes a rotation of the slat, and at the same time depresses the chucks, carrying the slat against the cutting tools, ena-bling them to form a perfect tenon on each end. It will work any length of slat from 11 inches up to 24 inches, and will make any size of tenon desired.

TWO PATENT BAND SAWING MACHINES are depicted in the engraving, one for ordinary curve saw-ing, the other (10) intended for the furniture, wagon, sash and door,and agricultural shops,etc. An important feature is the method of keeping 1 he saw at its proper tension, allow-ing at the same time some flexibility to the parts, to com-pensate for any sudden impact, and prevent breaking of the saws by buckling or friction upon the back or sides. There is also a shipper with frictional brake for arresting the saw motion, and the table is provided with irregular adjustment for bevel sawing. At 11 is represented a parts of an inch. It is also provided with a binder pulley, hung in a swing-ing frame, operated from the front of the machine by means of a rod and handle by which it can be raised or lowered to slacken or tighten the belt, and thus stop or start the saw. The machine will make a straight cut without any guide,by simply letting the feed roll take the board through as started. This feature will be appreciated when sawing boards with a crooked edge, which require straightening before other strips can be sawn from them. In order to meet the need of a cheap and good boring ma chine, for either straight or angular boring, the

UNIVERSAL HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE, represented at 13, has been designed. The table is adjustable for boring at any desired upward or downward angle and the fence for any lateral angle. The traversing steel spindle is operated by means of a pow-erful jointed treadle, fitted with an improved step, which is provided with a steel point, forming a bearing for the end of the spindle, thus greatly reducing the wear, caused by the spindle pressing against a shoulder. The treadle has a weighted counterbalance, giving a quick return to the spin-dle. The spindle is fitted with cone pulley, with three changes of speed,and adjusting collars to graduate the depth of the hole to be bored. At 14 is shown a novel

PATENT BAND SAW SETTING AND FILING MACHINE, which, it is claimed, will set an ordinary band saw blade in three minutes, more accurately than can be done by hand in an hour. The saw being adjusted, the wheels are set far enough apart to straighten the blade, which is then pinched by a cam and wedges. The dies are set on the points of the teeth,and are adjusted with set screws on top. This sets the points over without bending them at the roots, pre-venting the warping of the saw which is liable to occur in setting by hand. Lastly at 15 we illustrate a

HAND AND POWER FEED SURFACE PLANING MACHINE. This is provided with steel-lipped cylinder, pressure bar, shaving bonnet, and adjustable tables. It will surface 24 inches wide up to 6 inches in thickness. This completes our list of machines, which, as embodi-ments of the new and ingenious devices, and as showing ad-mirable adaptation to their several purposes, may justly be regarded as representing the best work of both inventor and manufacturer. It is hardly necessary to add that their su-perior qualities are appreciated in foreign countries as well as in our own, and that the large trade which their maker now control, with Japan, Australia, South America, Enf land, New Zealand, and elsewhere, is one which reflect great credit upon our home industries. The machines have received the largest premiums at local fairs in this country, a medal at the Vienna Exposition, 'a medal for excel-silence and superiority at the late Chilian Exposition, Santia-go, Chili, South America, and also medal of honor and spe-cial commendatory reports from the Centennial jurors of awards.

width="1189" />
width="1189" />

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 345 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.                              
pg 345    NOVEMBER 25, 1876.    
NOVFMBER 25, 1876. pic 10 ---page 345 Scientific American.
NOVEMBER 25, 1876. 345 CENTENNIAL NOTES. TIIE FRENCH POTTERY DISPLAY. France,

in her section in the Main Building,makes a mar-vulous display of pottery, which must be studied piece by piece before any idea can be obtained either of its extent or yid ue. Indeed some of the vases exhibited, made in the S6v res factory during the first years of its existence, are of I m mer, se value, especially in these times, when all old china, owing to the taste for making collections of the same, fetches prices out of all proportion to the intrinsic value of the objects. Porcelain is of two kinds, " hard and soft paste," distin-guished from each other by their relative density, a quality governed by the comparative proportion of silex entering into their composition. The first porcelain of French manu-facture was " pate tendre", or soft paste, and this was principally made at SCwres. In 1761 the secret of making bard porcelain was discovered, and the manufacture of pate tendre" was thereupon discontinued. Hard porcelain is produced from kaolin and other materials, and usua-ally goes through three processes in its manufacture. The first process, which is the most commonly used for pieces of average size, consists in the placing of the paste in a lump upon a mold, which, in the case of a plate, for instance, would represent the bottom half. The mold and paste are then put on a rapidly revolving brass cylinder in front of the workman, who, by a quick movement of the hand and moistening with a sponge, causes the paste to assume the de-sired form for the upper half, as by its pressure against the mold it assumes that of the lower half. So also in the case of the cups; the mold is merely for the exterior portion, the interior being shaped by hand, The second process is used for large pieces, such as vases, soup tureens, etc. The paste is placed on the revolving brass plate in a lump, and the workman, by means of steel tools, causes it to assume the shape sought for. The third process, which admits of the production of the most minute latticed or diagonal figure work upon the body of the piece, to which it also gives an almost paper-like thinness, is one in which the paste, re-duced to a liquid form, is run into molds. Some of the French vases are so magnificently painted3 as to possess a high value as works of pictorial art alone. There is a toilet mot On which the color was melted on the glaze, so that the appearance is of polished lapis lazuli, on which the most cu-rius effects of light and shade are produced. In the basins, where the pigment in burning has dropped to the bottom, there seem to be several inches of water, so deep is the color; while on the base of other pieces,where the color has (Iroppbd off, the ware is mottled blue and white. One Paris firm makes a specialty of porcelain with a mother-of-pearl glaze produced by the use of uranium salts ; another exhibits majolica, where the portions in relief are produced by pres-sure applied to the back of the object, just as repousse work is done in silver. Ordinarily such decorations are made separately and attached to the article.

This system, which combines in one instrument the power of making, at a given point and with a single objective lens, six pictures of different dimensions, consists, in the addition to ordinary apparatus, of two extra lenses : one convergent, for making the object smaller, and the other divergent, for making the object larger. With these lenses, placed singly, as the occasion demands, in the position assigned to them, the necessity of changing the object glass to produce different sizes of pictures is obviated. A telescope, valued at $6,000, with an object glass 12---inches in diameter, is shown by Secretan, Paris. Its magni-fying power is 600 times. In this exhibit is an admirably designed camera lucida, or, as it is here called, megalographe. For microscopic drawing and pattern drawing for industrial purposes, this instrument possesses many advantages. It differs from the ordinary camera lucida, inasmuch as it ad-mits of drawing directly from objects under the microscope, or from designs produced by the turning of the kaleidoscope. It is provided with three tubes, one microscopic, the second kaleidoscopic, and the third simple. A prism on a detached tube of its own is adjustable to either of these, and by means of mechanical contrivances the point of view may be changed as occasion demands.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES,
An automatic balance, in use in the Paris Mint since 1874, is a most ingenious machine. Its object is to determine the weight of twenty franc pieces, and to divide them into classes, according as they are standard, light, or heavy weight. At one end of it is an inclined trough, in which the pieces are placed; and, as one by one they reach the end of the incline, they slide upon the weigh pan of a small scale, having at the other end of its beam a counter weight of precisely the standard weight for a twenty franc piece, Beneath the weight pan is a hopper, and in front of this latter the mouths of three tubes, terminating in boxes des, tined for the reception of light, heavy, and standard weight pieces. Should the piece, after reaching the scale, prove heavy, the weigh pan would be borne down by it, and this, acting upon the balancing needle indicator, causes it to move towards the piece. This movement acts upon the hopper ; and when the piece is thrown off the scale, it passes directly into the tube leading into the box for heavy pieces. Light and standard weight coins cause the needle to go towards the counter weight, or to remain within the limits allowed to the standard weight ; and these movements act upon the hopper as above described, and send the coins into their appropriate boxes.

THE AWARDS FOR THE LYALL LOOMS.

The positive motion loom, which was one of the most im-portant American inventions exhibited at the Centennial, has deservedly received from the expert judges the highest commendation. The report states that the reasons for the award are " variety, extent, and importance of the looms exhibited ; invention of the positive motion, its wide range of applicability, fitness for the purpose intended, and excel-lence of design, construction, and working utility and econ---- T t„. strain. Finally General'Hawley, the President of the Cen-tennial Commission, came forward, and,in a few appropriate words, acknowledged our national gratitude to our foreign visitors,and thanked the city of Philadelphia and the general government. As, at the conclusion, the audience joined in the hymn " America," the original flag of the American Union, displayed by Paul Jones on the ship Bon Homme Richard, was unfurled, and national salutes of forty-one guns were fired from the land battery and the war vessel. After the burst of cheering which the display of the histori-cal banner elicited had subsided, President Grant advanced to the front of the platform, and in a low voice said : " Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Centennial Commission, I now declare the International Exhibition of 1876 closed." Then as he waved his hand, a telegraph operator behind him touched the key of an instrument, the signal 7-6 rang forth from all the gongs and bells, and at that instant the great Corliss engine slackened its motion, became slower and slower, and then stopped. The great audience reverently sang the Doxology and dispersed. As they left the grounds, the huge English road engine came puffing out of the gates, dragging two cars loaded with filled packing boxes. The Exposition was indeed over. New York Academy of Sciences. A special meeting of the biological section of this society was held on Monday evening, October 30, at the library of the New York Aquarium. Professor A. E. Foote, of Philadelphia, exhibited a speci-men of rutile in quartz, said to be the finest in the world. The crystals were about 5 inches long, thicker than a knit-ting needle, and doubly terminated. This specimen was found at Hanover, N. H., and formerly belonged to Dr. Chilton. The professor also exhibited a large and beautiful emerald from Mungo, New Granada, and a fine specimen of rubellite (a variety of tourmaline) both from the same col lection, now the property of Dr. Foote, Professor Hubbard exhibited a fossil tooth of an elephant, weighing 13 lbs., from near Rochester, N. Y. Some seeds and nuts of tropical sources were also pre-sented, and referred to Professor Martin to determine their species.

THOUGHTS ON EVOLUTION. Professor E. C. H. Day,
chairman of the section, made a brief address on evolution. The speaker first declaimed any dependence of evolutionism on Darwinism; the latter may prove false, and yet that does not disprove the former. The idea of evolution has been generally accepted in physical matters, in astronomy, in geology, etc., and it is only when applied to life that it meets with opposition. He then ex-plained that the doctrine of evolution is not atheistical, but implies greater wisdom on the part of the Creator than does special creation. He drew comparisons between the length of the life of man, three score years and ten, and the sup-posed age of the world, representing the former as -16 inch on a line from 120 feet to ten blocks long. He attempted to explain how the honey ant, al though a neuter, could be the

also a peculiar arrangement enabling the operator to take a greater or less cut without altering the cutters. The cylin-der is combined with the rear bed, and is adjusted on the main bed, the false or rear bed moving with the cylinder, making it very convenient to adjust. The feed works are driven by improved gearing, which is heavily weighted, and has two changes of speed. The feed rolls are hung in swinging cranes, and, by the means of a lever at the rear of the machine, are instantly elevated from the stuff, when it is desired to withdraw it before passing the cutter heads. The bed drop is 13 inches. The machine is furnished with pressure bars, springs, steel wrenches, guides, and every thing needed for speedy adjustments. It is made to work either 3 or 4 sides, as may be desired, of 8, 9, and 10 inches wide or under.

THE NO. 2 INSIDE PATENT MOLDING MACHINE, WITH BEAD-ING ATTACHMENT, is represented at 3.
This machine will work moldings on one or both sides, 12 inches wide and under, and up to 5 inches in thickness, also plane, tongue, groove, and bead 12 inches wide. The cutters may be set at varying angles and are capable of sticking any style of molding, by using cutters on all four sides, thus equalizing the cut and utilizing the power. The under cylinder has a vertical adjustment, graduated to differ-ent thicknesses of cut while in motion; and by simple loos-ening one bolt, the pressure bar and stands can be swung en-tirely clear of the cylinder, giving free access to the cutters for purposes of sharpening or adjusting. A patent beading attachment upon the pressure bar, over the under cylinder, gages the depth of the bead from the surface of the board, thus securing an automatic adjustment of the beading shaft at all times. The upright spindles can be moved vertically or horizon-tally while in motion, the outer spindle to any angle de-sired. Devices are provided for preventing the possibility of movement after the heads are brought to the desired posi-tion; and there is a chip breaker for holding the fiber of the wood while the side cuts are being made. An equal pres-sure is maintained on the lumber being worked, regardless of any equalities in the thickness. The rolls are connected by expansion gearing, which allows the upper roll to adapt itself to the varying angles on irregularly sawn lumber.

At 3 is represented the PATENT CARVING AND PANELING MACHINE,

the object of which is to produce carvings and recessed or relieved panels on the surface of lumber, edge molding, or-namenting, fret and bracket work, etc. It is especially adapted for fine furniture, coffin and piano manufactories, etc. A hollow iron column gives an ample support for the cutter spindle and also for the table, which is adjusted and regulated to form the required depth of moldings or carvings by means of hand wheel and screw, and has sufficient ver-tical movement to admit of working stuff of four inches thick and under. THE NO. 2 VARIETY WOOD WORKER is represented at 5. This is one of those remarkable tools The feeding rolls are arranged for fast or slow feed. The wood worker side is constructed on the same princi-ple and embraces the same general features as the patent variety wood worker above described.

At 7 we represent the NO. 3 SASH AND DOOR TENONING MACHINE,

adapted for sash and door, cabinet, wheel, car, and railroad shops. The upper and lower cutter heads are adjustable so as to vary the thickness of the tenon or depth of shoulder, the carriage remaining stationary. Gages and stops with the carriage render setting out unnecessary. The copes are raised and lowered with the cutter heads, but may be inde pendently set. Both cope and cutter head shafts are pro tected against endwise vibration. The upper cutter head is arranged to cut one shoulder of the tenon longer if desired, saw spurs are used in lieu of knife spurs, and the cutters operate with a drawing stroke. There is a binding pulley which keeps the belt right and self-adjusting, and the bon-net may be conveniently swung back out of the way to afford access to the cutters.

The ELLIS PATENT BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE, shown at 8,
is adapted to any length or width of slat, work-ing both ends, cutting the shoulder and rounding the tenons simultaneously at one and at the same operation. The ma-chine, which has a hand feed, is provided with two adjusta-ble arbors and frames, carrying a set of circular saws for forming the shoulder and rounding the tenon. Connected to the arbor frames are revolving disks, into which the slat is inserted and rotated in contact with the saws or cutting tools. We are informed that it is capable of working 20,000 slats per day.


At 9 is shown the PATENT SELF-FEED BLIND SLAT TENONING MACHINE,
which differs from the machine last described. It differs somewhat from the Ellis machine, as the slat is fed endwise through rotating chucks, the shoulder being pressed against an adjustable gage for regulating the length of slat. By the peculiar construction of the revolving cutting tools, two tenons are cut and divided with one cutter head, simulta-neously and at one operation. A pressure upon the treadle causes a rotation of the slat, and at the same time depresses the chucks, carrying the slat against the cutting tools, ena-bling them to form a perfect tenon on each end. It will work any length of slat from 1/ inches up to 24 inches, and will make any size of tenon desired.

TWO PATENT BAND SAWING MACHINES
are depicted in the engraving, one for ordinary curve saw-ing, the other (10) intended for the furniture, wagon, sash and door,and agricultural shops,etc. An important feature is the method of keeping i he saw at its proper tension, allow-ing at the same time some flexibility to the parts, to com-pensate for any sudden impact, and prevent breaking of the saws by buckling or friction upon the back or sides. There is also a shipper with frictional brake for arresting the saw motion, and the table is provided with irregular adjustment for bevel sawing. At 11 is represented a parts of an inch. It is also provided with a binder pulley, hung in a swing-ing frame, operated from the front of the machine by means of a rod and handle by which it can be raised or lowered to slacken or tighten the belt, and thus stop or start the saw. The machine will make a straight cut without any guide,by simply letting the feed roll take the board through as started. This feature will be appreciated when sawing boards with a crooked edge, which require straightening before other strips can be sawn from them. In order to meet the need of a cheap and good boring ma chine, for either straight or angular boring, the


UNIVERSAL HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE,
represented at 13, has been designed.
The table is adjustable for boring at any desired upward or downward angle and the fence for any lateral angle. The traversing steel spindle is operated by means of a pow-erful jointed treadle, fitted with an improved step, which is provided with a steel point, forming a bearing for the end of the spindle, thus greatly reducing the wear, caused by the spindle pressing against a shoulder. The treadle has a weighted counterbalance, giving a quick return to the spin-dle. The spindle is fitted with cone pulley, with three changes of speed,and adjusting collars to graduate the depth of the hole to be bored.

At 14 is shown a novel PATENT BAND SAW SETTING AND FILING MAC HINE,
which, it is claimed, will set an ordinary band saw blade in three minutes, more accurately than can be done by hand in an hour. The saw being adjusted, the wheels are set far enough apart to straighten the blade, which is then pinched by a cam and wedges. The dies are set on the points of the teeth,and are adjusted with set screws on top. This sets the points over without bending them at the roots, pre-venting the warping of the saw which is liable to occur in setting by hand.

Lastly at 15 we illustrate a HAND AND POWER FEED SURFACE PLANING MACHINE.
This is provided with steel-lipped cylinder, pressure bar, shaving bonnet, and adjustable tables. It will surface 24 inches wide up to 6 inches in thickness. This completes our list of machines, which, as embodi-ments of the new and ingenious devices, and as showing ad-mirable adaptation to their several purposes, may justly be regarded as representing the best work of both inventor and manufacturer. It is hardly necessary to add that their su-perior qualities are appreciated in foreign countries as well as in our own, and that the large trade which their maker now control, with Japan, Australia, South America, Enf land, New Zealand, and elsewhere, is one which reflect great credit upon our home industries. The machines have received the largest premiums at local fairs in this country, a medal at the Vienna Exposition, 'a medal for excel-lence and superiority at the late (Milian Exposition, Santia-go, Chili, South America, and also medal of honor and spe-cial commendatory reports from the Centennial jurors of awards. .

width="1189" />
width="1189" />

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 346 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.                              
pg 345 test test    NOVEMBER 25, 1876.    
NOVFMBER 25, 1876. pic 10 -test again--page 346 Scientific American.
NOVEMBER 25, 1876. pg 346 ,

 

pg 348 NOVEMBER 25, 1876. pg 346 NOVEMBER 25, 1876.
Bank Clerks. The Boston Commercial Bulletin, says that the bank clerks of Boston are as capable, industrious, and faithful a set of bank officers as can be found in any city in the world. But after all, it states, the place to find an extensive army of well trained bank clerks is in the Bank of England. This insti-tution, with its capital of ninety millions of dollars and dat-ing back to 1694, today employs 900 clerks. The building in which these clerks do their work covers five acres of ground. It has not a single window upon the street, the light of day being admitted only through open courts. It has a clock in the center of the bank with fifty dials. The Bank of England is situated in the center of London ; but it has one branch at the west end of the city, and many branches in the provinces. Though the Bank of England employs a very heavy force of clerks, it would seem, from a glance at its business, that it ought to keep them well em-ployed and fairly remunerate them. Its sole work in its issue department is to give out notes to the public. The profit the bank derives from its issue department is the in-terest received upon the $70,000,000 government debt and securities, which, at the rate of 3 per cent, is $2,100,000 a year. By its dealing in coin and bullion, it has the reputa tion of making $150,000 a year. The amount of Bank of England notes afloat generally averages about $100,000,000, and has lately reached $165,000,000. The deposits in the Bank of England, out of which it of course makes a great deal of money, range from $60,000,000 to nearly twice that sum.
The Adulteration of Oils.
We subjoin some extracts from the " Report on Adultera-tions and Sophistications " presented to the American Phar-maceutical Association at its meeting,in Boston,last autumn. Three signatures were attached to the report, namely, Adolph W. Miller, chairman, James R. Mercein, and M. L. M. Pe'_x-otto; but Mr. Mercein stated that the whole of the work had been performed by the chairman. Oil of almonds. We are informed on most excellent au-thority that the so-called French oils of almond, both fixed and essential, are obtained exclusively from peach kernels. Oil of bergamot. We were shown a highly complex for-mula, said to be used by the manipulators in Germany for skillfully reducing this oil. Almost three fourths of the compound consisted of the oils of orange, copaiba, lemon, a little neroli, and several others. We were informed that large quantities of this sophisticated oil are disposed of in Europe. Oil of Ceylon cinnamon. Albert P. Brown found this oil to be adulterated with sassafras and cloves. The oil of the leaves of the Ceylon cinnamon is also frequently sold in place of the true oil of the bark. The former is a brown, viscid, essential oil of clove-like odor; it is sometimes called heavy oil of Ceylon cinnamon. Oil of erigeron. A specimen of this oil was sent to the writer by Mr. Joseph L. Lemberger, which was so largely adulterated that the true odor was entirely overpowered by Oil of verbena is almost out of the market, being every-where substituted by the oil of lemon grass, andropogon cit-ratus Oil of wintergreen was offered to the writer by a tall Jer-sey man, who professed to have distilled every drop of it himself, and who therefore claimed to be able to guarantee its absolute purity; and it proved to contain just two thirds of its volume of alcohol. It is somewhat remarkable that even this large proportion of alcohol could scarcely be re-cognised by the senses, and that, as far as could be judged by the taste and smell, this was an unusually fine specimen of oil of wintergreen. Several other lots have been met with containing various proportions of oil of sassafras. Oil of wormseed. Joseph L. Lemberger has favored us with a specimen of the oil, smelling very strongly of rancid turpentine. Oil of wormwood has been met with, extensively mixed with turpentine Olive oil is largely substituted by some of the cheaper fixed oils found in this market. Very little of that which is sold by grocers is even imported from Europe. A New York merchant, who is extensively engaged in bottling this arti-cle in imitation of the imported style, informed us that for the cheapest grade he is in the habit of putting up refined cotton seed oil, and for a somewhat better brand the oil of benne. The expressed oil of mustard, a by-product in the manufacture of table mustard, is also applied to the same purpose. Our French friend, whom we have before alluded to, also kindly informed us that in his country the ground nut oil (arachis hypogeea) is used to an enormous extent for admixture with olive oil, so that but very little of the latter is exported strictly pure.—Chemist and Druggist. Microscopic Detection-- Wool and Hair. The American, Naturalist furnishes some interesting facts on this subject. The United States Treasury Department has admitted calf hair goods free from the duties levied on those composed in part of wool ; and evidence having been furnished that some fabrics, claimed as made of hair, con-tained more or less wool, a commission was appointed, in which Dr. J. G. Hunt, the well known microscopist, was asso-ciated, for the examination of these fabrics. The possibili-ty of distinguishing in manufactured mixture the hair of the cow and calf and that of the sheep has been denied by some microscopists, especially as these fabrics vary on different parts of the same animal. The commission has, however, been able to classify and distinguish them. Wooly hairs have no pith, and no perceptible taper. Their mean diame-ter varies from a five-hundredth to the thousandth part of an inch. At irregular intervals they have one-sided spiral thickenings, causing the wool to curl. They occur on sheep, camels, goats, and llamas; and many other animals have a por-tion of these wooly hairs. On the other hand, straight hairs are shorter, thicker at base, and tapering. The pith is a large part. The scales on the outside, of which there are twenty to forty in a hundredth part of an inch, lie smoothly. In wool they project more or less, and are from fifteen to thirty to 1 11'1 P • 1 TXT!.11_ 11_ past it. The same inventor .bas also contrived a new ventilating cowl. In order to withdraw a current of air from soil pipes etc., the shaft is carried up from the soil pipe ; and upon the top of the shaft is mounted a revolving cowl, provided with a valve of peculiar construction, for preventing ally down draft. IMPROVED MACHINE FOIL SAW I NO STAVES. George W. Richardson, Arlington, Ky., assignor to himself and W. T. Davis, same place.—This consists of a stationary circular track, around which the saw runs. The saw is tip rued by a friction pulley, opposite to which is a friction roller, In a notch of tne track, which presses the saw against the driving pu 'ley. The table for the work is arranged at another notch in said track, for the passage of the staves and other objects sawn off. IMPROVED SHINGLING BRACKET. David M. Moore, Windsor, Vt., assignor to himself and James II. Cook, same place.—This is an adjustable bracket for staging, ele-vated seats, or other purposes ; and consists of pivoted braces with prongs or teeth at the lower ends, and connected by pivot rods, that may be adjusted to greater or less width of the bracket by suitable bolts. NEW AGRICULTURAL INVENTIONS. IMPROVED CULTIVATOR. Charles R. Hartman, Allison, Ill.—This cultivator may be used for cultivating tall plants, will not be broken by the plows strik-ing an obstruction, and will not be turned to one or the other side by one or the other horse getting a little in advance. IMPROVED FENCE. William Stacy, Cottage, Iowa.—This fence is portable and yet not liable to be blown down or pushed over. Each panel is formed of two or more horizontal boards, having a cross bar attached to each end, and a cross bar attached to their middle parts. To one end of each panel is secured an arm, which projects to enter the end of the adjacent panel, where it is secured in place by a pin. The fence is held erect by a brace formed of two inciined bars, which cross each other near their upper ends, and the lower parts of which are connected by a cross bar. The lower parts of the panels are kept in place by a key. IMPROVED COTTON SEED DRILL. Henry Steckler, Jr., New Iberia, assignor to himself and Richard Frotscher, New Orleans, La.—This consists of a dropping wheel that is provided with a series of holes at some distance from its periphery. Through a perforated rim, V-shaped wires are passed, that serve to stir up the seed in connection with radial side stirrers, dropping the same on an oscillating fork, pivoted below the open-ing of the seed receptacle, to be conducted by the funnel-shaped opener or plow to the ground. IMPROVED HARVESTER DROPPER. William H. Akens, Pennline, Pa.—This is an improved device for delivering the cut grain from the platform of a reaper, and in neat gavels at the side of the reaper, and out of its way in making the next round. IMPROVED PLOW. Adam Schuetz, Carondelet, Mo.—This is an improved plow for forming ridges for planting sweet potatoes, and which may be easily adjusted to adapt it for any of the uses of an ordinary plow. NEW MECHANICAL AND ENGINEERING INVENTIONS. IMPROVED COTTON PRESS. James H. Davis and William White, Winnsborough, Tex.—This consists of a contrivance for driving the screw, which works the follower by a worm when doing the work, and a toothed wheel when returning the follower : also, of a removable case which re-ceives the pressed bale and carries it away on a truck to be tied, ========================================================================================== Europe. Oil of Ceylon cinnamon. Albert P. Brown found this oil to be adulterated with sassafras and cloves. The oil of the leaves of the Ceylon cinnamon is also frequently sold in place of the true oil of the bark. The former is a brown, viscid, essential oil of clove-like odor; it is sometimes called heavy oil of Ceylon cinnamon. Oil of erigeron. A specimen of this oil was sent to the writer by Mr. Joseph L. Lemberger, which was so largely adulterated that the true odor was entirely overpowered by that of turpentine. Oil of juniper berries was offered to the writer by a highly respectable firm of wholesale liquor dealers, who, in their desire to have a really pure and superior article, had them-selves imported it direct from Holland, having ordered the very best that was obtainable. As a very much greater quantity had been sent than their order called for, they were anxious to dispose of a portion of it. The gentlemen were so very sure about the absolute purity of their oil, for which they had paid a liberal price, that they were loath to believe their own eyes when,after agitation with an equal quantity of water, only 20 per cent of their so-called oil was left, the remainder being alcohol. Oil of lemon, put up in original cans and genuine imported cases, branded " E. B. Co.," was found by the writer to con-tained 25 per cent alcohol. There is every probability that both seals were counterfeit, as the letters composing them were slightly different from those found on the top of genu-ine cans from Brehmer & Sanderson. The metal on which the seals had been impressed also presented a dull and tar-nished appearance, while it is usually perfectly bright and clean. Oil of melissa. The oil of lemon grass,obtained in the East from andropogon citrates, is very frequently substituted for the true oil of melissa, which is distilled in Germany from melissa officinalis. Oil of origanum rarely reaches this country. A few pounds imported by the writer cost about $5 per pound. The so-called commercial oil of origanum is obtained in France from thyme vulgaris. The original packages are even dis-tinctly marked essence de thym rouge. As has been already stated, this oil is very frequently mixed with turpentine in large proportion. Its chief consumption is among the manu-facturers of patent liniments, who are totally indifferent as to quality, if they only obtain an original package. Oil of peppermint was met with also largely with castor oil and alcohol. Twenty-six lbs. of this adulterated oil yielded, when distilled by the writer, 8+ lbs., of pure oil, about a gallon of castor oil remaining in the still. The pro-portion of alcohol, which had been present, is represented in the loss. Oil of rose geranium is now so frequently substituted by the ginger grass or palms rosa oil, obtained from andropogon schananthus, that it is somewhat difficult to procure the true oil of pelargonium odoratissimum or radula in commerce. Oil of sassafras was purchased by the writer from a party who represented that he had personally distilled it, and it was found on evaporation to leave a residue of 14 per cent of rosin. have no pith, and no perceptible taper. Their mean diame-ter varies from a five-hundredth to the thousandth part of an inch. At irregular intervals they have one-sided spiral thickenings, causing the wool to curl. They occur on sheep, camels, goats, and llamas; and many other animals have a por-tion of these wooly hairs. On the other hand, straight hairs are shorter, thicker at base, and tapering. The pith is a large part. The scales on the outside, of which there are twenty to forty in a hundredth part of an inch, lie smoothly. In wool they project more or less, and are from fifteen to thirty to the hundredth part of an inch. With these and other dis-tinctions before them, the commission found, by first bleach-ing the colored fibers in mineral acids, and then mounting them in glycerin, and by using high powers, that in a few samples there was no wool ; in a larger proportion there was a small quantity ; in a very large number of samples there was from five to ten per cent, as well as a much larger propor-tion ; and in one case it was difficult to find five per cent of genuine cow hair. *"4 • A BLOCK of iron about 2+ inches:long by 1 + inches square, flat at the bottom and drawn out for a handle with a wooden end, like a soldering iron, is an excellent implement for re-moving old and hard putty from sashes. When hot (not red hot) the iron is placed against and passed slowly over the putty, which becomes softened by the heat and is ren-dered easily detachable from the wood. A VERY small quantity of oleic acid dropped upon a sam-ple of gum copal, and but slightly warmed, will dissolve that gum completely. Nereid g1sextran and t taiga watento. NEW WOODWORKING AND HOUSE AND CARRIAGE BUILDING INVENTIONS. IMPROVED FREIGHT CAR. • Edward D. Shaffer, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada.—This in-vention consists in the arrangement of a vertical partition divid-ing the car into two parts, also openings in the top and bottom of the car for admitting and discharging grain, and inclined parti-tions, forming, with said vertical partition, two hoppers for the grain to be transported. IMPROVEMENT IN GRAIN CAR DOORS. James M, Duncan, Covington, Ind.—The door is made in two parts, each part being pivoted at its upper and outer corner to one of the door posts, and capable of swinging in a vertical plane. The separating line of the door is an arc described from the pivot of one of the doors, making the edge of one door convex, and that of the other concave. It also consists in a hinged bar for sustain-ing the door when closed, which rests in recesses in the door posts, and in brackets for supporting the bar and doors when opened. The advantages claimed are that the door closes tightly, that it avoids the necessity of nailing the doors when loading, and also makes them lighter. IMPROVED DRAIN TRAP AND VENTILATING COWL. Edward G. Banner, London, Eng.—The first device is a balanced lever trap for preventing inflow of noxious gases from drains through the pipes leading from water closets in dwelling houses. The construction is such that the greater the pressure of the re-turning sewage against the trap, the more tightly is the trap closed, so that no flood water, sewage, or sewage gas can be forced Adam Schuetz, Carondelet, Mo.—This is an improved plow for forming ridges for planting sweet potatoes, and which may be easily adjusted to adapt it for any of the uses of an ordinary plow. NEW MECHANICAL AND ENGINEERING INVENTIONS. IMPROVED COTTON PRESS. James H. Davis and William White, Winnsborough, Tex.—This consists of a contrivance for driving the screw, which works the follower by a worm when doing the work, and a toothed wheel when returning the follower : also, of a removable case which re-ceives the pressed bale and carries it away on a truck to be tied, while another box takes its place to receive the next bale. IMPROVED WRENCH. Andrew M. Mortimer, Salt Lake City, Utah Ter.—The stationary jaw is attached to a shank. A movable jaw slides upon the shank, and to it is rigidly attached a bar, in such a position as to be oppo-site the edge of the said shank. Upon the adjacent edges of the shank and bar are formed ratchet teeth, which engage with each other to hold the movable jaw in place while the wrench is being used. To the bar is attached a loop, through which the shank passes, and through the bend of which passes a sot screw, which rests against the spring. When the wrench is being used, the strain upon the jaws holds the teeth of a bar in gear with the teeth of the shank, a spring keeping the movable jaw from getting out of place while shifting the wrench upon the work. NEW MISCELLANEOUS INVENTIONS. IMPROVED HOSE SPANNER. John E. Taber, Fall River, Mass.—In this spanner, Un end that embraces the hose coupling is enlarged and provided with a groove that is of sufficient width to take in a lug pin, lutd of Sll (11- cient length at each side of the handle to insure it good hearing on the surface of the coupling, so that the spanner draws laterally on the lug pin when applied. Apertures are cut In the P41111,14 of the groove thus formed for permitting the escape of snow or mud. IMPROVED PAINT MUTSU . Lewis Tanney, Beaver Falls, Pa.-1'111s Is ri metallic binder for paint brushes, formed of two semi-cylindrical plittm, having semi-circular disks attached to their upper ends, iwd having eyes formed upon their side edges. The cross plate has eyes formed in its end edges, and there are suitable fastening wires. IMPROVED ELECTRO- M A ( N ICTIC LOCK. Hilborne L. Roosevelt, Now York city. This relates to an im-proved electric lock for office doors and other purposes ; and it consists in the armature of an electro-magnet that retains a swinging arm with two sliding and spring-acted bolts, of which one is withdrawn for opening the door, when the arm is released, by the attraction of the armature, and by the action of the spring of the second bolt. which Is 'taunted and set by the closing of the door, ready for throwing open the first bolt on the action of the magnet. NEW HOUSEHOLD INVENTIONS. IMPROVED STOVE PIPE ATTACHMENT. George H. Hancock, Richmond Factory, Ga.—This consists of a standard secured to the stove, with an adjustable clothes-drying fork or rack, and an adjustable lamp support. The attachment forms a convenient clothes-drying and lamp-supporting device, which may be placed on any stove and set to any position re-quired. IMPROVED BASIN FAUCET. Edwin S. Rich, New York city.—The novel features in this inven-tion consist, first, of a flange cxtension of the interior collar into nozzle of the faucet ; and, secondly, of an additional stem valve and seat arranged above the compression valve, so as to close the water passage when the compression valve is removed,

HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
width="1189" />
5
width="1189" />
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 347
A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. Vol. xxx     -No . 22.1 NEW SERIES. NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 25, 1876.
3.20 per Annum. POSTAGE PRE-PAID .
pg 347- NOVEMBER 25, 1876. pg 347 test --NOVEMBER 25, 1876. pg 347 ffritutifir (anterican. uglinto and geroonal, The Clutruc for Ins6rtion under this head is One Dol-lar a Line for each insertion. If the Notice ex-ceeds Pour .Mmes, One Dollar and a Half per Lime will he charged. I f you want a complete collection of the best ITO 1,1,14 and trade hints published in Scientific A Ille 1'1 ea 11 ror past, 10 years, send $1.50 to H. N. Munn, 37 lark low, New York, for Wrinkles and Recipes. 250 pages, splen-didly illustrated Agricultural Implements and Industrial Machin-ery for Export and Domestic Use. R.H.Allen & Co., N.Y. Town and Village Hand Fire Engines, with hose carriage and fittings, only $350. Send for cuts and full nformation. S. C. Forsaith & Co., Manchester, N. H. See advertisement of Industrial Mfg. Co., p. 349. For durability and economy, use Blake's Belt Studs to fasten Belts. Greene, Tweed & Co., 18 Park Place, New York. Split-Pulleys and Split-Collars of same price, strength and appearance as Whole-Pulleys and Whole-Collars. Yoc om & Son, Drinker St., below 147 North Second St., Philadelphia, Pa. To Lease—The largest portion of the building corner Canal, Center, and Walker Sts., now occupied as a Billiard Manufactory and Sales Room. See adver-tisement in another column. The Cabinet Machine—A Complete Wood Work-er. M. R. Conway, 222 W. 2d St., Cincinnati, Ohio. The Gatling Gun received the only medal and award given for machine guns at the Centennial Exhibi-tion. For information regarding this gun, address Gat-ing* Gun Co., Hartford, Conn., U. S. A. Journal of Microscopy—For Amateurs. Plain, practical, reliable. 50 cent s per year. Specimens free. Address Box 4875, New York. For Sale—Shop Rights to every Tool Builder and manufacturer for Bean's Patent Friction Pulley Coun-tershaft. D. Frisbie & Co., New Haven, Conn. Superior Lace Leather, all Sizes, Cheap. Hooks and Couplings for fiat and round Belts. Send for cata-logue. C. W. Arm,. 148 North 3d St., Philadelphia, Pa. Magic Lanterns, Stereopticons, for Parlor En-tertainments and Public Exhibitions. Pays well on small capital. 74 Page Catalogue free. Centennial Medal and Diploma awarded. McAllister, 49 Nassau St., N. Y. Noiseless Exhaust Nozzles for Exhaust Pipes and Pop Valves. T. Shaw, 915 Ridge Av., Phila., Pa. Fire Hose,Rubber Lined Linen, also Cotton,finest quality. Eureka Fire Hose Co. , 13 Barclay St. ,N ew York. Shingle, Heading and Stave Machine. See ad-vertisement of Trevor & Co., Lockport, N. Y. The Scientific American Supplement—Any de-sired back number can be had for 10 cents, at this office, or almost any news store. To stop leaks in boiler tubes, use Quinn's Pat-ent Ferrules. Address S. M. Co , So. Newmarket,N.H. Water, Gas, and Steam Pipe, Wrought Iron. Send for prices. Bailey, Farrell & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. For Solid Wrought-iron Beams, etc., see adver-tisement. Address Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa. for lithograph, &c. Solid Emery Vulcanite Wheels—The Solid Orig-inal Emery Wheel—other kinds imitations and inferior. Caution.—Our name is stamped in full on all our best Standard Belting, Packing, and Hose. Buy that only. The best is the cheapest. New York Belting and Pack-nig Company, 37 and 38 Park Row, New York. roo new and second hand machines at low prices, (1) W. H. L. asks : Does a person, in lifting one wheel of a 4-wheeled wagon off the ground, lift more or less than a quarter of the whole weight ? A. More than a quarter if the vehicle Is rigid and the load equally distributed. (2) A. Y. asks : Is there any practical way of leveling without a theodolite ? A. You can construct an instrument with an ordinary build-er's level, that will enable you to get the hight. As such matters are discussed in special treatises, and would occupy too much space for these col-umns, we must refer you to some good book on the subject. There is a cheap level in the mar-ket, which is accompanied by full directions for use. (3) A. C. F. asks : What is the proper speed for grindstones, wet and dry? A. Circumferen-tial velocity, 1,800 to 2,000 feet per minute. I have a 10 horse power locomotive boiler ; it will hardly make steam enough for a 10 horse power engine. Would it be practicable to wall in the boiler and form an arch over the top, ar-ranging it to lead the heat (after leaving the flues) under the boiler towards the firebox, along the side of the firebox toward the front, then up and over the top of the boiler, back to rear end, and up the stack ? A. If you have a strong draft,you may gain something by the change. (4) T. P. F. asks : If two launches were built, one 30 and one 40 feet long, the same in every particular except length, which would run the fastest ? A. The first. (5) B. P. R. asks : 1. In a hot blast or air-tight steam boiler furnace, which is the best way to supply the air, under the grates or on top of the burning coal ? A. Under the grates. 2. How many lbs. steam to the square inch will a boiler 24 feet long by 40 inches diameter, of % inch iron, stand with safety ? A. About 60 lbs. 3. What dimensions of smoke stack ought I to have for the boiler, with two flues, each 14 inches in diameter? A. The cross section of the chimney should not be less than about of the grate sur-face. (6) J. S. C. asks : Is the statement that a body will weigh less at the equator than at the poles based on an actual test by weighing, or is it theoretical ? A. Based on actual test. (7) C. F. S. asks : 1. How large a boat will a boiler 44 inches high and 20 inches in diameter, and an engine with 3A inches stroke and about *6 inches bore, drive, and at what speed ? A.The machine will be suitable for a boat from 18 to 30 feet long. 2. What size of wheel and what pitch should I use ? A. Use one 20 or 24 inches in di-ameter with 3 feet pitch. Where does ice form in freezing, on top or at bottom of the water ? A. You can probably settle the matter to your satisfaction by observa-tions on a pond in which ice forms. First there will be a thin sheet of ice, which gradually thick-ens on the under side. (8) J. K. asks : Why will not iodide of po-tassium form in large crystals when made accord-ing to United States Pharmacopoeia ? A. In or-der to obtain good crystals of K I, it is necessary paring the solution is a good one; the trouble doubtless arises from the inefficient manner of preparing the articles. Different metals require different treatments. As a rule, the first thing to be done is to remove the greasy films with which most objects are covered ; this is effected by boil-ing and rubbing in a solution of caustic soda, made by boiling about 2 lbs. of common soda crystals with milk of lime, produced by slacking % lb. of quicklime with hot water, and well stir-ring. After this alkaline bath, the objects should be washed in several waters or in a running stream. They are next cleaned in acids, again washed, and then transferred to the depositing solution. Copper, brass, and German silver arti-cles should be immersed in a pickle composed of water 100 parts, oil of vitriol 100 parts, nitric acid (specific gravity 1•3). 50 parts, hydrochloric acid 2 parts. It is well also to coat the surface with a thin film of mercury. This is effected by means of a solution of 1 oz. mercury in sufficient nitric acid, with three times the quantity of water, diluted to one gallon ; there will form a gray or blackish deposit over the surface, which, on brushing softly, gives place to a brilliant coat-ing of mercury ; the object should be trans-ferred to the depositing cell the instant this is ob-tained. (14) J. McJ. asks : What will remove dried collodion from white cotton, without injuring the fabric ? If there is anything that will decompose it, it will be preferable to a solvent. A. Try steeping the cloth in cold water,and then rubbing it together so as to break up the films. (15) A. C. says : How thick should the cop-per and zinc plates be, and of what thickness should the wire be, of the galvanic battery men-tioned on p. 234, vol. 34 ? A. The plates may be made of any convenient thickness. No. 14 or 16 copper wire is used for the connections. 2. How should the zinc be suspended? A. From a wood-en or.metallic frame resting on the top of the jar. (16) G. B. McC. asks : Is it possible for the water to be carried out of the boiler through the pump ? We were sawing with a portable steam mill, and shut down at night with the usual amount of water. In the morning there was no water in the boiler, and we had to fill her up through the safety valve. There is a check valve on the feed pipe close to where the pipe connects with the boiler. A. It would not be possible, if the check valve were tight, which, judging from your account, might not have been the case. (17) A. H. asks : 1. Please give me full di-rections for making a good condenser for an in-duction coil. A. Cut tinfoil up into sheets of the desired size, and make of them two piles like the leaves of a book, one pile containing one more sheet than the other. Upon the extreme end of each of these piles place a tinned wire or strip of metal, and by means of a soldering iron run all the edges together so as to make a perfect metallic connection. Cut sheets of paper large enough to allow a margin of at least an inch round three sides of the foil. The paper should be thin, not highly glazed, and should show no 347 making some varieties of vitrified wares etc.—A. E.—It is augite, and contains some oxide of iron. —W. E. T.—They are both iron pyrites, and con-tain no precious metal.--N. V. C.—It is brown coal. COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED. The Editor of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN ac-knowledges, with much pleasure, the receipt of original papers and contributions upon the follow-ing subjects : On the Centennial. Awards. By G. B. On Sound. By J. A. F. On Foul Air in Wells. By M. B. O'N. On the Moon. By J. D. On Cutting Speeds. By T. J. B. On Trisecting an Angle. By J. McM. On Smoky Chimneys. By F. G. W. Also inquiries and answers from the following : B. D.—G. B. P.—L. H. E. HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS. Correspondents whose inquiries fail to appear should repeat them. If not then published, they may conclude that, for good reasons, the Editor declines them. The address of the writer should always be given. Enquiries relating to patents, or to the patenta-bility of inventions, assignments, etc., will not be published here. All such questions, when initials only are given, are thrown into the waste basket, as it would fill half of our paper to print them all ; but we generally take pleasure in answering briefly by mail, if the writer's address is given. Hundreds of inquiries analogous to the following are sent : " Who sells paraffin ? Who sells gutta percha ? Who sells crude India rubber ? Who sells proprietary stamps ? Who sells the best as-tronomical telescopes ? Whose is the best ane-roid barometer ?" All such personal inquiries are printed, as will be observed, in the column of " Business and Personal." which is specially set apart for that purpose, subject to the charge mentioned at the head of that column. Almost any desired information can in this way be expo-tiously obtained. [OFFICIAL.] INDEX OF INVENTIONS FOR WHICH Letters Patent of the United States were Granted in the Week Ending October 17, 1876, AND EACH BEARING THAT DATE. [Those marked (r) are reissued patents.] A complete copy of any patent in the annexed list, including both the specifications and drawings, will be furnished from this office for one dollar. in ordering, please state the number and date of the patent desired, and remit to Munn &Co., 37 Park Row, New York city. Adding machine, J. H. Mears 183, 409 Advertising ribbon reel, H. J. Rice 183,480 Agricultural steamer, R. W. ltulllYson 183,331 ==========================================================================================cut Ferrules. Address B. M. Co , So. Nowmarket,N.H. Water, Gas, and Steam Pipe, Wrought Iron. Send for prices. Bailey, Farrell & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. For Solid Wrought-iron Beams, etc., see adver-tisement. Address Union Iron Mills, Pittsburgh, Pa. for lithograph, &c. Solid Emery Vulcanite Wheels-The Solid Orig-inal Emery Wheel-other kinds imitations and inferior. Caution.-Our name is stamped in full on all our best Standard Belting, Packing, and Hose. Buy that only. The best is the cheapest. New York Belting and Pack-.ng Company, 37 and 38 Park Row, New York. 500 new and second hand machines at low prices, fully described in printed lists. Send stamp, stating just what you want. S. C. Forsaith & Co. , Manchester, N,il. Hand Fire Engines, Lift and Force Pumps for fire and all other purposes. Address Rumsey & Co., Seneca Falls, N. Y., U . S. A. More than Ten Thousand Crank Shafts made by Chester Steel Castings Co., now running ; 8 years' con-stant use prove them stronger and more durable than wrought iron. See advertisement, page 349. See Boult's. Paneling, Moulding, and Dovetailing Machine at Centennial, B. 8-55. Send for pamphlet and sample of work. B. C. Mach'y Co., Battle Creek, Mich. M. Shaw, Manufacturer of Insulated Wire for galvanic and telegraph purposes, &c .,259 W .27th St., N.Y. F. C. Beach & Co., makers of the Tom Thumb Telegraph and other electrical machines, have removed to 530 Water Street, New York. Safety Linen Hose for Factories, 1 to 3 inches, at educed rates. Greene, Tweed & Co . ,18 Park Place,N. Y. Hyatt & Co.'s Varnishes and Japans, as to price, color, purity, and durability, are cheaper by comparison than any others extant. 246 Grand st.,N. Y. Fac tory, Ne w-ark, N. J. Send for circular and descriptive price list. Power & Foot Presses & all Fruit-can Tools. Fer-racute Wks. , Bridgeton, N.J. & C. 27, Mchy. Hall,Cent'1. For Sohd Emery Wheels and Machinery, send to the Union Stone Co., Boston, Mass., for circular. For best Presses, Dies, and Fruit Can Tools, Bliss & Williams, cor. of Plymouth and Jay, Brooklyn, N. Y. Steel Castings, from one lb. to five thousand lbs. Invaluable for strength and durability. Circulars free. Pittsburgh Steel Casting Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. Hydraulic Presses and Jacks, new and second nand. Lathes and Machinery for Polishing and Buffing metals. E. Lyon, 470 Grand Street, New York. Diamond Toois-J. Dickinson, 64 Nassau St., N. Y. Slide Rest for $8 to fit any lathe. Goodnow & Wightman, 23 Cornhill, Boston, Mass. "Dead Stroke" Power Hammers-recently great-ly improved, increasing cost over 10 per cent. Prices re-duced over 20 per cent. Hull & Belden Co. , Danbury,Ct. The " Abbe" Bolt Forging Machines and the .• Palmer" Power Hammers a specialty. Send for re-duced price lists S.C.Forsaith & Co., Manchester,N..EI. A. J. can polish starched linen goods by roilowing the directions on p. 203, vol. 31.-C. W. will find a description of a calcium light on p. Mill, vol. 30.-C. K. R, will find directions for ma-king friction matches on p. 75, vol. 29.-C. F. will will ilnd directions for hardening millpicks on p. 170, vol. 25 -M. W. can make vinegar by the pro-cess demeribed on p. 106, vol. 32.-A. B. R., C. W., 11. 1,., .1. K., .1. C. M., E. T. H., F. W., and others, who I0 4k 104 to recommend books on industrial and scientific mil Weill, should address the booksellers who advertise in our columns, all of whom are trustworthy firms, for catalogues. should I use ? A. Use one 20 or 24 inches in di-ameter with 3 feet pitch. Where does ice form in freezing, on top or at bottom of the water ? A. You can probably settle the matter to your satisfaction by observa-tions on a pond in which ice forms. First there will be a thin sheet of ice, which gradually thick-ens on the under side. (8) J. K. asks : Why will not iodide of po-tassium form in large crystals when made accord-ing to United States Pharmacopoeia? A. In or-der to obtain good crystals of K I, it is necessary that the crystalization should proceed as slowly as possible in a cool place, and under a good va-cuum. The best results are obtained when large quantities of the materials are operated upon at once. The solution of the iodide should be as neutral as possible. (9) M. asks : 1. Is the common commer cial potash in solution a good fertilizer for a grape vine when applied to the soil about its roots? If so, of what strength should it be used ? A. We would not recommend the use of potash. 2. Are ground or pulverized bones good for the same purpose ? A. The finely ground bones mixed with soil or peat make a very desirable manure. It would be better, however, to treat the ground bones with about one third the weight of oil of vitriol (specific gravity 1•70) in order to obtain the soluble superphosphate. The acid should be di-luted with about 2 parts of water, and well stirred in with the bone dust; it should then be al-lowed to stand for about 12 hours, when enough loam should be stirred in to absorb all the liquid. This is one of the best manures known. 3. If these articles were applied to a loamy or porous soil, situated 10 feet from a well of water, would there be any danger of contamination to the wa-ter ? A. No. (10) E. M. L. asks : In cutting up tortoise-shell, a lot of small scraps are made. How can they be worked up into a solid mass, by dissol-ving, or otherwise? A. The larger scraps might possibly be utilized for small inlaid work. Send us a few of the scraps and we may possibly be able to suggest some other application. (11) W. S. C. asks : What produces the phosphorescent light known as fox fire? A. We do not recognize the name, but suppose you refer to the strongly phosphorescent solution of phos-phorus in hot olive oil. Bisulphide of carbon or one of the essential oils may be made to replace the olive oil as the solvent. It would, perhaps, be well to state that the employment of the bisul-phide solution of phosphorus is liable, when the liquid is in contact with the air, to produce spon-taneous combustion. (12) S. W. J. asks : What is a simple and harmless preparation for turning dirty brownish red hair to a white color ? A. There are me-thods by which this might be accomplished, but we cannot recommend any of them. (13) F. S. M asks : Which is the best way to make a solution for silverplating ? I have made a solution, but the silver comes off again. I made it by dissolving some silver in nitric acid ; and after making the salt dry, I put it in a solu-tion of cyanide of potassa (K Cy) in water. It plates very well : but when I come to burnish it, it all comes off again. A. Your method of pre- rections for making a good condenser for an in-duction coil. A. Cut tinfoil up into sheets of the desired size, and make of them two piles like the leaves of a book, one pile containing one more sheet than the other. Upon the extreme end of each of these piles place a tinned wire or strip of metal, and by means of a soldering iron run all the edges together so as to make a perfect metallic connection. Cut sheets of paper large enough to allow a margin of at least an inch round three sides of the foil. The paper should be thin, not highly glazed, and should show no acid reaction by reddening when moistened with a neutral solution of litmus; it should be baked thoroughly dry, placed in a vessel of paraffin kept well over its melting point, and then drained sheet by sheet as smoothly as possible. A well baked piece of wood somewhat larger than the paper is laid upon a table, its face soaked with paraffin and a sheet or two of paper laid up-on it; upon this is laid the largest pile with its soldered end projecting, and all its leaves turned back except the lowest one, which is to be rubbed smoothly out on the paper : lay over this two sheets of the paper, and on top of this the other book of foil, so placed that it lies exactly over the first sheet except for the margins at the op-posite ends ; turn back, as with the other, all its leaves except the first, and upon this place two sheets of paper ; continue this process, laying back, upon the paper, sheets of foil from the books alternately, and between each foil two sheets of paper. When all are in place, cover with two or three sheets of paper and a board like the first; the whole should then be compressed by clamps and warmed up to the melting point of paraffin, increasing the pressure to drive out all excess. The first board should be provided with a binding screw at each end, and the wire of the corresponding foils should be soldered to it 2. Which will produce the best result, 3 lbs. silk-covered wire No. 37, or 5 lbs. No. 32? A. Three pounds of No. 37 will give the longest spark. (18) A. D. asks : 1. Does the addition of glass to lead make it ring like silver ? A. The product is quite sonorous. 2. Will glass combine with lead? A. Oxide of lead is soluble in molten glass. (19) L. B. & Co. asks : What will hold up soapstone in solution ? A. Such rocks can only be rendered soluble by fusion with alkalies or al-kaline carbonates in excess, and subsequent treatment with boiling water and acids. The rock (in small quantities) may be partially de-composed and dissolved by means of strong hot solutions of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids. (20) S. asks : What degree of heat is ne-cessary to make brass malleable, so that it can be hammered or drawn out ? A. It is generally drawn cold, being previously annealed. MINERALS, ETC.-Specimens have been re-ceived from the following correspondents,and examined, with the results stated : We have received minerals as follows, in pack-ages without names of senders : Two specimens of micaceous red hematite, an excellent ore of iron. Two specimens of clay of good quality, a mixture of finely divided silica and silicate of al-umina, which might be employed in polishing, in October. 17, 1876, AND EACH BEARING THAT DATE. [Those marked (r) are reissued patents.] A complete copy of any patent in the annexed list, including both the specifications and drawings, will be furnished from this office for one dollar. in ordering, please state the number and date of the patent desired, and remit to Munn &Co., 37 Park Row, New York city. Adding machine, J. H. Mears 183,409 Advertising ribbon reel, H. J. Rice 183,480 Agricultural steamer, R. W. Ruliffson 183,331 Alarm and fire extinguisher, S. Sanderson (r) 7,354 Apple parer, J. D. Seagrave 183,271 Ash sifter, A. M. Ketchum 183,307 Bale tie, A. A. Goldsmith 183,390 Bale tie, manufacture of, S. N. Drake 183 382 Band-cutting shears, S. D. Locke 183,404 Barrel truck, C. F. Hill 183,395 Base rurning stove, Dwyer & Carter 183,383 Bed bottom, W. H. Gaylord 183,453 Belts, cutting and punching, A. L. Hinckley 183,262 Bill file, J. 0. Clay 183,284 Billiard table attachment, Collender et al 183,371 Blacking distributer, D. G. Rollin 183,470 Blower, J. M. Cayce 183,368 Bottle and cup stopper, C. Newman 183,322 Bottle faucet, W. & R. Bentley 183,445 Bougie, Fowler, Smither, & Allen 183,388 Bracelet, P. J. Cullinan 183,374 Breast strap fender, J. C. Look 183,312 Breech•loading fire arm, E. G. Dorchester 183,255 Broom handle, G. W. Stockwell 183,342 Brush handle, 0. Jenness 183,300 Buckle, D. L. Smith 183,473 Burglar alarm, J. F. Steiner 183,430 Butter dish, E. G. Cate 183,283 Buttonhole attachment, Schmidt & Freese 183,333 Calculator, N. Larsen 183,403 Candle lamp,; F. L. Howard 183,398 Car axle bearing, Frame & Scott 183,292 Car coupling, F. M. Andrews 183,246 Car coupling, F. F. Wheeler 183,353 Car starter, L. R. Sharp 183,481 Car safety appliance, etc., J. P. Wilson 183,441 Carbureter, S. Bean 183,363 Case for metal sheets, W. D. Wood 183,356 Check-rowing corn, C.B. Ma clay 183,314 Chimney flue, etc., A. H. Bourne (r) 7,350 Chimney top and ventilator, J. Harmon 183,300 Churn, A. G. Walton 183,435 Cloth, preserving bolting, J. Wayman 183,350 Cloth-cutting machine, Fenno & Howe (r) 7,352 Clothes pounder, J. Russell 183,421 Coffee and tea pot, L. G. Comparet 183,448 Coffee pot, E. B. Manning 183,464 Cotton and corn planter, etc., W. Scott 183,422 Cotton, device for picking, R. A. Cutliff 183,375: Cotton harvester, Stoddard & Herndon 183,433 Cotton press,Davis & White 183,378 Cottonseed drill, H. Steckler, Jr 183,431 Cradle, A. Woodward 183,357 Crib attachment for bedsteads, Cowl et al 183,372 Cultivator, C. A. Bentley 183,280, Cultivator, C. R. Hartman 183,301 Cultivator, E. Pratt (r) 7,353: Cultivator and sulky plow, J. H. Cole 183,251 Curry comb, G. H. Hawrican 183,302' Curtain fixture, Miller & Silsby 183,411 Cutter heads, balancing revolving, A. Hall 183,260 Desk and sewing machine cover, A. Cunningham 183,286 Desk attachment for chairs, Para & Woodhouse 183,323: Diamonds, cutting, T. F. Tully 183,474 Die and shoe for quartz mills, Bartol & Louzarder 183,362 Disinfecting water closets, etc., E. Howard 183,264 Domestic distilling apparatus, T. L. Lynch 183,268 Drain trap, E. G. Banner 183,279

width="1189" />
5
width="1189" />
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 348
A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. Vol. xxx     -No . 22.1 NEW SERIES. NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 25, 1876.
3.20 per Annum. POSTAGE PRE-PAID .
pg 347- NOVEMBER 25, 1876. pg 348 --NOVEMBER 25, 1876. pg 348 Drawerpulls, W. N. Weeden 183,476,183,477•183.478,183,479 Dusting brush, L. Hobolth 183,458 Dyeing apparatus, D. Allen 183,360 Ear muffler, W. Abbott 183,359 Earth auger, C. D. Pierce 183,467 Egg carriers, forming, L. S. Ball 183,444 Embroidering attachment, I. M. Rose 183,330 Emery wheels, etc. , facing, T . A. Richards , 183,468 Emery wheels, tool for facing, T. A. Richards.... 183,469 Envelope, E. D. Dougherty 183,380 Excavator and dumping cart, J. Price 183,326 Exercising machine, F. and J. Hainsworth 183,296 Extension table slide, S. B. Alexander • 183,276 Fare register, W. J. Stillman 183,341 Fastening for horse blankets, J. Hall 183,391 Feed water heater, C. Hewins 183,303 Feed water heater, I. P. Magoon 183,463 Fence, W. Stacy 183,337 Fence wire to posts, H. S. Harsha 183,2991 Filtering liquids, T. R. Sinclaire 182,42 Finger nail trimmer, W. C. Edge 183,256 Flood fence, Marshall & Sailar 183,216 Flute, L. C. Southard 183,429 Freight car, E. D. Shaffer 183,334 Fruit basket, J. H. Marvil 183,407 Game card, R. T. Sitterley 183,335 Gear planer, A. Hanauer 183,298 Grinder for bridges, J. Foster 183,291 Glass tool, J. Lamont . 183,267 Glassware, making, Adams & Bonshire 183,274 Glassware, making hollow, T. B. Atterbury 183,277 Grain car door, J. M. D incan 183,287 Grain drill, W. H. Nauman 183,321 Grain grinder and scourer, L. 0. Stevens 183,339 Grappling projectile, Greenough & Morrison 183,457 Grate, G. W. Geissenhainer 183,456 Grate bar, G. H. Clarke, (r) 7,351 Hanger for blinds or doors, E. Prescott 183,325 Harrow, flexible, J. A. Anderson 183,245 Harvester dropper, W. H. Aker s 183,275 Hat an i clothes rack, I. W. Heysinger 183,261 Hay and cotton, press, J. Lytch 183,313 Hay loader, T. Elliott 183,288 Health lift, J. P. Marsh 183,269 Heel machine, boot, Z. M. Lane 183,310 Hinge, C. E. L. Holmes 183,459 Hinge for glass articles, B. Bakewell, Jr 183,247 Horseshoes, making, S. Espach 183,451 Horseshoes, making J. A. Burden 183,250 Hose spanner, J. E. Taber 183,344 Hydraulic motor, W. 0. Wakefield 183,346 .Joints, apparatus for contracted, S. A. Darrach 183,376 Kitchen commode, W. Elvis 183,385 Lamp, T. W. Brown 183,249 Lamp chimney cleaner, D. T. Freese 183,293 Lathe dog, J. McGeorge 183,408 Leather-cutting machine,etc.,Schofield & Stevens 183,471 Leg and foot rest, T. Weddle 183,475 Lightning rod, R. S. Cole 183,370 Lightning rod, C. H. Smith 183,425 Lightning rod connection, C. H. Smith 183,426 Liquid measure, J. F. Judy 183,306 Lock stop box, T. Birch 183,365 Lubricating compound, P. Sweeney 183,343 Masonic badge, J. McCoy 183,318 Match splint, C. A. French 183,257, 183,258 Meat tenderer. J. W. Smith 183,273 Milk cooler, Eddy & Foster 183,384 Milling tool, J. M. Smith 183,272 Millstone exhaust, G. L. H. Behrns 183,248 Mitering machine, L. D. Howard 183,397 Moss, process for preparing, 'G. H. Blake , 183,281 Nail box, R. Hermance 183,394 Nut lock, D. R. Pratt 183,324 Nut lock, A. J. Scott. 183,472 ritutific puritan. [NOVEMBER 25, 1876. I Telegraphic fire alarm, Birge & Williams 183,36 Thill coupling, J. W. Anderson 183,244 Three horse equalizer, T. Hoadley 183,396 Tongue support for wagons, I. N. Harbaugh 183,392 Torch, M. Saulson 183,332 Toy combination, W. T. Foster 183,290 Trace carrier, J. D. Hobbs 183,263 Try square, J. Essex 183,387 Tubing, making metal, J. B. Root..183,327,183,328, 183,329 Tuck marker and creaser, J. T. Sterrett 183,338 Variable cut-off, B Brazelle 183,446 Variable sign, L. Nielander 183,414 Ventilating cars, J. Loughlin 183,405 Ventilating cowl, E. G. Banner 183,278 Ventilator, W. H. Maxfield 183,317 Wagon seat awning, D. Jannopoulo 183,399 Wardrobe bedstead, F. Caulier 183,`J.67 Wash board, J. S. Garner 183,294 Washing machine, C. Fitch 183,289 Washing machine, C. Stone 183,432 Water meter, S. Plymale 183,416 Water pipe, etc., T. Warhurst 183,348 Whip button, W, 0. Daniels 183,449 Window screen, B. F. Cunningham 183,253 Wire-barbing tool, J. Dobbs 143,379 Wrench, C. M. Jordan 183,266 DESIGNS PATENTED. 9,590.-BRACELETS.-H. Carlisle, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 9,591.-Srooris.-H. W. Hirschfeld, West Meriden, Conn. 9,592.-FLOOR OIL CLOTHS.-J. Meyer,Lansingburg,N. Y. [A copy of any one of the above patents may be had by remitting one dollar to .Murni & Co., 37 Park Row, New York city. SCHEDULE OF PATENT FEES. On each Caveat On each Trade mark On filing each application for a Patent (17 years) . On issuing each original Patent On appeal to Examiners-in-Chief On appeal to Commissioner of Patents On application for Reissue On filing a Disclaimer On an application for Design 3% years). On application for Design (7 years) On application for Design (14 years) $10 $25 $15 $20 $10 $20 $30 $10 $10 $15 $30 THE VALIDITY OF PATENTS. We recommend to every person who is about to purchase a patent, or about to com-mence the manufacture of any article under a license, to have the patent carefully examined by a competent party, and to have a research made in the Patent Office to see what the condi-tion of the art was when the patent was issued. He should also see that the claims are so worded as to cover all the inventor was entitled to wnen his patent was issued and it is still more essen-tial that he be informed whether it is an infringe ment on some other existing patent. Parties desir-ing to have such searches made can have them done through the Scientific American Patent Agency, by giving the date of the patent and stating the nature of the information desired. For further Information, address MUNN & CO., 37 PARK Row, New York. Atittertionntuto. Inside Page, each insertion - - 75 cents a line. Gardiner's Pat. Centring & Squaring Attachment FOR 70 in. 4A. P. boar. Ito La. STATE & CO., Springfield. Ohio. Last Chance. Buy - YO UR Tickets Now DRAWING POSITIVELY Thursday, Nov. 3 0th, OR MONEY REFUNDED. A Fortune for only $12. THE KENTUCKY CASH DLS'TRIBUTI ON CO., authorized by a special act of the Kentucky Legislature, for the benefit of the Public Schools of Frankfort, will have the First of their series of Grand Drawings at MAJOR HALL, in the CITY OF FRANK-FORT, KY., Thursday, Nov. 30, 1876, on which occa-sion they will distributeto the ticket holders the im-mense sum of 600,000! Thos. P. Porter, Ex-Gov. Ky., Gen'l Manager. LIST OF GIFTS. One Grand Cash Gift $100,000 One Grand Cash Gift 50,000 One Grand Cash Gift 25,000 One Grand Cash Gift '20,000 One Grand Cash Gift 10,000 One Grand Cash Gift 5,000 50 Cash Gifts of $1,000 each 50,000 100 Cash Gifts of 500 each 50,000 100 Cash Gifts of 400 each.... 100 Cash Gifts of 300 each.... 30,000 200 Cash Gifts of 200 each.... 40,000 600 Cash Gifts of 100 each.... 60,000 10,000 Cash Gifts of 12 each 120,000 Total, 11,156 Gifts, All Cash 600,000 PRICE OF TICKETS: Whole tickets, $12; Halves, $6; Quarters, $3; 9 Tickets, $100, 271A Tickets, $300; 46% Tickets, $500; 95ft Tickets, $1,000. 100,000 Tickets at $12 each. . The Hon. E. H. Taylor, Mayor of Frankfort, the entire Board of City Councilmen, the Hon. Alvin Duvall, late Chief Justice of Kentucky, and other distinguished citizens, together with such disinterested persons as the ticket holders present may designate, will superin-tend the drawing. The payment of gifts to owners of prize tickets is as-sured. A. bond, with heavy penalty and approved securi-ty, has been executed to the Commonwealth of Kentucky, which is now on record in Clerk's Office of County Court at Frankfort, subject to inspection of any one. this is a new feature, and. will absolutely secure the pay-ment of gifts. Remittances can be made by Express, Draft, Post-office Money Order or Registered Letter, made payable to KEA TUCX Y CASH DISTRIBUTION COMPANY. All communications, orders for Tickets, and applica-tions for Agencies should be addressed to HON. THOS. P. PORTER, General Manager. Frankfort, Ky. or G. W. BARROW & CO., General Eastern Agents, 710 Broadway, New York AYE E. IN in FINEJET BLACK every variety ofturned woodwork parts of machinery;casting-s;tinware and other metal •vork ENAMELEDJET GOODS sin wood or metal,made to a•der AMERICAN ENRMELC0.17WAssEm STPROVICIENCE, R. I. Atk P. P., w en. w Ai a Week to Agents. Samnies FREE. APPLETONS' American' Cy el opmdia. NEW REVISED 1CI)I'I'ION. ENTIRELY REWRITI`KIN BYTIINA BLEST WRITERS ON EVERY 141111,1ECT. Printedfrom New Type, and illustrated with several thousand Engravings and 41(17)5. The work originally published under the title of the NEW AMERICAN CI CLOPJEI)I A was eomplaed in 1863, since which time the wide circulation which it has attained in all parts of the United States, 41111 the signal developments which have taken place In every branch of science, literature, and art, have induced the editors and publishers to submit it to an exact and thorough revision, and to issue a new edition, entitled The American Cyclopedia. Within the last ten years the progress of discovery in every department of knowledge has made a new work of reference an imperative want.. The movement of political affairs has kept pace with the discoveries of science, and their fruitful application to the industrial and useful arts and the convenience and refinement of social life. Great wars and conse-quent revolutions have occurred, involving national changes of peculiar moment. The civil war of our own country, which was at its bight when the last volume of the old work appeared, has happily been ended, and a new course of commercial and industrial activity has been commenced. Large accessions to our GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE have been made by the indefatigable explorers of Africa The great political revolutions of the last decade, with the natural result of the lapse of time, have brought into public view a multitude of new men, whose names are in 'every one's mouth, and of whose lives every one is curi-ous to know the particulars. Great battles have been fought and important sieges maintained, of which the details are as yet preserved only in the newspapers or in the transient publications of the day, but which ought now to take their place in PERMANENT AND AUTHENTIC HISTORY. In preparing the present edition for the press, it has accordingly been the aim of the editors to bring down the information to the latest possible dates, and to fur-nish an accurate account of the most recent discoveries in science, of every fresh production in literature, and of the newest inventions in the practical arts, as well as to give a succinct and original record of the progress of POLITICAL AND HISTORICAL EVENTS. The work was begun after long and careful preliminary labor, and with the most ample resources for carrying it on to a successful termination. None of the original stereotype plates ha7e been used, but every page has been PRINTED ON NEW TYPE, forming, in fact, a new Cyclopedia, with the same plan and compass as its predecessor, but with a far greater pecuniary expenditure, and with such improvements in its composition as Cave been suggested by longer ex-perience and enlarged knowledge. THE ILLUSTRATIONS, which are introduced for the first time in the present edition, have been added not for the sake of pictorial effect, but to give greater lucidity and force to the ex-planations in the text. They embrace ali branches of science and of natural history, and depict the most fa-mous and remarkable features of scenery, architecture and art, as well as the various processes of mechanics and manufactures. Although intended for instruction rather than embellishment, no pains have been spared to insure their ARTISTIC EXCELLENCE. ========================================================================================== I 1.7%, LIU. vaa • Smith) Valle & Co., DAYTON, OHIO. LeCoun.t's Patent MACHINISTS' TOOLS Reduced Prices. Set Iron Dogs, to 2 in $ 5.60 66 6 6 64 „4., •6 $12.00 " Steel " 4.0 2 " $ 6.30 66 66 66 ' 4 $13.00 Iron & Steel Clarnps,Die Dogs Clamp Dogs,Vice Clamps, Expanding Mandrels, &c. Send for latest Price List to C. W. LE COUNT. South Norwalk, Conn. The Toll-Gate ! rirgieuovegtevr sent a:cltsAtiO find ! Address,with stamp. E. C. ABBEY. Buffalo ,N.Y .44111 Send for Circulars. 8 YOUNG AMERICA SCROLL SAW beats the SW world. J.M.BEUGLER, M'f'r, Williamsport, Pa. GEORGE C. HICKS & CO., Baltimore, Md. CLAY RETORTS, TILES, FIRE BRICKS, &c. ritr° Terra Cotta Pipes of all sizes. 3 WATCHES. Cheapest in the known world. Sample watch and outfit free to Agents. For terms address COULTER & CO.,Chicago SPARE THE CROTON & SAVE THE COST. Driven or Tube Wells furnished to large consumers of Croton and Ridgewood Water. WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO. , 414 Water St. ,N.Y. who control the patent for Green 's American Driven Well. ROOTS' FORCE BLAST BLOWER. FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED AT PARIS AND VIENNA. SPEED ONLY 100 TO 250 REV. PER M. SAVES HALF THE POWER REQUIRED FOR FAN, P. H. & F. M. ROOTS, Manuf'rs, CONNERSVILLE, IND. f>, S. S. TOWNSEND, Gen'I Ag't, 31 Liberty St NEW YORK. POTTER'S AMERICAN MONTHLY VINEGAR. HOW MADE IN 10 HOURS from 50,0 A n ILLUSTRATED ; Best Family Magazine in the Cider,Wine or Sorghum, without using drugs. Name 1)13- 'J" Country, at $3 for 1877. 5 copies one year for per, and address F. I. SAGE, Springteid, Mass.= iibserlb- $13; 10 copies for $25; 20 copies for $50, and a era for copy of I otter s Bible Encyclopedia,quar-t 3,000 Illustrations price $25, given to the person sending this club For s le all 1877. iieorwmss stands, nAda: natt5 25 cents a number. a Special atl J. E, 'POTTER & CO., Philadelphia,Pa. SHAFTS.PULLEYS.HANGERS COUPLINGS ETC. In Stock, and for Sale by WILLIAM SELLERS & CO. Philadelphia, and 79 Liberty St., New York. Price lists and pamphlets on application. A ,,,ONT'111.--Agerita wantea tverr. S 1c1:11:.e 'Par:Ill:1,g ITift°Lebei.e and gg J. WORTH A CO.. lit. Loula.lio, Q.2 1r, "7 PI1 AGENTS' PROFITS per week. Will prove ot, I .k/t/ it or forfeit $500. New articles are just pat-ented. Samples sent free to all. Address W. H. CHIDESTER, 218 Fulton St., New York. CREW PROPELLERS, THEIR SHAFTS AND 1,_7. FITTINGS. By Hamilton W. Pendred, M. E. An able treatise, showing the present practice, its advan-tages and defects. With 25 figures. Price 10 cents. Con-tinued in No. 4 of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLE-MENT. To be had at this office, and of all news agents. BARNES Foot Power MACHINERY. :o: O INVALUABLE MACHINES Ili for Mechanics and Amateurs. Also Fancy Woods and Designs. Send for 48 page Illustrated Cata-logue Free, W. F. & JOHN BARNES, . ROCXFORD, Winnebago Co., Ills. OTIS SAFETY HOISTINO ' Machinery. OTIS, BROS. & CO. No. 348 BROADWAY, LivE W ZORK MACHINERY OF IMPROVED STYLES FOR making SHINGLES, HEADING. and STAVES; also GUAGE LATHES for TURNING HANDLES. Sole makers of Laws Pat. Shingle and Heading Sawing Ma-chine. Address TREVOR & CO., Lockport. N. Y Brainard Millie Machines all stle and sizyes.s Universal Milling Machines from $200 upwards; Brown's Patent Screw Machines, &c., &c. Address BRAINARD M. M. CO. , 131. Milk St. , Boston, Mass., RELIEF PLATES IN HARD TYPE METAL For Printing All Kinds of Pictorial Illustrations In Books, Newspapers, and Catalogues. These plates are an excellent substitute for wood cuts, being used in precisely the same way, giving equally good results for much less money. ELECTROTYPES AND STEREOTYPES are made from them in the usual manner. We offer special advantages to Manufacturers and Inventors, as our mechanical work is of the best quality and rapidly executed. Our plates are used satisfactorily in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and the SCI-ENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, and by Manufacturers and Publishers in all parts of the country. " C 0 T1 " W e work direct only from Prints or properly prepared Pen and Ink Drawings. Any other copy may be furnished, such as Photographs, Pencil Sketches, or the articles themselves, in which cases we have drawings made in the best manner by our own trained draughtsmen. Photographs, taken in the ordinary way, are suitable, and they may be of any size. We make the plates larger or smaller as desired. We are glad to have customers prepare their own Pen Drawings, and append one or two DIRECTION S TO ARTISTS: The most important requisite in Drawings for our use is that every line shall be per black. The paper or drawing board must be white and smooth. For fine work drawings should be made double the scale of the plate desired. Carefully observing thesa main points, the artist has the utmost freedom in his choice of styles of drawing. For further information and fine samples of our work, send stamp for current num-ber of our illustrated Quarterly Circular. Please say where you saw this. PHOTO- IH]l■IG-RAVING 67 Park Place, New York. CELEBRATED FOOT LATHES Foot Power, Back-geared Screw Lathes, Small Hand and Power Plan-ers for Metal, Small Gear Cutters, Slide-rests, Ball Machine for Lathes, Foot Scroll Saws, light and heavy, Foot Circular Saws. Just the ar-ticles for Amateurs or Artisans. Highly recommended. Send. for Il-lustrated Catalogues. N. H BALDWIN, Laconia N. H STEAM ENGINES FOR SALE I offer the following very superior Todd & Rafferty En-gines for sale at greatly reduced prices : One 18x36, one 14x18 (sawmill), one 12x14, one 11x24, one 10x24, one 9x20, one 7x16, one 5x10 on legs, one 8x12, portable one 8x16, double hoisting; all -first class and entirely new. Also various sizes and kinds of Boilers. I will also furnish specifications and estimates for all kinds of rope and bag-ging machinery. Send for descriptive circular and price Address J. C. TODD. 10 Barclay St., New York, or Paterson, N. J. 11410141.1111ft The H O—A DL.E. PORTABLE STEAM EINI.GINE-WITH AUTOMATI CAL CUT-OFF REGULATOR AND B BALANCED VALVE. THE BESTi..''trMOST ECONOMICAL ENGINE MADE SE/VG, FOR C/A) C VLAR. TheJ.C.HOADLEY CO. LAWRENCE, MASS. STATE WHERE YOU SAW THIS. Planing di, Matching. Moulding, Re-sawing, and Tenoning Machines. Scro Saws and General Wood-Working Machinery. JOHN B SCHENCK'S SONS S Matteawan, N. Y. Send for Catalogue. / 181 moertv St.. N.Y. city. AGENTS Investigate the merits of The Illustrated Weekly before determining upon your work for this fall and winter. The com-bination for this season surpasses anything heretofore attempted. Terms sent free on application. Ad0ress CHAS. CLUCAS & CO., 14 Warren St, N.Y

width="1189" />
5
width="1189" />
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN pg 349
A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES. Vol. xxx     -No . 22.1 NEW SERIES. NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 25, 1876.
3.20 per Annum. POSTAGE PRE-PAID .
pg 347- NOVEMBER 25, 1876. pg 349 test --NOVEMBER 25, 1876. Nrientific intrion. it 0141'9 .4 COM Pfri I, Practical Machinist : Tile most v u.lnoble llook on the subject in the English The Complete Practical Machinist: 1.1m1fisavIng Lathe Work, Vise Work, Drills and Drill-lbw, Taps and Dies, Hardening and Temperinghe Malting and U R se of Tools, etc. etc. By Joshua Rose. 1111101.rated by 130 Engravings. In one Volume, 12mo., 1111 pages. Price $2.50, by mail, free of postage. A soileel, list of books on Steam and the Steam Engine, will. ',Hem+, sent free upon application. mr iw w lino enlarged Catalogue of Practical and Scien-tific Hooks, 96 pages, 8vo, sent free to any one who will furnish his address. HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO.. IN DII s'i'ui AL PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS AND IMPORTERS, S10 WALNUT STREET, Philadelphia. AIR COMPRESSORS FOR ALL PURPOSES. A SPECIALTY of HEAVY PRESSURES. THE NORWALK IRON WORKS CO., SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. REVERSIBLE HOISTING ENGINE FOR ALL PURPOSES. vir Cheap, simple,. durable, and effective. _Al LIDGERWOOD M'F'G CO., 165 Pearl St. .N.Y TRADEINGINE. —0— Noiseless in- operation—Perfect fforkmanship—all light parts of Cast Steel. Every Engine indicated, and valve corrected to give the high-est attainable results. Warranted superior to any semi-portable Engine in the market! Send for Price List and Circu-.ar. HERRMANN & HERCHEL-RODE M'F'G. CO., Dayton, Ohio. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING. To MANUFACTURERS :—Built expressly to rent—New Brick Building, 300x60 feet, 3 stories high, divided by fire-proof walls, with Ample Water Power. Room and Power in quantities to suit.- Railroad facilities No. 1. Address, INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, ROCK FALLS, Whiteside Co., Ills. NO We will start you in a business you can make $50 a week without capital MONEYeasy and respectable for either sex, Agents Supply Co.. 261 Bowery, N. Y. DAYTON CAM PUMP, The only Pump in the Market Designed and Constructed especially for Boiler Feeding. Are Pumping water at 268. F. No Dead Cen-ters. The Steam Valve is a plain Slide Valve, identical to the slide valve of a Steam En-gine, but derives its motion from a cam. Speed can be regulated to suit evaporation. Pumping Returns from Steam Heating Ap-paratus a specialty. Send for Circular. Smith Valle & Ca., DAYTON, OHIO. LeCount's Patent MACHINISTS' TOOLS. Reduced Prices. Net Iron DRIP. Ill in 5.60 112.00 $Uie) 6.80 8.00 MI6 Otani Cla Mika.; i)ogs.tilitillD hogs. Vice UlatuDO. CHLORIDE OF CALCIUM. Fifty tuns for Sale in lots to suit. iiANSOME 10 Bush St.. San Francisco. Cal. WOOD & LIGHT Machine Co. WORCESTER, MASS. Manufacture all kinds of Iron-Working Machinery, including many novelties. Shafting, Pulleys, kb:. Send for Circulars. GEORGE C. HICKS & CO., Baltimore, Md. CLAY RETORTS, TILES, FIRE BRICKS, &c. or Terra Cotta Pipes of all sizes. 3 WATCHES, Cheapest in the known world. Sample watch and outfit free to Agent& For terms address COULTZB is 00..0h101110 SPARK Tilit CROTON a 1111AVIR TI1 Viper. L. SMITH HOBART, President. JOHN C. MOSS, Superintendent. 349 D. CARSON, General Agent. RELIEF PLATES IN HARD TYPE METAL For Printing All Kinds of Pictorial Illustrations Books, Newspapers, and Catalogues. ==========================================================================================( Smith) Valle & Co., DAYTON, OHIO. LeCoun.t's Patent MACHINISTS' TOOLS Reduced Prices. Set Iron Dogs, to 2 in $ 5.60 66 6 6 64 „4., •6 $12.00 " Steel " 4.0 2 " $ 6.30 66 66 66 ' 4 $13.00 Iron & Steel Clarnps,Die Dogs Clamp Dogs,Vice Clamps, Expanding Mandrels, &c. Send for latest Price List to C. W. LE COUNT. South Norwalk, Conn. The Toll-Gate ! rirgieuovegtevr sent a:cltsAtiO find ! Address,with stamp. E. C. ABBEY. Buffalo ,N.Y .44111 Send for Circulars. 8 YOUNG AMERICA SCROLL SAW beats the SW world. J.M.BEUGLER, M'f'r, Williamsport, Pa. GEORGE C. HICKS & CO., Baltimore, Md. CLAY RETORTS, TILES, FIRE BRICKS, &c. ritr° Terra Cotta Pipes of all sizes. 3 WATCHES. Cheapest in the known world. Sample watch and outfit free to Agents. For terms address COULTER & CO.,Chicago SPARE THE CROTON & SAVE THE COST. Driven or Tube Wells furnished to large consumers of Croton and Ridgewood Water. WM. D. ANDREWS & BRO. , 414 Water St. ,N.Y. who control the patent for Green 's American Driven Well. ROOTS' FORCE BLAST BLOWER. FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED AT PARIS AND VIENNA. SPEED ONLY 100 TO 250 REV. PER M. SAVES HALF THE POWER REQUIRED FOR FAN, P. H. & F. M. ROOTS, Manuf'rs, CONNERSVILLE, IND. f>, S. S. TOWNSEND, Gen'I Ag't, 31 Liberty St NEW YORK. POTTER'S AMERICAN MONTHLY VINEGAR. HOW MADE IN 10 HOURS from 50,0 A n ILLUSTRATED ; Best Family Magazine in the Cider,Wine or Sorghum, without using drugs. Name 1)13- 'J" Country, at $3 for 1877. 5 copies one year for per, and address F. I. SAGE, Springteid, Mass.= iibserlb- $13; 10 copies for $25; 20 copies for $50, and a era for copy of I otter s Bible Encyclopedia,quar-t 3,000 Illustrations price $25, given to the person sending this club For s le all 1877. iieorwmss stands, nAda: natt5 25 cents a number. a Special atl J. E, 'POTTER & CO., Philadelphia,Pa. SHAFTS.PULLEYS.HANGERS COUPLINGS ETC. In Stock, and for Sale by WILLIAM SELLERS & CO. Philadelphia, and 79 Liberty St., New York. Price lists and pamphlets on application. A ,,,ONT'111.--Agerita wantea tverr. S 1c1:11:.e 'Par:Ill:1,g ITift°Lebei.e and gg J. WORTH A CO.. lit. Loula.lio, Q.2 1r, "7 PI1 AGENTS' PROFITS per week. Will prove ot, I .k/t/ it or forfeit $500. New articles are just pat-ented. Samples sent free to all. Address W. H. CHIDESTER, 218 Fulton St., New York. CREW PROPELLERS, THEIR SHAFTS AND 1,_7. FITTINGS. By Hamilton W. Pendred, M. E. An able treatise, showing the present practice, its advan-tages and defects. With 25 figures. Price 10 cents. Con-tinued in No. 4 of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLE-MENT. To be had at this office, and of all news agents. BARNES Foot Power MACHINERY. :o: O INVALUABLE MACHINES Ili for Mechanics and Amateurs. Also Fancy Woods and Designs. Send for 48 page Illustrated Cata-logue Free, W. F. & JOHN BARNES, . ROCXFORD, Winnebago Co., Ills. OTIS SAFETY HOISTINO ' Machinery. OTIS, BROS. & CO. No. 348 BROADWAY, LivE W ZORK MACHINERY OF IMPROVED STYLES FOR making SHINGLES, HEADING. and STAVES; also GUAGE LATHES for TURNING HANDLES. Sole makers of Laws Pat. Shingle and Heading Sawing Ma-chine. Address TREVOR & CO., Lockport. N. Y Brainard Millie Machines all stle and sizyes.s Universal Milling Machines from $200 upwards; Brown's Patent Screw Machines, &c., &c. Address BRAINARD M. M. CO. , 131. Milk St. , Boston, Mass., RELIEF PLATES IN HARD TYPE METAL For Printing All Kinds of Pictorial Illustrations In Books, Newspapers, and Catalogues. These plates are an excellent substitute for wood cuts, being used in precisely the same way, giving equally good results for much less money. ELECTROTYPES AND STEREOTYPES are made from them in the usual manner. We offer special advantages to Manufacturers and Inventors, as our mechanical work is of the best quality and rapidly executed. Our plates are used satisfactorily in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN and the SCI-ENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, and by Manufacturers and Publishers in all parts of the country. " C 0 T1 " W e work direct only from Prints or properly prepared Pen and Ink Drawings. Any other copy may be furnished, such as Photographs, Pencil Sketches, or the articles themselves, in which cases we have drawings made in the best manner by our own trained draughtsmen. Photographs, taken in the ordinary way, are suitable, and they may be of any size. We make the plates larger or smaller as desired. We are glad to have customers prepare their own Pen Drawings, and append one or two DIRECTION S TO ARTISTS: The most important requisite in Drawings for our use is that every line shall be per black. The paper or drawing board must be white and smooth. For fine work drawings should be made double the scale of the plate desired. Carefully observing thesa main points, the artist has the utmost freedom in his choice of styles of drawing. For further information and fine samples of our work, send stamp for current num-ber of our illustrated Quarterly Circular. Please say where you saw this. PHOTO-IGRAVING 67 Park Place, New York. CELEBRATED FOOT LATHES Foot Power, Back-geared Screw Lathes, Small Hand and Power Plan-ers for Metal, Small Gear Cutters, Slide-rests, Ball Machine for Lathes, Foot Scroll Saws, light and heavy, Foot Circular Saws. Just the ar-ticles for Amateurs or Artisans. Highly recommended. Send. for Il-lustrated Catalogues. N. H BALDWIN, Laconia N. H STEAM ENGINES FOR SALE I offer the following very superior Todd & Rafferty En-gines for sale at greatly reduced prices : One 18x36, one 14x18 (sawmill), one 12x14, one 11x24, one 10x24, one 9x20, one 7x16, one 5x10 on legs, one 8x12, portable one 8x16, double hoisting; all -first class and entirely new. Also various sizes and kinds of Boilers. I will also furnish specifications and estimates for all kinds of rope and bag-ging machinery. Send for descriptive circular and price Address J. C. TODD. 10 Barclay St., New York, or Paterson, N. J. The H O—A DL.E. PORTABLE STEAM EINI.GINE-WITH AUTOMATI CAL CUT-OFF REGULATOR AND B BALANCED VALVE. THE BESTi..''trMOST ECONOMICAL ENGINE MADE SE/VG, FOR C/A) C VLAR. TheJ.C.HOADLEY CO. LAWRENCE, MASS. STATE WHERE YOU SAW THIS. Planing di, Matching. Moulding, Re-sawing, and Tenoning Machines. Scro Saws and General Wood-Working Machinery. JOHN B SCHENCK'S SONS S Matteawan, N. Y. Send for Catalogue. / 181 moertv St.. N.Y. city. AGENTS Investigate the merits of The Illustrated Weekly before determining upon your work for this fall and winter. The com-bination for this season surpasses anything heretofore attempted. Terms sent free on application. Ad0ress CHAS. CLUCAS & CO., 14 Warren St, N.Y